David W. Fountain's research while affiliated with Massey University and other places

Publications (43)

Article
FOUNTAIN, D. W., HOLDSWORTH, J. M. & OUTRED, H. A., 1989. The dispersal unit of Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (A. Rich.) de Laubenfels (Podocarpaceae) and the significance of the fleshy receptacle.Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (formerly Podocarpus dacrydioides) is an arborescent gymnosperm endemic to New Zealand. The high water content (43%) and sensitivity...
Conference Paper
This paper is a progress report on a continuing project aimed at the eventual realization of low-cost, automatic systems for the recognition and counting of both ancient and live pollen. A previous paper has reported on the classification of optical microscope images of pollen grains using Gabor transforms and shape described by moment invariants....
Article
Full-text available
The classification of pollen grains using texture information in combination with shape features is presented in this paper. The surface texture of pollen is characterised by using Gabor transforms, the geometric shape is described by using moment invariants, and the pollen grains are classified by an artificial neural network. In an experiment wit...
Article
This study used comparisons across nine populations of Trifolium repens (white clover) in conjunction with drought to examine physiological responses to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). Plants were exposed for 12 weeks to supplementation with 13.3 kJ m−2 d−1 UV-B, accompanied by 4 weeks of drought under controlled environmental conditions. UV-B incr...
Article
During summertime in New Zealand, white clover experiences high levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. This frequently coincides with periods of summer drought. We investigated responses to UV-B and to the combination of UV-B and drought in various white clover populations, including New Zealand cultivars and ecotypes as well as overseas germpla...
Conference Paper
A method is described for classification of pollen images using wavelet analysis. By wavelet decomposition and details reconstruction, the statistic features of the approximation and details are extracted. The classification is performed by using an artificial neural network. The effectivity of the method is shown by tests on a set of 20 types of p...
Article
Chatham Island forget‐me‐not is endemic to the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, where it is mainly confined to the outer islands. The conditions required to maintain seed viability during storage are not well understood and there are conflicting reports as to whether the seed will retain viability in storage. Seed of M. hortensia stored at 7.5% seed m...
Article
Seeds of Carex trifida, Coprosma robusta, Cyperus ustulatus, Hebe stricta, Lepto‐spermum scoparium, Muehlenbeckia australis, Myrsine australis, Phormium tenax, P. tenax ’Yellow Wave’, and Sophora prostrata were assessed for germination and dormancy. Seeds of Carex trifida, Cyperus ustulatus, and Myrsine australis showed no germination in light or d...
Article
Germination and vigour of 24‐year‐old seeds collected from a single individual of a hybrid Sophora and stored at room temperature are compared with seeds from the 2001 season from the same tree. Germination of machine‐cleaned seed showed the hard seed character was still evident after 24 yr. Hand‐chipped seeds of the 2001 harvest gave 93% germinati...
Article
Germination behaviour of puriri (Vitex lucens) is described. Seedlings emerging from fruits from six localities at the southern range of the species in North Island, New Zealand, largely followed a normal distribution. There were distinct locality differences in fecundity. Fruits that produced at least one seedling ranged from 5 to 43% (1.3–16.1% o...
Article
Anyone who suffers from hayfever will know what a serious problem allergies can be. In the long term, genetic technology may provide solutions in diagnosis, treatment and even avoidance. Eliminating allergens from pollen released by plants is technically feasible, but might this interfere with the natural processes of pollination?
Article
In summary, the likelihood of an impending new occupational inhalant allergy hazard in Australia and New Zealand appears inevitable. As for all pollen-induced allergies, precautionary measures are of little assistance because of the ubiquitous presence of the pollen in the air when trees are flowering. In both countries with their relatively mid-la...
Article
White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is experiencing increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation in temperate pastures due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Based on 17 morphological, morphogenetic and physiological attributes, this study analysed the consequences of enhanced UV-B on 26 white clover populations using principal...
Article
Seed development, including the development of the embryo, the endosperm and the seed coat of Sandersonia aurantiaca (Hook.) has been studied. Seed development in S. aurantiaca takes about 60 days from pollination to maturity. The embryo passes through the early globular, the late globular and the elongated spheroidal stages before reaching the lin...
Article
A micro-relief of wax encrustation or outgrowths of epidermal cells imparts a property to most leaf surfaces which makes them self-cleaning when rain drops pass over them. Fungi, lichens and algae may evade this self-cleaning mechanism and take up residence on the leaf surface.
Article
This study aimed to quantify and identify flavonoids involved in the response of nine populations of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B). Plants were grown for 12 weeks in controlled environment rooms with or without supplemental UV-B radiation of 13.3 kJ m−2d−1. Methanol–water extractable flavonoids were quantified...
Article
The developmental timing and cytological detail of male cone development and microsporogenesis in Pinus radiata D.Don (radiata or Monterey pine) growing in the central North Island of New Zealand were studied. Potential male cone primordia were formed by mid-January, and microsporophylls were initiated in late February, the late New Zealand summer....
Article
Embryos taken from late maturation phase seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Seminole prior to seed desiccation (35–45 DAA) can be induced to germinate in the absence of water by exogenous ethylene. NMR imaging of proton relaxation within the embryo shows changes in water status in putative (and not fully differentiated) vascular tissues of the hypocot...
Article
Full-text available
An examination using scanning electron microscopy, of the leaf anatomy of the New Zealand native tussock grass Festuca novae-zelandiae, has been undertaken to highlight adaptations implicated in water-deficit-stress avoidance. The leaves are curled to form a tight cylinder enclosing a void region which is densely packed with trichomes. This region...
Article
An examination using scanning electron microscopy, of the leaf anatomy of the New Zealand native tussock grass Festuca novae-zelandiae, has been undertaken to highlight adaptations implicated in water-deficit-stress avoidance. The leaves are curled to form a tight cylinder enclosing a void region which is densely packed with trichomes. This region...
Article
Full-text available
Optimal conditions for in vitro germination and tube growth of Limonium perezii (Plumbaginaceae) pollen were established. Boric acid, calcium nitrate, casein hydrolysate and sucrose were all important medium components. A dialysis tubing and filter paper support combined with using polyethylene glycol as an osmoticum in the medium provided appropri...
Article
Leaf senescence is a programmed event where resources are mobilised from older tissues to the meristematic regions of the plant. In white clover (Trifolium repens L.), leaf and stolon senescence have an important impact on the persistence of the legume in pasture. As part of our investigation of leaf senescence, we have evidence for a central role...
Article
Airborne pollen and spore levels were monitored at seven sites in New Zealand using the Intermittent Cycling Rotorod sampler during the summer of 1988/1989. Grasses formed the major component of atmospheric pollen levels during spring and summer at every locality. Peak levels of grass and total pollen occurred during December or late November, with...
Article
Full-text available
FITC‐conjugated lectins proved to be effective probes for differentiating between morphologically similar dinoflagellate species isolated from New Zealand coastal waters. In particular the binding (fluorescence) of peanut (PNA) lectin differentiated G. mikimotoi from Gymnodinium sp. (Waimangu) and G. pulchellum and the non‐binding of Helix pomatia...
Article
Benzoic acid, its 2-hydroxy (salicylic acid) and 4-hydroxy derivatives were identified amongst substances leached from hydrating pollen of several plant species common in New Zealand. Acacia dealbata (wattle) and Cedrus atlantica pollen released all three compounds while two were leached from pollen of Pinus radiata (Monterey Pine) and Cupressus ma...
Article
The distribution of a lectin (CBL1) in the tissues of young tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea, Solanaceae) fruit was visualized by an immunocytochemical technique. The lectin was localized predominantly in the cell walls of fruit tissues and the seed coat but not in other seed tissues. Apparent immunological cross reaction of solanaceous lectins inclu...
Article
In order to identify factors which might contribute to the premature abortion of young inflorescences of white clover Trifolium repens L. in low irradiances, a study was made of the possible role of limiting photosynthetic assimilates to the developing inflorescence. The relationship between the irradiance and distribution pattern of assimilates i...
Article
A new lectin (designated CBL1) from tamarillo fruit (Cyphomandra betacea Sendt., Solanaceae) was identified and purified to apparent homogeneity by chitin affinity chromatography followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of CBL1 was 25 000 determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. CBL1 is an abundan...
Article
Dot immunoblotting of crude extracts of various aerial parts of birch trees, using patient serum rich in birch pollen IgE, showed IgE-binding activity in leaves, buds, twigs, seeds, bark, and old male catkins. Seed extracts analysed by SDS-PAGE, electroblotting to nitrocellulose and immune detection using isotope-conjugated anti-IgE verified the pr...
Article
A review of our knowledge of the germination requirements of seeds of indigenous New Zealand plants is presented. A search of the literature reveals information, in varying detail, on only 113 species, some 5% of the estimated total of vascular plants, most of them from forest habitats. The New Zealand flora, much of it now endangered, represents a...
Article
The influence of shade on the growth and sink activity of young flower heads and peduncles of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants was measured in controlled environments. Measurement of the peduncle elongation rate using a linear voltage displacement transducer showed that when the inflorescence alone was shaded, peduncle elongation was highe...
Article
Full-text available
An early Pinus season distinct from other airborne pollen grains is a feature of New Zealand pollen aerobiology. Its significance to health is uncertain as Pinus is generally considered not a potent allergenic pollen. Of proteins released by pollen of Pinus radiata upon hydration however, several IgE-binding species have been detected and incubatio...
Article
Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seminole in late maturation phase germinated precociously in vitro. Germination occurred in the absence of free water after 5 days but within 24 to 48 hours in contact with water. Excised axes germinated within 12 hours and embryos by 48 hours only if supplied with water. Ethylene accelerated the germination of see...
Article
A complex mixture of pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) pollen proteins are rapidly released into aqueous solutions. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in these extracts using combined SDS-PAGE immunoblotting techniques. These IgE-binding proteins were detected using atopic patient and commercial pooled human sera known to be high in ryegrass-speci...
Article
Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Seminole pods removed from the plant continued their development when incubated in suitable conditions. Seeds continued to grow and develop and pods and seeds passed through an apparently normal developmental sequence to dryness. Seed growth was at the expense of pod dry weight (DW) reserves. Losses of pod DW paralleled DW...
Article
1.1. Helix mucus agglutinated rabbit red blood cells but not ox or human types A, B or O. Sheep cells were weakly agglutinated. The agglutination was inhibited by d-Ga1NAc and to a lesser extent d-GlcNAc and d-Gal.2.2. The lectin-like activity was lost above 80°C. Treatment at 60°C raised the activity several-fold over levels exhibited between -20...
Article
1.1. A lectin fraction has been isolated from mucus produced by the snail Helix aspersa by affinity chromatography of mucus protein on Sephadex G-100. The lectin is eluted with d-glucose. It agglutinates rabbit red blood cells but not human type A and is inhibited by d-GalNAc and to a lesser extent d-GlcNAc and d-Gal.2.2. The anti-A agglutinin of t...

Citations

... Starting from Heywood (1971) the use of SEM in the study of the seed coat was considered in Brassicaceae taxonomy (see e.g., Peterson, 1977, 1976;Mulligan and Bailey, 1976;Stork, 1980). Biologists gave attention to the morphology and development of Brassicaceae seeds, also studied exo-and endomorphic characters (Beeckman et al., 2000;Berggren, 1962;Corner and Corner, 1976;Jonsell, 1986;Koch et al., 2003;Koul et al., 2000;Murley, 1951;Musil, 1948;Zou et al., 2001). ...
... Further work is also required to determine if the timing of the sink to source transition, in terms of the percentage of final leaf area as predicted by lamina length, varies according to cultivar (Yang and Hori 1980) and environmental conditions, including when the leaf emerges in the growth cycle of the grapevine. For instance, conditions which have been found to affect assimilate partitioning in plants include water availability (Lang and Thorpe 1986;Nandwal et al. 1996), light interception (Guan and Jane 1991;Pasumarty and Fountain 1993), and fruit load (Heuvelink 1997;Edson et al. 1993;Masahiko 2000). This potential variability of timing of when leaves make the transition from photosynthetic sink to source might make it difficult to make predictions of when a grapevine leaf of a particular cultivar is in the sink to source transition across the range of environments in which it is grown. ...
... The specificity of lectins makes them excellent tools to identify cell surface glycans and discriminate among microalgae. Using FITC-lectins, it is possible to differentiate microalgae with similar morphology such as Gymnodinium-like species, Alexandrium tamarense strains (Rhodes et al. 1995;Hou et al. 2008) or Pseudo-nitzschia species (Seob Cho et al. 2001). In the present study, the cell surface carbohydrates of 16 microalgae belonging to different taxonomic classes were characterized using 10 different FITC-lectins. ...
... The results obtained in this study indicate that N. glauca exhibits internal dormancy. This is consistent with findings reported by others for the same species (Donoso and Cabello 1978;Santelices et al. 2013a;Santelices et al. 1996), and for other Nothofagus species from South America (Arana et al. 2015;Cabello 2004;Cabello et al. 2016;Donoso 2013;Donoso et al. 2013), and Australasia (Fountain and Outred 1991;Wardle and Campbell 1976;Wilcox and Ledgard 1983). The reported germination percentages differ but this may be explained by differences in season of collection, the mast seeding habit of the species, and the geographical origin of seeds. ...
... UVB irradiation is an environmental factor that negatively affects many aspects of growth and development of economically important crops. Large numbers of studies have explored UVB-induced physiological [22][23][24][25] and morphological [26][27][28] perturbations. In this study, differences in the growth of rice seedlings were not observed between −UVB and +UVB. ...
... Apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol and mirycetin represent the most abundant flavones, while formononetin, genistein, biochanin A and prunetin are the most common isoflavones (Fig. 3). Mono-and bidesmoside short sugar chains are present with glucose, galactose and rhamnose as the prevalent monosaccharide units Hofmann et al. 2000;Lin et al. 2000;Kledjus et al. 2001;de Rijke et al. 2001;Tsao et al. 2006;Oleszek et al. 2007;Saviranta et al. 2008;Kicel and Wolbis 2012;Tava et al. 2015Tava et al. , 2016Tava et al. , 2019Vlaisavljević et al. 2017). Table 4 shows the content and composition of the different flavonoid glycosides detected in leaves and flowers of the Trifolium spp. ...
... However, a major constraint to the sexual propagation of many species is the poor germination of their seeds. This is possibly due to low viability, although it is frequently due to seed dormancy (Mackay et al. 2002, Pipinis et al. 2017. Seed dormancy is a physiological condition in which the seeds cannot germinate even under the most suitable germination conditions that are in an environment with suitable temperatures, humidity and light conditions, or do not exhibit uniform germination. ...
... The crude protein account for 2.2 ̶ 2.5% fresh puree of golden-yellow and purple-red tamarillo fruits from Ecuador (Vasco et al., 2009) and Spain (Romero-Rodriguez et al., 1994). Two interesting proteins isolated from the tamarillo fruit were protease and lectin (i.e., CBL1, 25k) (Li et al., 2018a;Xu, Birtles, Fountain, & Yu, 1993;Xu, Moore, Fountain, & Yu, 1992). Tamarillo lectin CBL2 isolated from tamarillo fruit (cultivated in New Zealand) remains to be purified (Xu et al., 1992). ...
... Com sementes de espécies florestais foram utilizadas as temperaturas de 30 ºC e 40 ºC para Araucaria angustifolia (FONTES et al., 2001), de 40 ºC para Anadenanthera colubrina (GARCIA et al., 2004), de 41 ºC para híbrido de Sophora microphylla e S. godleyi (FOUNTAIN et al., 2002), de 42 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis (CAMARGO et al., 2000;NAKAGAWA et al., 2001) e Copaifera langsdorffii (FERREIRA et al., 2004;CARVALHO et al., 2006), de 43 ºC para Dalbergia sissoo (THAPLIYAL e CONNOR, 1997), de 45 ºC para Peltophorum dubium (PEREZ et al., 1999), Chorisia speciosa (FANTI e PEREZ, 2003) (FERREIRA et al., 2004;CARVALHO et al., 2006) Considerando a importância econômica e o risco de extinção da aroeira (SILVA et al., 2002;TEÓFILO et al., 2004;DORNELES et al., 2005), o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as melhores condições de condução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliar o vigor de diásporos dessa espécie florestal. ...
... By contrast, Norton (1991) showed that significantly more P. ferruginea seedlings occurred under angiosperm trees, such as Weinmannia racemosa, than under conspecific trees, but this was due to the open growth form and large branches of the former, making them suitable for H. novaeseelandiae to perch in. Vitex lucens showed no statistical difference in viability between actively and passively dispersed seeds in our study, confirming similar findings by Southward et al. (2002), who also studied V. lucens. This outcome was expected, considering the stochastic nature of individual plant-bird interactions that we considered, and also because it is unclear how frugivores could discern such attributes of fruit. ...