David P. Farrington's research while affiliated with University of Cambridge and other places

Publications (879)

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Using cross-lagged model design, the present study is the first one to longitudinally examine whether bidirectional associations between child psychopathy features and negative parenting behaviors remain when controlling for parental psychopathic traits. The relationship between parental and child psychopathology, child conduct problems and parenta...
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The main aim of this article is to assess the most cited scholars in five international journals in three time periods: 2006–2010, 2011–2015, and 2016–2020. The five international journals are the Asian Journal of Criminology (AJC), the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology (ANZ), the British Journal of Criminology (BJC), the Canadian J...
Article
Meta-analyses have provided major findings about developmental predictors of offending. However, there has been little focus on their relative ability to predict offending behaviour. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of meta-analyses with two aims: 1) to summarize all well-established knowledge about developmental (explanatory) predictors...
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The current investigation asseses the relationship between DSM personality disorders (PDs) and PCL psychopathy in a community study: the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The children (Generation 3) of the original CSDD males (Generation 2) were assessed for PDs and psychopathy in early adulthood. Generation 3 consisted of both male...
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To date, no theory of bullying in residential care for youth has been proposed. By drawing on the results of the existing research on bullying and peer violence in youth residential care and adapting the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Settings (MMBSS), this paper proposes the first integrative theory of bullying in residential care—the Mul...
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Background The long-term mental and physical health consequences of childhood maltreatment have been well documented. Less known are the longer-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, specifically the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts adult life success. Objectives To prospectively assess the extent to which childhood experience...
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The Basic Empathy Scale is widely used to measure cognitive and affective empathy in different age groups. Although empathy is studied throughout the world, research on this important psychological construct in Eastern European populations needs to be increased. In order to accomplish this, validated instruments to measure empathy are needed in thi...
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This article reports on an updated systematic review and meta‐analysis of the effects of street lighting interventions on crime in public places. Following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, it uses robust criteria for inclusion of studies, comprehensive search strategies to identify eligible studies, a detailed protocol for coding key study charac...
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Objectives To provide a detailed understanding of how the prevalence and frequency of offending vary with age in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) and to quantify the influence of early childhood risk factors such as high troublesomeness on this variation. Methods We develop a statistical model for the prevalence and frequency o...
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This is the first Italian study to examine views on sexbots of adult male sex offenders and non-offenders, and their perceptions of sexbots as sexual partners, and sexbots as a means to prevent sexual violence. In order to explore these aspects 344 adult males were involved in the study. The study carried out two types of comparisons. 100 male sex...
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Background: Cooperative learning and Project-Based Learning are methodologies that can promote learning environments and improve learning, school achievement, and social and emotional competencies. Method: A mixed combination of these two methodologies called Cooperative Project-Based Learning was designed, and a quasi-experimental evaluation st...
Chapter
Intergenerational continuities in criminal behaviour have been well documented, but it is not known whether this extends to the experience of imprisonment. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, this chapter will examine the prevalence of instances of imprisonment in two generations of the study to establish whether there is...
Chapter
This chapter takes a developmental and life-course perspective on psychopathy and criminal behavior; Fox, Jennings, and Farrington (2015) argued that psychopathy should be understood within the framework of developmental and life-course (DLC) criminology and its theories. The chapter reviews major prospective longitudinal studies that have addresse...
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Research suggests that convicted persons are more likely than non-convicted persons to suffer poor health. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated associations between health and offending across generations. Using the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, this article prospectively investigates the relationship between health and...
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Background Familial influences on the development of many psychopathologies are well recognised, yet the psychosocial risk factors that could help explain apparently intergenerational continuities of personality disorder (PD) are less well understood. Aims To establish whether there is an association between the severity of PD in men and their off...
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Abstract This article analyses risk factors for criminal recidivism of young offenders in Argentina, compared with studies in other countries; 65 recidivists are compared with 59 one-time offenders. Effect sizes were calculated for 24 risk factors for recidivism. Seven groups of risk factors were compared: (a) demographic information, (b) offence h...
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Studies show that different types of antisocial behaviors share similar risk and protective factors related to particular social, emotional and moral competencies. Nevertheless, little is known about the longitudinal relation of social, emotional and moral competencies with patterns of antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed to disco...
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Background: Antisocial behaviours make social interactions difficult among students. Moral emotions, online empathy, and anger management are social and emotional variables related to prosocial and antisocial behaviours and health problems. This research aims to assess the impact of Cooperative Project-Based Learning intervention on these three va...
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Low empathy is an important psychological construct for understanding persistent criminal and antisocial behavior. In this study the affective empathy (the capacity to experience the emotions of others) and cogni-tive empathy (the capacity to understand the emotions of others) of 100 young male offenders (aged 16-17) in Buenos Aires was assessed us...
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Ed Latessa’s career was devoted to using evidence-based interventions to improve the lives of offenders. This article honors Ed by contributing to this line of inquiry. The main aim is to review criminological experiments with offending outcomes and a follow-up period of at least 10 years. Twenty major experiments are summarized, with intervention...
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To further understand psychopathy within a Developmental and Life-Course Criminology perspective, the current article investigates the stability and change in psychopathy from childhood to middle age. The Cambridge Study in delinquent development is a prospective longitudinal study of 411 males, where psychopathy was coded based on contemporanously...
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Prior research shows that convicted and incarcerated persons tend to die early, but this research does not investigate the relationships between criminal career features and early death. The aim of this article is to utilize the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development longitudinal sample of males to study this; 54 males who died early (up to age...
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The Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) started data collection in 1987, with three age cohorts of inner-city boys from the Pittsburgh Public School system. The youngest cohort (N = 503), the middle cohort (N = 508), and the oldest cohort (N = 506) were assessed first every 6 months, and later annually. Information was collected from participants, their p...
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This study compares childhood explanatory factors for adolescent offending according to official records obtained in three longitudinal projects conducted in three different countries: the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, the Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood. This is the...
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The main aim of this article is to assess the most-cited scholars in 20 criminology and criminal justice journals in 2015 and to compare them with the most-cited scholars in these journals in 1990–2010 and with the most-cited scholars in the Asian Journal of Criminology (AJC) in 2015. Five American criminology journals, five American criminal justi...
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This study investigates intergenerational relationships between the father’s personality disorder (PD) traits and the PD traits of his male and female offspring. We examine whether the intergenerational transmission of PD is due to the father transmitting a general vulnerability to all PDs, or whether the transmission is more specific to particular...
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The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) is a prospective longitudinal study of 411 London males who were first assessed in 1961–1962 at age 8–9. The main aim of the CSDD is to study the development of offending and antisocial behaviour from childhood to adulthood. The males have been interviewed nine times from age 8 to age 48, and the...
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This study shows longitudinal predictors of involvement in different bullying roles, including mental health, individual, family, peer and school predictors. The analyses were based on a longitudinal prospective study with 916 students followed up from ages 7 to 17 with 7 waves of data. Participants were selected through random sampling and were en...
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Executive Summary/Abstract Background Bullying first emerged as an important topic of research in the 1980s in Norway (Olweus), and a recent meta‐analysis shows that these forms of aggression remain prevalent among young people globally (Modecki et al.). Prominent researchers in the field have defined bullying as any aggressive behavior that incor...
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Dog-training programs have become a popular form of alternative prison programming. One of the reported benefits of these programs is their low cost to the criminal justice system. Very little research has been conducted on their effects on offenders, and, to date, no cost-benefit analyses have been reported. This article presents a cost-benefit an...
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Purpose Previous research has indicated that low resting heart rate (RHR), measured at age 18, predicts later psychopathy, and that high RHR acts as a protective factor in nullifying the influence of several psychosocial risk factors in predicting later antisocial and criminal outcomes. This paper aims to investigate high RHR as a protective factor...
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Background: Previous research has suggested that people with a history of offending have worse health compared to non‐offenders, but it is less clear whether all types of offenders are at similar health risks. In a New Zealand birth cohort study, Moffitt evidenced three main offending trajectories—life‐course‐persistent (LCP), adolescence-limited (...
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The present study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the “How I Think” (HIT) questionnaire. The HIT questionnaire is a self-report measure of self-serving cognitive distortions. Our sample was comprised of 442 Portuguese-speaking adolescents and young adults (254 males and 188 females), aged between 12 and 20 year...
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Purpose The purpose of the current study is to investigate to what extent, and when, psychopathic personality is predictive of violent convictions. Methods By analyzing data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, the relationships between psychopathic personality, childhood risk factors, and violent convictions were investigated prosp...
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Psychopathy has been an important topic of study in psychology and increasingly in criminology. The adverse, antisocial behavior of psychopaths has been studied for quite some time, yet there remains less work on how psychopaths may (or may not) succeed in other life domains, including in particular employment. On this score, the literature provide...
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Previous research has shown that many school-based anti-bullying programs are effective. A prior meta-analysis (Gaffney, Ttofi, & Farrington, 2019) found that intervention programs are effective in reducing school-bullying perpetration by approximately 19–20% and school-bullying victimization by approximately 15–16%. Using data from this prior meta...
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Research indicates that individuals with Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are more likely to offend, and that some ACEs, such as offending and child maltreatment, are transmitted from one generation to the next. However, the extent to which ACEs are transferred across generations and its subsequent impact on offending has not been examined. Usi...
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A consolidated list of offender motivations for criminal offending was created to determine the relevance of individual motivations for youth and adult crimes, and across a range of offending categories. Adult male inmates (N= 136) rated the relevance of each of 17 motivations to official conviction records and other clinical-risk measures. Results...
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In the last two decades, closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras have come to occupy a central role in contemporary crime prevention across the world. Widely viewed as the “internationalization” of CCTV surveillance, there has been a corresponding growth in the evidence base about its effect on crime. The cumulative evidence demonstra...
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Purpose The Early Assessment Risk Lists for Boys (EARL-20B) and Girls (EARL-21G) measure risk for future antisocial behaviour in conduct-disordered children aged 6–11. Their aim is to assist clinicians in targeting these factors so that evidence-based, age-graded responses to antisocial behaviour can be provided to prevent children from entering th...
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Purpose This paper describes the origins and application of a theory, the social development model (SDM), that seeks to explain causal processes that lead to the development of prosocial and problem behaviors. The SDM was used to guide the development of a multicomponent intervention in middle childhood called Raising Healthy Children (RHC) that se...
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Objectives Field experiments combine the benefits of the experimental method and the study of human behavior in real-life settings, providing high internal and external validity. This article aims to review the field experimental evidence on the causes of offending.Methods We carried out a systematic search for field experiments studying stealing o...
Chapter
This chapter takes stock of the use of the BES in different countries and concludes that its psychometric properties are quite good and that it has greatly advanced knowledge about empathy. The chapter summarises some key findings from previous chapters about empathy in relation to offending, aggression, and bullying. Generally, low empathy is rela...
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Some school policies are designed to promote a positive school climate, but little is known about their effectiveness. This study aims at describing the relation among the quality of school climate policy documents, social and emotional competencies, bullying and cyberbullying in students. This ex-post-facto cross-sectional and descriptive study wa...
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Despite early theorists suggesting that psychopathic traits are associated with higher intelligence, meta-analytic work has found that global psychopathy scores are actually negatively related to intelligence, albeit weakly. Furthermore, it was reported in the same meta-analytic work that the various dimensions of psychopathy were differentially re...
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Objectives This meta-analysis summarizes recent experimental evidence on school-based interventions designed to reduce student suspensions and arrests. Methods Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials from 2008 to 2019 with at least 100 students and an official measure of either suspension or arrest. Fourteen studies were found, resu...
Book
This book examines the use of “Communities That Care” (CTC) interventions in European countries. It reports results obtained by using the CTC Youth Survey in five European countries covering different parts of Europe – Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Croatia, and Cyprus. The main aim of the book is to compare (a) the prevalence of delinque...
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Violence, in all its different manifestations, is a universal problem affecting individuals of different age groups, of different ethnic and religious backgrounds, and of different sexual orientations. Family violence and youth violence are interconnected. This special issue advances knowledge about child maltreatment, bullying, youth violence, dat...
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This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychosocial risk factors at age 8-10, antisocial personality (ASP) at ages 18, 32 and 48, and poor health (based on self-reports and GP records). Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males, we found that high AS...
Chapter
Empathy is an essential core component of emotion regulation and moral development; both constructs play a central role on the explanation of antisocial and disruptive behaviour. An accurate evaluation of empathy is central to a better understanding of antisocial behaviour. The Basic Empathy Scale (BES), developed and tested by Jolliffe and Farring...
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Objectives This article summarizes key points made in a panel at the American Society of Criminology (ASC) meeting in Atlanta in November 2018, entitled “20th Anniversary of the Academy of Experimental Criminology (AEC): Looking Back and Forward,” organized by Friedrich Lösel as the AEC president. Method Seven (current and former) presidents of AE...
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Background Van Koppen, Rodermund, and Blokland recently published an article in this journal entitled “Waxing and waning: periods of intermittency in criminal careers.” We are concerned that this article will cause confusion in criminal career research because they use the word “intermittency” to refer to time intervals between convictions.PurposeW...
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Traditionally, the psychopathy checklist measures have used a four‐facet structure for psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial facets. This chapter reviews and presents new findings on social predictors of the four traditional facets of psychopathy. It focuses on results obtained in longitudinal surveys of criminal behavior...
Chapter
This chapter first reports on the psychometric properties of the CTC-YS scales in five European countries (Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Croatia, and Cyprus). It describes the internal consistency of the CTC-YS problem behavior scales and of the risk and protective factors in the European countries. This chapter also compares the results...
Chapter
This chapter reports the results of administering the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTC-YS) to a very large school-based British national representative sample of 14,445 students aged 11–16. This survey is unique not only in being based on a large national sample of schools but also in its extensive measurement of risk and protective factors...
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To investigate changes in scholarly influence in criminology and criminal justice over a 30-year time period, the most-cited scholars in six major American journals were determined for 2011–2015, with results compared to those obtained for 2006–2010, 2001–2005, 1996–2000, 1991–1995, and 1986–1990. The most-cited scholars in 2011–2015 were Robert J....
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a continuum of abuse that is associated with a number of negative outcomes including substance misuse, depression, and suicidal ideation. This study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of IPV perpetration and the mechanisms involved. Intergenerational transmission was investigated using informat...
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Purpose This paper aims to explore the sexuality of individuals with psychopathic traits. Sexuality is not only a physiological need but also a way by which people connect to others. According to a Darwinian perspective, psychopathic traits are seen as adaptive responses to environmental conditions, and as a nonpathological and reproductively viabl...
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Decreasing violence is an important objective for the society. Although the topic has been addressed in different studies, most of them are cross-sectional, focus on one context or include few variables. This research aims to investigate to what extent moral disengagement and victimization are risk factors, and empathy and social and emotional comp...
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Drawing on the cultural collectivism–individualism literature, we predict that Japanese students, compared to Americans, tend to commit fewer deviant acts because they are less inclined toward individualistic value orientations, risk seeking, negative emotionality, and subjective stress; because they are exposed to greater parental discipline and h...
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Developmental and life-course criminology can be differentiated from other types of criminology by its focus on, and appreciation of, change over time in antisocial behaviour and offending, using longitudinal research. This approach emerged from a long history of longitudinal studies which culminated in the articulation of the ‘criminal careers’ pe...
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It has been argued that the predictors of all criminal career features are the same, and that childhood risk factors do not predict life‐course‐persistent offenders. Little is known about childhood predictors of the duration of criminal careers. The aim is to investigate childhood (aged 8–10 years) risk factors for criminal career duration, in comp...
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Criminal career duration has not been well investigated. There are very few longitudinal data sets that last long enough and enough subjects to investigate criminal career duration, and especially the characteristics and risk profiles of especially life course persistent offenders. The aim of the study was to describe the predictability of criminal...