David R Jacobs's research while affiliated with University of Minnesota Duluth and other places

Publications (762)

Article
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Background DNA methylation-based GrimAge acceleration (GrimAA) is associated with a wide range of age-related health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. Since DNA methylation is modifiable by external and behavioral exposures, it is important to identify which of these exposures may have the strongest contributions to differences in GrimAA,...
Article
Background: Computed tomography (CT) imaging complements spirometry and may provide insight into racial disparities in respiratory health. Objective: To determine the difference in emphysema prevalence between Black and White adults with different measures of normal spirometry results. Design: Observational study using clinical data and spirom...
Article
Background: Longitudinal association of television (TV) viewing and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) with pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is unclear. Methods: We studied Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study participants transitioning from early to middle age at Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young...
Article
Background and Aims Few studies have examined long-term associations of walnut, other nut, and no nut consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from prospective studies with long-term follow-up can provide further evidence for dietary guideline messaging to consume nuts. Therefore, we examined the associations of walnut, o...
Article
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) include childhood abuse, neglect, and household substance abuse. Childhood abuse is a risk factor for disordered eating (DEB). Less well established are associations of childhood neglect and household substance abuse with DEB, and little research has examined ACE associations with DEB in middle adulthood. The ob...
Article
Background: Higher levels of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) comprising visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver fat are posited drivers of obesity-related chronic disease risk. Fast food is hypothesized to contribute to IAAT patterns. Objectives: We quantified levels of abdominal subcutaneous adipose t...
Article
Background: Cardiovascular health (CVH) from young adulthood is strongly associated with an individual's future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality. Defining epigenomic biomarkers of lifelong CVH exposure and understanding their roles in CVD development may help develop preventive and therapeutic strategies for CVD. Methods:...
Article
Background: Racial differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) are likely related to differences in clinical and social factors. The relative contributions of these factors to Black-White differences in premature CVD have not been investigated. Methods: In Black and White adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in the CARDIA study (Coronary Arter...
Article
Background The enterosalivary nitrate–nitrite–nitric oxide (NO 3 –NO 2 –NO) pathway generates NO following oral microbiota‐mediated production of salivary nitrite, potentially linking the oral microbiota to reduced cardiometabolic risk. Nitrite depletion by oral bacteria may also be important for determining the net nitrite available systemically....
Article
Aims The aim is to evaluate associations of lung function impairment with risk of incident heart failure (HF). Methods and results Data were pooled across eight US population-based cohorts that enrolled participants from 1987 to 2004. Participants with self-reported baseline cardiovascular disease were excluded. Spirometry was used to define obstr...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether long-term television viewing patterns, a common sedentary behavior, in early to mid-adulthood is associated with gray matter brain volume in midlife and if this is independent of physical activity. We evaluated 599 participants (51% female, 44% black, mean age 30.3 ± 3.5 at baseline and 50.2 ± 3....
Article
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Periodontitis affects up to 50% of individuals worldwide, and 8.5% are diagnosed with diabetes. The high-comorbidity rate of these diseases may suggest, at least in part, a shared etiology and pathophysiology. Changes in oral microbial communities have been documented in the context of severe periodontitis and diabetes, both independently and toget...
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We investigated inter-arm systolic blood pressure (sIAD) difference, reproducibility, and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that higher sIAD values have low prevalence and nonpersistence over years, but that CVD risk is higher starting from the time of first high absolute sIAD. In Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participa...
Article
The Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 Research (C4R) is a national prospective study of adults comprising 14 established United States (US) prospective cohort studies. Starting as early as 1971, C4R cohorts have collected data on clinical and subclinical diseases and their risk factors, including behavior, cognition, biomarkers, and soci...
Article
Importance: Midlife elevated blood pressure (BP) is an important risk factor associated with brain structure and function. Little is known about trajectories of BP that modulate this risk. Objective: To identify BP trajectory patterns from young adulthood to midlife that are associated with brain structure in midlife. Design, setting, and parti...
Article
Introduction: Adverse family environment (AFE) in childhood may have deleterious health effects; however, whether these exposures relate to health promoting behaviors in adulthood is unknown. We hypothesize that AFE in childhood will be associated with higher sedentary behavior (SED), and lower light- (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical...
Article
Objective: Data from animal models supports a role for metabolites in the choline pathway in glycemic control and diabetes. Cross-sectional and case-control studies have documented positive associations between trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and prevalent diabetes, but these findings have not been replicated in prospective analysis. Circulating chol...
Article
Introduction: A plant-centered diet is related to lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, its association with the gut microbiome has not been well studied in populations with heart failure (HF), and mechanisms linking diet to improved outcomes among HF patients are poorly understood. Hypothesis: Consuming a more nutritionally-rich plant-cen...
Article
Background: DNA methylation-based epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) is associated with age-related health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. Since DNA methylation is modifiable by external stimuli, including lifestyle components, interventions for healthier lifestyles could contribute to decreased risk of health conditions related to epigen...
Article
Rationale: Early detection of COPD is a public health priority. Airflow obstruction is the single most important risk factor for adverse COPD outcomes, but spirometry is not routinely recommended for screening. Objective: To describe the burden of subclinical airflow obstruction (SAO) and to develop a probability score for SAO to inform potentia...
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Aims: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk prediction equations apply to older adults. For this study, the Pathobiologic Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) risk score, based on post-mortem measurements of atherosclerosis in 15-34-year olds dying accidentally, was used to predict ASCVD events, specifically myocardial inf...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to describe maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness from early adulthood to midlife and examine differences in maximal fitness at age 20 yr and changes in fitness overtime by subcategories of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors. Methods: Data include 5018 Coronary Artery Risk Development in...
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It is unclear whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) alters breast milk composition. We prospectively examined associations of GDM status with concentrations of six potentially bioactive elements (glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, and adiponectin) in human milk. These were measured at both 1 and 3 months...
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Background In high-income countries, cancer is the leading cause of death among middle-aged adults. Prospective data on the effects of childhood risk exposures on subsequent cancer mortality are scarce. Methods We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glucose and lipid levels were associated with adult cancer mortality,...
Article
Aim: Obesity is a significant health issue for participants with type 1 diabetes undergoing intensive diabetes management. The temporal pattern and factors associated with weight gain after treatment initiation remain poorly understood including how weight gain in participants with and without type I diabetes compare. Our aim was to compare weight...
Article
Purpose: We examined associations of sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) with pericardial adipose tissue (PAT). Methods: Adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were included from exam years 1 (2000-2002; N = 6057; mean age, 62.2 yr; 52.9% fem...
Article
Importance Chronic lung diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Unlike chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, clinical outcomes associated with proportional reductions in expiratory lung volumes without obstruction, otherwise known as preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm), are poorly understood. Objective To examine the prev...
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Background Assessing coronary artery calcium (CAC) is among AHA/ACC prevention guidelines for people at least 40 years old at intermediate risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). To study enhanced risk stratification, we investigated the predictive value of abdominal aorta calcium (AAC) relative to CAC for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CHD events...
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Background Circulating markers of oxidative stress have been associated with lower lung function. Our objective was to study the association of gene expression levels of oxidative stress pathway genes (ALOX12, ALOX15, ARG2, GSTT1, LPO, MPO, NDUFB3, PLA2G7, and SOD3) and lung function forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capac...
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Introduction: Black adults experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with White adults, particularly across young adulthood. To identify intervention targets to reduce disparities, we quantified the contribution of individual- and neighborhood-level determinants across young adulthood to Black-White differences in incidence o...
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Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics hypertension Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG), compared with the previous guideline (“Fourth Report”), on the frequency of hypertensive blood pressure (BP) measurements in childhood and associations with hypertension in adulthood using data from the International Childhood...
Article
Importance Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most observational studies on the association between LDL-C and CVD have focused on LDL-C level at a single time point (usually in middle or older age), and few studies have characterized long-term exposures to LDL-C and their role in CVD...
Article
Objectives: To understand if pregnancy unmasks previously silent cardiovascular (CV) adverse factors, or initiates lasting injury. Methods: Pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy CV risk factors (blood pressure, fasting lipids, and glucose) from 296 women belonging to studies in the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium, a g...
Article
Purpose : There are limited data on the relationship between neighborhood level factors and their association with lung health independent of individual socioeconomic status. We soughto determine whether baseline neighborhood level socioeconomic deprivation in young adults is associated with greater 20-year decline in lung function and higher risk...
Article
Rationale: Epigenetic aging is a novel measure of biological age, reflecting exposures and disease risks independent of chronological age. It may serve as a useful biomarker of cardiovascular health (CVH) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk for early detection or prevention. Objective: To examine associations between GrimAge acceleration (Grim...
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Background The relationship between long‐term cardiovascular health (CVH) patterns and elevated CRP (C‐reactive protein) in late middle age has yet to be investigated. We aimed to assess this relationship. Methods and Results Individual CVH components were measured in 4405 Black and White men and women (aged 18–30 years at baseline) in the CARDIA...
Article
Objective: We aimed to investigate prospective associations between milk bioactives related to metabolic health (glucose, insulin, leptin, C reactive protein [CRP], and interleukin 6 [IL-6]) and incident formula initiation at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Design: This study included 363 mother-infant dyads who were fully breastfed at 1 month and parti...
Article
High childhood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels often track into adulthood and contribute to atherosclerosis later in life. Therefore, it is important to understand LDL-C levels during childhood to inform primordial prevention of high LDL-C levels and downstream atherosclerosis. However, age-related longitudinal LDL-C trajectories...
Article
Background Few studies have evaluated whether plant-centered diets prevent progression of early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives We examined the association between plant-centered diet quality and early CKD markers. Methods We prospectively examined 2869 black and white men and women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young...
Article
Introduction: While it is generally accepted that a physically active lifestyle is important for overall health, sedentary behavior has become a public health focus due to evidence that it may impart unique risk for chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between 20-year television (TV) viewing patterns, as a prox...
Article
Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often a precursor to dementia and is therefore of increasing interest. Some previous studies showed MCI progresses to dementia faster in women than in men. However, sex differences in the progression of cognitive decline requires additional study. Hypothesis: Correlates of changing patterns of cognit...
Article
Background: - Excess added sugar (AS) intake was shown to promote insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in animal studies, while sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake was associated with insulin resistance and lipids in skeletal muscle in humans. However, SSBs account for only 40% of AS intake. US adults consume excessive AS from foods and beverage...
Article
Introduction: High blood pressure (BP) is a global public health problem that is strongly associated with many aspects of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 90% of hypertension cases have unknown cause. Studies of white blood cell gene expression may help to clarify the pathobiology. Methods: Gene expression (25 genes) was assayed in CARDIA at t...
Article
The relationship between single measures of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in youth and adult levels is weak. We sought to define trajectories of SBP over childhood to determine ability to predict adult hypertension (HTN). In the International Childhood CV Cohort (i3C) Consortium, we constructed SBP trajectories in 11,482 participants (mean age 8.0...
Poster
Introduction: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), an ectopic adipose depot surrounding the coronary arteries, is a pathogenic risk factor for cardiometabolic disease; however, the association of sedentary behavior with PAT is poorly understood. We examined the longitudinal association of 10-year change in TV viewing with concurrent change in PAT. Hyp...
Article
Introduction: Smoking starts in early adulthood and persists throughout the lifecourse, but the association between these trajectories and midlife cognition remains unclear. We assessed the hypothesis that individuals with a heavy smoking trajectory from early adulthood to midlife would be more likely to demonstrate poor cognition at midlife. Metho...
Article
Background Calcium (Ca) is an essential nutrient that may play an important role in weight maintenance through its involvement in energy or lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the long-term associations of Ca intake with obesity risk. Objectives We aimed to prospectively examine the association between cumulative Ca intake and the inc...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the evidence for an association between intake of whole grains and both total and cause-specific mortality. It presents issues pertaining to dietary patterns and human intervention studies and cardiovascular mortality and cancer mortality. The results of the studies of cardiovascular mortality or ischemic heart disease mortalit...
Article
Cardiovascular risk and functional burden, or the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors coupled with functional decline, may be an important risk state analogy to multimorbidity. We investigated prospective associations of sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA)...
Article
Background The associations of chronic cigarette smoking with blood pressure (BP) remain mixed. It is unclear whether a lack of examination of racial differences contributed to the mixed findings in previous studies. Black smokers metabolize nicotine at a slower rate than White smokers and racial discrimination contributes to nicotine dependence an...
Article
Hostility is a complex personality trait associated with many cardiovascular risk factor phenotypes. Although magnesium intake has been related to mood and cardio-metabolic disease, its relation with hostility remains unclear. We hypothesize that high total magnesium intake is associated with lower levels of hostility because of its putative antide...
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Background Pulse arrival time (PAT) is commonly used to estimate blood pressure response. We hypothesised that PAT response to obstructive respiratory events would be associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with obstructive sleep apnoea. Methods PAT, defined as the time interval between electrocardiography R wave and pulse arrival...
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Full-text available
DNA methylation-based biological age (epigenetic age) has been suggested as a useful biomarker of age-related conditions including type 2 diabetes (T2D), and its newest iterations (GrimAge measurements) have shown early promise. In this study, we explored the association between epigenetic age and incident T2D, in the context of their relationships...
Article
We examined the longitudinal association between blood pressure (BP) and stroke incidence in young and middle-aged adults. BP measured during 9 examinations of the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) from 1985-1986 to 2015-2016 was used to classify participants (n=5079) according to the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practic...
Article
Background Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity are risk factors for heart failure but their associations with right ventricular (RV) systolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) are not well understood. Methods and Results Participants in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study who underwe...
Preprint
The Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 Research (C4R) is a national prospective study of adults at risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) comprising 14 established United States (US) prospective cohort studies. For decades, C4R cohorts have collected extensive data on clinical and subclinical diseases and their risk factors, includi...
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Full-text available
Background Evidence for the effects of exercise and dietary interventions on cognition from long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in large general populations remains insufficient. Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the independent and combined effects of resistance and aerobic exercise and dietary interventions on cog...
Article
Aims This study examined the cross‐sectional association between diet quality and periodontal disease. Materials and methods In the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study (ORIGINS), 923 individuals completed the National Cancer Institute's validated Diet History Questionnaire 1, from which the Alternative Healthy Eating...
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Background Airflow obstruction is associated with cognitive dysfunction, but studies have not assessed how emphysema, a structural phenotype of lung disease, might be associated with cognitive function independent from pulmonary function measured by spirometry. We aimed to determine the relationship between the presence of visually detectable emphy...
Article
Full-text available
The objective was to examine bidirectional associations of accelerometer estimated sedentary time and physical activity with reported knee symptoms. Participants were 2,034 adults (mean age 45.3 ± 3.6 years, 58.7% female) from CARDIA. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regression and linear mixed regression models examined associations o...
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Background: Cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides, especially organophosphates, are endocrine disruptors and a few existing studies have linked self-reports of exposure with increased depression and anxiety. Some evidence suggests that associations may be stronger in women, but the mechanism of this gender difference is unclear. We assessed whether...
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Background: Lactation is associated with lower risks for cardiovascular disease in women. Organ-related adiposity, which plays significant roles in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, could help explain this observation. We evaluated the association of lactation duration with visceral (VAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat volumes in women. Met...
Article
Background Smoking starts in early adulthood and persists throughout the life course, but the association between these trajectories and midlife cognition remains unclear.Objective Determine the association between early to midlife smoking trajectories and midlife cognition.DesignProspective cohort study.ParticipantsParticipants were 3364 adults (m...
Article
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is associated with objective cognitive decline, incident cognitive impairment, and AD pathology in mostly white populations. Little data are available to describe SCD and objective cognitive impairment in diverse populations. The Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) began cognitive testing, including the C...
Article
Late‐life inflammation, often measured by peripheral biomarkers, has been linked to risk of developing dementia and preclinical cognitive decline. Little is known about early adulthood inflammation and if this could influence cognition earlier in life. Furthermore, few studies have investigated repeated measures of inflammation. We studied 1920 adu...
Article
Objectives: The radial artery pulse waveform is a continuous measure of pressure throughout the cardiac cycle, and thus can provide more information than just systolic and diastolic blood pressures. New indices based on a Windkessel model of the waveform, PTC1 and PTC2, are related to arterial compliance and add information for prediction of incid...
Article
Objective Variability of Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, including racial difference, is not fully accounted for by the variability of traditional CVD risk factors. We used a multiple biomarker model as a framework to explore known racial differences in CVD burden. Design We measured associations between accelerated aging (AccA) measured by a c...