David W. Cravens's research while affiliated with Texas Christian University and other places

Publications (114)

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Differences between Australian high and low effectiveness sales organizations are examined. The study results indicate that effectiveness is apparently not constrained by external factors, and not influence by field sales manager activity priorities.
Article
The antecedents of sales organization effectiveness are examined in two European countries—Austria and the United Kingdom—adding to the limited international sales management research. Sales management behavior based control strategy, sales territory design, and company strategic orientation are conceptualized as antecedents to salesperson performa...
Article
Improving selling effort allocation can produce substantial sales and profit increases for many firms. Several analytical methods are available to help management identify more productive deployment of expensive selling resources. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed and a procedure to determine the appropriate method for...
Article
Sales managers are faced with a variety of decisions that require the evaluation of the probable response of the market to feasible decision alternatives. A conceptual model of market response is presented to offer management a framework for understanding the market response relationships in their selling situation and to provide an operational app...
Article
A conceptual framework for examining the roles of telemarketing in selling strategy is proposed. A typology of telemarketing jobs is developed and related to face-to-face selling jobs. Important telemarketing strategy issues are examined from managerial and research perspectives. Finally, research propositions are presented and discussed.
Article
Job involvement is a person's psychological identification or commitment to his/her job. Job involvement is an important construct in salesforce performance research because (1) it is a relevant consequence of a salesperson's work environment and internal feelings, (2) it is a relevant antecedent of a number of important sales job outcomes, and (3)...
Article
The quality improvement management (TQM) perspective has been embraced by an increasing number of firms. The application of response function and confidence interval approaches for establishing sales quota ranges is presented as one way to implement the quality improvement perspective into the measurement and evaluation of salesperson performance....
Article
Sales management control strategy attracts considerable research attention because of its importance to achieving superior salesperson performance. However, the research stream on this topic evaluates the type of control exercised by sales managers (e.g., behavior versus outcome based) and the level of control. First, this paper introduces the cons...
Book
The Oxford Handbook of Strategic Sales and Sales Management is an overview of the current academic research in the sales area. The authors are all leading academics in the field of sales and marketing management. Sales theory is experiencing a renaissance driven by a number of factors, including building profitable relationships, creating/deliverin...
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A global perspective on relevant antecedents of sales organization effectiveness is an important research issue. We investigate four antecedents of sales organization effectiveness, including sales unit design, salesperson turnover, organizational commitment, and performance of salespeople, in seven countries. The results provide support for the fo...
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This book provides a snapshot of the current thinking on the strategic role of sales and sales management, and identifies some of the key challenges presented to senior managers. The importance of a sales organization continues to be critical in creating value, and profits for organizations. Escalating sales and selling costs require organizations...
Article
The organization's effectiveness can be measured based on sales, market position, customer satisfaction, and profits, relative to competition and internal objectives. Effectiveness is a summary assessment of the sales organization's outcomes, and may be determined for the entire organization or for smaller units such as regions and districts. Sales...
Article
Purpose Harsh economic conditions have put pricing higher on the agenda but responses to pricing challenges have frequently been tactical. The intent is to build on basic pricing principles to emphasize a strategic perspective on pricing built around opportunities to deliver superior customer value. Design/methodology/approach Our logic is drawn f...
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Full-text available
The economic recession of the late-2000s has radically changed the business and market landscape. As economic recovery reaches different companies at different times, there is an urgent need to realign marketing strategies with a "new normal". Economic recovery will bring new opportunities but also risks and challenges which demand new strategies....
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Developing a management framework to guide strategic thinking in changing markets is increasingly critical for researchers and executives in coping with the complex and rapidly changing global business environment. Conventional training and practices have too often led strategy researchers and executives to assume a stable competitive box around ex...
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The highly competitive, turbulent business environment calls for the creation and delivery of superior customer value. In order to meet customer expectations and deliver superior value, many firms are undergoing significant transformations by developing a market orientation, building strategic relationships, improving processes and structures, enha...
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The pursuit of superior salesperson performance and higher levels of sales organization effectiveness is a growing management priority. Management control is an important antecedent to several aspects of salesperson performance and organizational effectiveness. However, prior research has neglected two important issues. First, the impact of market...
Article
Strategic imperatives and customer pressures have made strengthening salesperson performance a high priority for many organizations. Meeting that challenge makes a compelling case for detailed management attention to assessing and enhancing manager control competencies at the first level of supervision. The authors propose an approach to assist exe...
Conference Paper
A recent meta-analysis of LePine, Podsakoff, & LePine (2005) revealed the diverse relationship of work stressors with emotional exhaustion and job performance. However, neither in this meta-analysis nor in extant research the treatment effects as well as the boundary conditions for these relationships have been examined. Drawing on a sample of 203...
Article
Multiple-predictor empirical and single-predictor judgment-based models represent the two basic types of sales-force decision models (SDMs). The important similarities and differences between the two modeling approaches are identified and discussed. The SDM literature is reviewed to determine how each model type has been applied and to evaluate pre...
Conference Paper
Salespeople are especially susceptible to experience emotional exhaustion. Past research on the stressor-performance relationship has provided inconsistent findings which are probably due to the fact that the role of emotional exhaustion has not been considered. We first examine the role of emotional exhaustion between challenge-related stress and...
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Full-text available
Abstract Interest in management control approaches and organizational factors associated with higher levels of salesperson performance is reflected in research streams concerned with behavior-based control strategies and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). This study makes two distinct additions to the literature relating to control, organ...
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Purpose Strategic marketing is confronted with an array of global challenges and opportunities at the beginning of the twenty‐first century. Some opinion leaders question the role and importance of marketing strategy. Others are convinced the discipline is more vital than ever before. Design/methodology/approach Several important trends and issues...
Article
Management control in sales and marketing has received substantial attention by researchers during the past decade, demonstrating the importance of the topic for researchers and managers. Research initiatives concerning management control have differed in terms of conceptualization of the control construct and the construct’s antecedents and conseq...
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Turbulence and rapid change in the business environment have been associated for some time with the development of new network organizational forms which put various types of strategic alliance and other inter-organizational collaborations into effect. This paper traces the rationale for the formation of such networks and the associated vertical di...
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The authors examine the consequences of sales management's behavior- and compensation-based control on important sales-person and organizational consequences from the sales manager's perspective. The few existing studies on this topic have been conducted in developed countries. The authors examine sales management control in three less developed co...
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Full-text available
Management control consists of managers' initiatives to direct and influence employees for the purpose of achieving an organization's objectives. Sales management control is identified as an important antecedent of several salesperson and organizational consequences in prior developed country studies. We examine the impact of management control in...
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Full-text available
Selecting an effective form of management control in sales organizations is important in achieving favorable salesperson consequences. We examine an alternative perspective to behavior-based management control in sales organizations. The conceptualization consisting of high, bureaucratic, clan, and low management control combinations is examined as...
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The growth in employment of saleswomen raises major issues for marketing and sales functions, one of which is women's capabilities as sales managers. Despite the prevailing stereotypes and assumptions, which are unhelpful both to individual career advancement and to enhancing company capabilities, evidence here suggests that women may manage differ...
Article
Salesperson gender studies have consistently reported no differences. In contrast, a single-company study found several differences based on sales manager gender concerning salesperson attitudes, behavior, and outcome (Piercy, Cravens, and Lane 2001). The present research examines the sales manager gender issue across multiple companies from the pe...
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Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is discretionary employee behaviour that promotes organizational effectiveness, and has become recognized as an issue of potentially substantial importance in the management of sales operations. Identifies sales management control strategy as an important antecedent to salesperson OCB, which has been negle...
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Salesperson behavior performance is conceptualized as a predictor of outcome performance and sales organization effectiveness. The research considers the effects of salesperson capabilities, industrial/consumer products, and industry growth moderators on salesperson performance and sales organization effectiveness relationships. Empirical analyses...
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In this study we explore the effects of behavior-based sales management control on salesperson characteristics, salesperson performance and sales organization effectiveness with data collected from field sales managers in Australia and Austria. Considering this cross-national perspective, knowledge should be added to the limited international sales...
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Full-text available
Innovation is central to modern competition and yet many executives are wary of the risks of cannibalisation of their existing product and service sales through inappropriate innovation. However, the impact of discontinuous technological change is fundamental, and the risks to established companies from not innovating to compete with disruptive tec...
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The effective management of sales organizations is important to managers of international marketing operations spanning multiple countries, but also to managers of local operations who may question the validity of many of the prescriptions of US-based research. Studies sales management control in companies in Austria and the UK to contribute a Euro...
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Full-text available
Investigates the antecedents and outcomes of salesperson burnout. Prior research on burnout in personal selling is extended by including a more complete set of predictors of burnout, and by testing the conceptual model of burnout using a multi-company sample of field salespeople in an international setting. Relationships among burnout, attitudes, a...
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The primary emphasis of previous research concerning salespeople has been focused on their attitudes and behavior. The relationship between organizational variables and salesperson attitudes and behavior has received very limited attention. Sales territory design is largely uncontrollable by the salesperson, yet is acknowledged by managers and rese...
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Researchers have only recently focused attention on the importance of sales manager gender. Our study examines manager gender differences relative to behavior-based approaches to sales management control, and the consequences in salesperson attitudes, job stress, and work outcomes. Findings suggest that female field sales managers employ higher lev...
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Full-text available
Successful companies encounter unique competitive challenges. However, there are several product strategy initiatives that are relevant to all organizations seeking to develop market-driven strategies. Key initiatives include the leveraging the business design, recognizing the growth mandate, developing market vision, achieving a capabilities/value...
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For many organizations, the current business environment compels the use of collaborative alliances as an important component of strategy. Consequently, the need to assess the performance of these alliances becomes a priority as more and more companies enter into such relationships. Analysis of alliance success during the last decade indicates that...
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Our purpose here is to examine the implications for strategic decision makers of the themes of revolution, reinvention and renewal, which characterise many industries. We argue that many conventional approaches to building strategy have become obsolete as management focus changes from prioritising operational efficiency to searching for robust stra...
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Maintaining the standard of living in small open economies requires engaging in international exchange. We report the results of a study that was conducted in Austria and refer to certain of the dramatic changes taking place in Europe. The objective is to examine decision-makers’ experiences in managing companies in a small open economy on several...
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The rapid increase of women in the sales world has brought about debates on the role of gender in contemporary sales organizations. The key question is whether gender differences, in and of themselves, create different attitudinal and behavioral relationships. A small but expanding stream of research and the expanded participation of women in many...
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Emotional exhaustion is a potentially important construct in examining sales force behavior and attitude relationships. A conceptual model and hypotheses are developed to study the antecedents and consequences of the emotional exhaustion construct. The hypotheses are tested using LISREL 7 to analyze data from a sample of field salespeople from a la...
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Technology will continue its pervasive global impact on marketing strategies and program components in the twenty-first century. Technology is changing markets and buyer preferences and the rate of change is likely to increase in the future. Highlights several of the more apparent impacts of technology on markets and the organizations competing in...
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Examines the impact of manager and salesforce antecedents on sales organization effectiveness, using a sample of 146 Australian sales units. Indicates that sales manager monitoring, directing, evaluating and rewarding activities distinguish between high and low sales unit profitability and managers’ satisfaction with their units. Suggests that sale...
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This research evaluates determinants of sales organization effectiveness in a sample of British companies, and contributes to an important new research stream by following recent empirical studies in the USA and Australia. We discuss a model of sales organization effectiveness determined by salesforce outcome performance and behavioural performance...
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For companies competing in rapidly changing business environments, the sales force can be an important source for improving organizational effectiveness. The results of a study of 159 field sales managers in 79 Austrian companies point to higher effectiveness in organizations utilizing sales management directing and evaluating activities to a great...
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The many challenges confronting organizations in the contemporary business environment are altering sales and marketing strategies, processes and organizational designs. Various paradigms are offered by academics and executives for coping with the opportunities and threats of the twenty-first century. Relationship strategy paradigms provide sales a...
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Full-text available
Reports a study of sales management in UK companies, which explores the relationship between behaviour-based control systems and outcome-based control systems. Although conventional theory has suggested that behaviour performance and outcome performance result from different stimuli, we find that behaviour-based control is positively associated wit...
Article
Achieving successful implementation is a continuing challenge to the executives responsible for executing strategies and to the scholars seeking to understand implementation processes. The importance of implementation is not questioned by executives or scholars, although the activity warrants much more attention than it has been given in the past....
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As productivity pressures, job uncertainties, changing sales strategies, and growing international competition increase, the salesperson experiences unprecedented levels of job stress. Cause and effect of job stress still remains poorly understood. Examines the role of a number of organizational variables including met expectations, role conflict,...
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Building on evalving perspectives about business strategy, the authors develop an integrative framework for examining the role and contribution of various contemporary views of business strategy. The major dimensions of the framework are creating a market-driven culture and learning process, determining the organization's unique value proposition,...
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The significance of the search for sales organization effectiveness is underlined by the major costs represented by the field salesforce for many organizations, and it is heightened by the pressures of global competition and new challenges to develop long-term customer relationships as the foundation for competitive and sustainable marketing strate...
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This article develops important benchmarks for suppliers concerned with building sustainable competitive advantage in their export markets. The evidence most especially suggests the need to focus more attention on buyer-seller relationship-building in export marketing, as compared to more conventional export support activities. Great Britain is a m...
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Full-text available
A conceptual model is developed and empirically tested, examining the relationships among the sales management control system, sales territory design, salesforce behavior and outcome performance, and sales organization effectiveness constructs. A sample of 58 Australian chief sales executives and 146 field sales managers was used to test the model....
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A small, but expanding, base of theory and practice points to placing more sales management emphasis on the activities of salespeople such as call planning and sales presentations to improve their performance. The results of a study of 146 field sales managers in 58 Australian sales organizations indicate that sales forces with high behavior and ou...
Article
Sought to (1) develop a conceptual model of salesperson job satisfaction building on the S. P. Brown and R. A. Peterson (1993) model and examine the relationships in a different sales setting as called for by them, and (2) extend job satisfaction research by considering the effects of intrinsic motivation and organizational variables on the model....
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Full-text available
Constructs a new management agenda to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of the marketing organization for the future, reflecting certain key changes in the current marketing environment. Argues that these critical factors impacting on the marketing organization include accelerating both external environmental changes and internal organ...
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The development of collaborative network structures is an increasingly significant issue in the services industry. These interorganizational relationships are formed to gain flexibility, obtain needed skills and resources, and achieve operating efficiencies. Evaluates processes of network formation and compares them with the emerging relationship m...
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Examines how sales managers can affect and improve salesforce performance. Describes the similarities and differences between high- and low-performance salesforces and the ways in which sales management can create the opportunity for salespeople to perform well. Discusses research implications and offers management guidelines to improve the effecti...
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The authors develop a conceptual model depicting relationships between salesforce control systems, characteristics, performance, and sales organization effectiveness as a framework for testing the propositions formulated by Anderson and Oliver (1987). The results from a study of 144 diverse sales organizations provide support for the relationship b...
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The authors develop a conceptual model depicting relationships between salesforce control systems, characteristics, performance, and sales organization effectiveness as a framework for testing the propositions formulated by Anderson and Oliver (1987). The results from a study of 144 diverse sales organizations provide support for the relationship b...
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Independent organizations collaborate to increase the competitive advantage of each organization. This paper develops a conceptual framework for defining and classifying co-operative interorganizational relationships. The features and differences between alternative co-operative interorganizational relationships are highlighted by the framework. On...
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Designing marketing strategies for competing in global markets requires knowledge about the inter-country differences that affect strategy development. The issue is particularly relevant in the management of field salesforces. A comparative study of 99 Australian and 107 American business-to-business salesforces examines the differences in field sa...
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Analyses salesforce performance and examines high and low performance Australian sales organizations. Chief sales executives in 99 companies describe their sales organizations' characteristics, management priorities, salesforce performance and sales organization effectiveness. The companies are divided into two performance groups and compared acros...
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Presents a portfolio model for multi-sales channel effort deployment. Shows how the approach can help sales management restructure sales channels. Notes that combining an organization's selling effort into multiple sales channels can be facilitated through an analytical approach that considers variations in customer requirements, buying power and c...
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An analytical approach for redeploying selling effort in salesforces is developed and illustrated. In stage 1, effort estimates are obtained using a strategic grid model and incorporated into a multiple-determinant sales response function. Stage 2 uses a computational algorithm to generate recommended effort guidelines for assigned accounts. Validi...
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Judgment-based salesforce decision models are potentially useful analytical tools for salesforce deployment analysis. However, limitations in existing models restrict the value of current model applications. A synthesis of previous research identifies several problems in obtaining accurate response estimates using existing approaches. Specific mode...
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Judgment-based salesforce decision models are potential ly useful analytical toolsfor salesforce deployment analysis. However, limitations in existing models restrict the value of current model applications. A synthesis of previous research identifies several problems in obtaining accurate response estimates using existing approaches. Specific mode...
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Improving product and service quality are among the most critical competitive challenges facing U.S. and Canadian companies. The marketing profession has a vital responsibility for understanding the concepts of quality improvement and applying them to marketing processes. The definition and measurement of product and service quality are examined an...