David R. Dowty's research while affiliated with The Ohio State University and other places

Publications (29)

Article
Full-text available
Mixed quotes appear to mix mention and use, or direct and indirect quotation. (1) Quine says that quotation 'has a certain anomalous feature.' (Davidson 1979) Most of language is mixed quotes! • A broader notion of mixed quotation. • Naming and quantification. 1. The essence of mixed quotation A mixed quote means what someone uses the quoted expres...
Article
Gottlob Frege (1892) is credited with the so-called “principle of compositionality”, also called “Frege’s Principle”, which one often hears expressed this way: Frege’s Principle (so-called) “The meaning of a sentence is a function of the meanings of the words in it and the way they are combined syntactically.” (Exactly how Frege himself understood...
Article
this paper is concerned with sentence pairs like the following: (1) Bees swarm in the garden Music resounded in the hall The garden swarms with bees The hall resounded with music Snails are crawling in the garden Fireflies glowed in the field The garden is crawling with snails The field glowed with fireflies Fish abound in the pond Garlic reeked on...
Article
Thematic Roles" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.2 Second Approach: Ambiguity between Adjunct and Syntactic Marker . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.3 The Dual Analysis: Case-Marking-to as a Reanalysis of directional Adjunct-to . . . 10 3.2 The Cognitive `Trade-Off' between Adjuncts and Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.3 Extensi...
Article
The distinction between COMPLEMENTS and ADJUNCTS has a long tradition in grammatical theory, and it is also included in some way or other in most current formal linguistic theories. But it is a highly vexed distinction, for several reasons, one of which is that no diagnostic criteria have emerged that will reliably distinguish adjuncts from complem...
Article
this paper, we take it as incumbent on us to try to show that there exists a plausible answer or answers to these questions, though we will not attempt the larger task of showing that that what we suggest here is necessarily the sole correct answer or the entire correct answer to them.
Article
this paper, I will use skeleton derivations of English sentences, using only logical types like ((e; t); t) as categories, whereas a linguistically adequate categorial grammar would enrich these with numerous syntactic features (as in HPSG): the reader may imagine these as added. Of the various ways of treating quantificational noun phrases in obje...
Article
this paper are to show that this conflict is only apparent, to lay the groundwork for a thorough linguistic description of English non-constituent coordination and related phenomena (Gapping, etc.) in a framework that assumes an object wrapping analysis, and to take some initial steps toward the development of a linguistically motivated theory of w...
Article
this paper, still takes the familiar hierarchical constituent structure as its point of departure, in an important sense, and derives "flat" structure from these (more on this below). There are two things that worry me about the situation syntactic theory finds itself in 1990. Since hierarchical syntactic structure is so often assumed, syntactician...
Conference Paper
Let us suppose that thematic roles, or something very much like them, are needed to describe lexical and semantic patterns in the behavior of verbal predicates. But what about nouns? Is there evidence independent of verbal constructions motivating a system of nominal thematic relations? Beginning with the analysis of relational nouns in Barker (199...
Article
As a novel attack on the perennially vexing questions of the theoretical status of thematic roles and the inventory of possible roles, this paper defends a strategy of basing accounts of roles on more unified domains of linguistic data than have been used in the past to motivate roles, addressing in particular the problem of ARGUMENT SELECTION (pri...
Article
The notion of “thematic roles”, a more modem term for Fillmore’s (1968) case relations, Jackendoff’s (1972, 1976) and Gruber’s (1965) thematic relations, and Panini’s karakas, has been appealed to by contemporary linguists in the statement of natural language generalizations about syntax, morphology, and semantics for some 20 years now. Until recen...
Chapter
A very striking feature of the system of categorial grammar in Ades and Steedman (1982) and Steedman (1985), which differentiates it from most other current work in categorial grammar as well as from related theories like Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (Gazdar et al., 1985), is its appeal to the operation of functional composition as a highly...
Article
I might summarize this section by saying that the English tenses, according to this analysis, form quite a motley group. PAST, PRES and FUT serve to relate reference time to speech time, while WOULD and USED-TO behave like Priorian operators, shifting the point of evaluation away from the reference time. HAVE also shifts the point of evaluation awa...
Chapter
In this paper I want to describe a universal theory of “grammatical relations” that arises naturally within the formal theory of syntax and semantics of natural language developed originally by Richard Montague (1970, 1973) and subsequently extended in a certain series of treatments of Montague’s ideas that begins with Thomason 1976 (first written...
Chapter
We turn now to the construction of a formal language L1, which adds individual variables and quantifiers over these variables to the syntactic apparatus of the language L0. In fact, this language L1contains L0, in the sense that all the sentences of L0 will also be sentences of L1 (but not conversely), and these sentences of L0 will have to be inte...
Chapter
We are now ready to expand our semantic machinery in yet another way, this time in the direction of an intensional language — a language for which we provide a definition of denotation for all expressions not just for a single state of affairs but for many possible states of affairs. We will begin this expansion by considering the special case of t...
Chapter
The reader, having patiently waded through pages of discussion of intensions, types, and lambda operators, will now be rewarded by being able to see Montague’s syntactic treatment of English with a maximum understanding of the semantic motivation behind each part of the analysis. The grammar of PTQ, which Montague referred to as a “fragment” of Eng...
Chapter
Our goal in this chapter is to describe a language, which we will call Ltype, that is an extension of L1 but contains an infinite number of syntactic categories. In order to smooth the transition to Ltype, we first digress to make a slight notational reformulation of the syntactic rules of L1, keeping the expressive power of the language the same a...
Chapter
Having worked our way in considerable detail through a particular grammatical and semantic proposal of Montague’s about English, we will step back at this juncture to gain a larger perspective on the general framework of description within which this proposal, and the preliminary ones we developed in earlier chapters of this book, are couched. Mont...
Chapter
We begin by considering a very simple language, which anyone familiar with symbolic logic will recognize as essentially the propositional calculus with propositions analyzed into predicates and arguments. Truth-conditional semantics was first developed in connection with logical languages, and it is instructive to look at such cases to understand t...
Chapter
In the years since 1970, when Montague wrote PTQ, at least two hundred articles inspired by this work have been published, extending and expanding it in many different ways. Some of them achieve larger or otherwise more adequate syntactic coverage of English, along with semantic interpretation of the constructions covered. Others are dedicated to a...
Chapter
Up to this point we have treated tense and other modal operators syncategorematically, i.e., we have not defined a denotation for the symbol F directly, but only a denotation of the whole expression Fø in terms of the interpretation of the expression ø. Now let us consider the question whether we can assign a denotation separately to F in such a wa...
Article
In this book we hope to acquaint the reader with the fundamentals of truth­ conditional model-theoretic semantics, and in particular with a version of this developed by Richard Montague in a series of papers published during the 1960's and early 1970's. In many ways the paper 'The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary English' (commonly ab...
Article
The ProblemInadequcies of the Earlier AnalysisTruth Conditions Relative to Intervals, Not MomentsTruth Conditions for the ProgressiveSome Problems with “Likeness” of WorldsExtending the Analysis to the “Futurate Progressive”Notes

Citations

... In proposing that syntactic structure is not uniform, we are also forced to make explicit the kinds of dependencies that we find within local domains; FLT proves an invaluable tool to characterise these domains, which we identified with elementary trees in a LTAG. An exploration of the consequences of our view, which we call 'mixed computation' , leads to interesting proposals concerning the nature of local domains in syntax: syntactic cycles are defined as chunks of structure with a single lexical anchor and uniform dependencies which allow to be targeted by tree composition operations (adjunction and substitution) and rules of semantic interpretation (in the sense of Dowty et al., 1980). Grosso modo, change the dependencies, and you change the cycle; change the lexical anchor, and you change the cycle (by virtue of changing the elementary tree). ...
... Another alternative analysis, suggested by an anonymous reviewer, concerns the treatment of the unergative verbs we considered, such as dance, bark, and kick, according to which these verbs take implicit internal arguments (Bresnan 1978;Dowty 1982;Alexiadou et al. 2014Alexiadou et al. , 2015. This phenomenon, termed object drop in Levin (1993), is well-attested with verbs of consumption, in which the implicit object is understood existentially. ...
... A second possible mechanism involves type-raising, implemented either as a primitive operation (Dowty, 1988;Partee & Rooth, 1983), or derived in some more general type logic (Kubota & Levine, 2020;Lambek, 1968;Morrill, 1994). 'Edifying' and 'entertaining' both raise from their base type to a higher type that can take the semantic value of 'more' as an argument; these higher-type denotations are then combined using Boolean 'and' or 'or', and finally take 'more' as an argument, yielding the same denotation as 'more edifying or more entertaining'. ...
... (2) a. NPIs NPIs are expressions such as the English words any, anyone, ever, whose acceptability depends on whether its linguistic environment is downward monotone (Fauconnier, 1975;Ladusaw, 1979;Dowty, 1994;Kadmon and Landman, 1993;Krifka, 1995;Lahiri, 1998;Chierchia, 2006Chierchia, , 2013 If we again consider the DM environment of (1-a) and the UM environment of (2-a), it can be seen that English any is an NPI, as it is acceptable when inside the syntactic scope of negation (a DM expression) as in (3-a), and not acceptable when they are in an UM environment as in (3-b). ...
... He calls these two roles proto-agent and proto-patient, with the proto-agent role generally mapping onto the subject position and the proto-patient role onto the object position. Both Dowty (1989) and Dowty (1991) speculate that these mappings help in first-language acquisition; if grammar maps onto a semantic property (the proto-thematic roles), it is easier to figure out the grammar of one's language. The thought is that children first master the class of verbs that best match the prototypes of agent and patient, and then bootstrap from there to learn the less prototypical classes of predicates. ...
... We will refer to clause A, that is, the clause modifi ed by the parenthetical, as the prime (this is equivalent to Dowty's (2008) core clause); to clause B as the secondary; and to clause C as the tertiary. 2 The idea of the LINK constitu- ent is that it expresses whatever the precise relation between the prime and the afterthought is. ...
... where the syntactic subject is a stimulus (or cause), and the object is an experiencer (see among others Belletti and Rizzi 1988, Grimshaw 1990, Dowty 1991, Pesetsky 1995, Arad 1998, McGinnis 2000, Landau 2010 Alexiadou (2011Alexiadou ( , 2019, and classify them as unaccusative as well. ...
... Nevertheless, deadjectival nouns (intelligence, greatness), which derive from adjectives, and relational nouns (brother, friend), which establish a relationship between two entities, also project an argument structure. Differently from deverbal and picture nouns, the Proto-Agent and the Proto-Patient do not seem to be assigned to the arguments of deadjectival nor relational DPs: Therefore, we need to adopt strictly nominal proto-roles, as suggested by Barker & Dowty (1993): the Proto-Part and the Proto-Whole, with a set of semantic entailments: ...
... We can get to the rule from the category definitions by means of functional abstraction (Dowty, 2012: , 1970: 20), which means that we are within the computational ballpark we are interested in, at the level of local syntactic objects. Let us consider the case of fake fake news in the sense 'fake news that are not really fake news': here, we would say that the first fake affects fake news. ...
... von Stechow & Beck 2015) expressed with the indexation conventions outlined in von Fintel & Iatridou (2019). Like in Dowty (1982) this system makes use of an index on the right that is shifted, and one on the left that keeps track of the context. Each index represents a world-time pair: the right index (i) represents the evaluation world and time, and the left index (u) represents the utterance world and time. ...