David N. Perkins's research while affiliated with Harvard University and other places

Publications (11)

Article
sfer does not occur as frequently or as readily as we would like, then this poses a major problem for education. After all, the entire enterprise of formal education depends on transfer. We do not teach students arithmetic in school so that they can apply it on school quizzes and exams; we want them to put arithmetic to work in the world, making wi...
Article
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Transfer of learning occurs when learning in one context enhances (positive transfer) or undermines (negative transfer) a related performance in another context. Transfer includes near transfer (to closely related contexts and performances) and far transfer (to rather different contexts and performances) . Transfer is crucial to education, which ge...
Article
Full-text available
We examine how technologies, particularly computer technologies that aid in cognitive processing, can support intellectual performance and enrich individuals’ minds. We distinguish between effects with and of a technology: Effects with occur when people work in partnership with machines, whereas effects of occur when such partnerships have subseque...
Article
In this paper we use simple inventions, often hand tools, to extract principles or heuristic of invention. Hand tools are particularly appropriate for our purpose. They constitute the oldest known record of the hominid mind at work, a data base in the form of stone tools that covers more than a million years. We maintain that the heuristic principl...
Article
Recent findings of transfer and nontransfer in such areas as planning and problem management skills, computer programming instruction, and literacy-related cognitive skills reveal paradoxes that invite explanation. In this article, we separate the "how" of transfer—the mechanisms that lead to it—from the "what" of transfer—the kind of knowledge and...
Article
Effective problem solving, sound decision making, insightful invention—do such aspects of good thinking depend more on deep expertise in a specialty than on reflective awareness and general strategies? Over the past thirty years, considerable research and controversy have surrounded this issue. An historical sketch of the arguments for the strong s...
Article
Focuses on the importance of applying knowledge and skills learned by students in one context to other situations. Significance of the technique in education; Problems associated with the technique; Model used to estimate the prospects of teaching for transfer. INSET: Must We Choose Between Cultural Literacy and Critical Thinking?.
Article
Investigations of the impact of programming instruction on cognitive skills have yielded occasional positive and many negative findings. To interpret the mixed results, we describe two distinct mechanisms of transfer–“low road” transfer, resulting from extensive practice and automatization, and “high road” transfer, resulting from mindful generaliz...

Citations

... According to the constructivist approach to learning, students are not passive recipients of knowledge, but they actively construct knowledge through cognitive, social, and cultural processes (National Research Council, 2012). In particular, students construct new knowledge of natural phenomena through an interactive process between their prior conceptions and the conceptions they receive from their learning environment (Glasersfeld, 1995;Salomon and Perkins, 1996). Therefore, the problem of learning has been raised as a problem of changing their already formed conceptions. ...
... These observations are noteworthy because they suggest that studies of creativity should also examine when, and how, people work with incidents of failure. Indeed, prior studies of eminent achievement suggest the ways in which people work with incidents of failure may be of importance to creative problem-solving (Weber & Perkins, 1992). ...
... Beside the cost of effective instructional designs, another cost refers to the cognitive demands of the transfer: existing models of transfer suggest that the more similar the tasks during the instruction in one domain (e.g., coding) are to those in another domain (e.g., mathematical problem solving), the more likely students can transfer their knowledge and skills between domains (Taatgen, 2013). Mastering this transfer involves additional cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (e.g., switching between tasks) and metacognition (e.g., recognizing similar tasks and solution patterns; Salomon and Perkins, 1987;Popat and Starkey, 2019). It is therefore key to further investigate the conditions and mechanisms underlying the possible transfer of the skills students acquire and the knowledge they gain during coding instruction via carefully designed learning interventions and experimental studies are needed that include the teaching, mediating, and assessment of transfer. ...
... Less attention has been given to examining special education teachers' pedagogical approaches with mobile devices from a socio-cultural perspective (Wertsch, 1991). This perspective emphasizes the social and contextualized nature of learning, and the dynamic relationship between technologies and their users (Salomon & Perkins, 1998). Informed by a socio-cultural perspective, the researchers aimed to provide valuable insights into contemporary teaching practices that utilise mobile devices (i.e., mobile pedagogies) in this specialist context. ...
... Cognitive psychologists attempt to describe cognitive processes by measuring what they call 'constructs,' which are thought to be approximations of psychological tendences or 'latent traits' that manifest externally in a subject's performance on a task and can, thereby, be indirectly observed by observing differences in task performance (Osterlind 2006, Chapter 1). In other words, when two groups of people perform an activity in reliably and predictably different ways, psychologists infer that this difference is the result of relatively enduring-though somewhat contextually-bound (see Perkins and and Saloman 1989 for review)-cognitive traits that can be measured and described. ...
... Meanwhile, the supervised and unsupervised learning methods were compared to determine which learning method to use by comparing the accuracy and efficiency of the two methods in training set. Some researchers expounded the research of artificial intelligence in smart city planning, intelligent design, construction, maintenance, and disaster prevention and proposed the construction of an integrated smart risk control system to improve the degree of urban intelligence and urban management [16]. ...
... This may be a good way of capturing the interrelated structure of cultural traits noted above, as well as bringing in the Response/Mesoudi, Whiten & Laland: Towards a unified science of cultural evolution evo-devo approach discussed earlier (indeed, recipes are also a common metaphor for how genes operate: Dalton 2000; Ridley 2003). Cognitive psychologists (Weber et al. 1993; Weber & Perkins 1989) have independently arrived at a similar concept to the recipe using schema theory, where an artifact is seen as a " frame " which has variable " slots " (representing the ingredients or physical characteristics of the artifact) and which is associated with " action scripts " (the behavioural rules required to make or use the artifact). Plotkin (1999; makes a similar point that cultural traits are best conceived of as hierarchically organised knowledge structures such as schemas, scripts, or frames (although it remains to be seen whether these concepts apply to other aspects of culture, such as organisations: Knudsen & Hodgson). ...
... The upshot of these evaluations may be re-engaging with any of the foregoing elements in COPES. As well, the learner may plan for future engagements that are similar, thereby setting a stage for forward transfer (Salomon & Perkins, 1989). ...
... Procedural knowledge is defined as the form of knowledge enabling skilful action (Best, 1992) and comprises techniques, skills and the ability to secure goals (Stevenson, 1994). Dispositional knowledge conceptualises tendencies to put capabilities into action (Perkins & Salomon, 1988). If teachers possess the personal confidence and motivation to proceed with various tasks, they may focus on the efficacy of securing their goals and objectives (Billett, 2004). ...
... Paas (1992) discusses distance vis-a-vis the similarity to problems encountered during instruction. Perkins & Salomon (1992) highlight that distance of transfer is an intuitive notion and discuss it as a matter of similarity and familiarity. Near transfer is across contexts students can be expected to be familiar with because they have encountered similar contexts before during instruction or practice. ...