David Moher's research while affiliated with Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and other places

Publications (832)

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Background Transparency and reproducibility are expected to be normative practices in clinical trials used for decision-making on marketing authorisations for new medicines. This registered report introduces a cross-sectional study aiming to assess inferential reproducibility for main trials assessed by the European Medicines Agency. Methods Two r...
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Objective To develop a reporting guideline for overviews of reviews of healthcare interventions. Design Development of the preferred reporting items for overviews of reviews (PRIOR) statement. Participants Core team (seven individuals) led day-to-day operations, and an expert advisory group (three individuals) provided methodological advice. A pa...
Preprint
Objectives To audit all publications produced by Montreal Neurological Institute-Hospital researchers regarding open science practices and to survey Neuro-based researchers about barriers and facilitators to data sharing. Setting, design and participants In the first study, we retrieved 313 unique publications and collated all Neuro publications f...
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Importance Transparency and data sharing are valuable practices in research, contributing to improved precision and flexibility in cumulative evidence; and ultimately expanding the research ecosystem by addressing one of the philosophical research norms that implies that knowledge belongs to society. Objectives The objective of the Reproducibility...
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Objective: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is commonly attributed to displaced otoconia. These have been shown to have biomineralization close to that of bone, and vitamin D deficiency has been associated with BPPV. We aim to systematically review the available literature on vitamin D supplementation and BPPV intensity and recurrence i...
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Background Determining which therapies fall under the umbrella of complementary, alternative, and/or integrative medicine (CAIM) is difficult for several reasons. An operational definition is dynamic, and changes depending on both historical time period and geographical location, with many countries integrating or considering their traditional syst...
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Background: Scholarly journals play a key role in the dissemination of research findings. However, little focus is given to the process of establishing new, credible journals and the obstacles faced in achieving this. This scoping review aimed to identify and describe existing guidelines for starting a biomedical scholarly journal. Methods: We sear...
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Well-designed and properly executed randomized controlled trials provide the most reliable evidence on the efficacy of healthcare interventions. However, there is overwhelming evidence that the quality of reporting of randomized trials is not always optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial f...
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The field of automatic biomedical image analysis crucially depends on robust and meaningful performance metrics for algorithm validation. Current metric usage, however, is often ill-informed and does not reflect the underlying domain interest. Here, we present a comprehensive framework that guides researchers towards choosing performance metrics in...
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Background: Depression affects an individual’s physical health and mental well-being, and in pregnant and postpartum women, has specific adverse short- and long-term effects on maternal, child, and family health. The aim of these two systematic reviews is to identify evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for depression compared to no scre...
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Background Reporting quality is a critical issue among health sciences. Adopting the reporting guidelines has been approved to be an effective way for enhancing the reporting quality and transparency of clinical research. In 2012, we found that only 7 (7/1221, 0.6%) journals adopted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement...
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In 2009, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Health Canada, and other stakeholders established the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN) to address the paucity of information on drug safety and effectiveness in real-world settings. This unique network invited knowledge users (e.g., policy makers) to submit queries to be answered by r...
Chapter
Reports of systematic reviews should transparently, completely, and accurately reflect what was done and what was found. This will facilitate optimal use, replication, and evaluation of systematic reviews by others. Several tools are available to guide the reporting of systematic reviews, including the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic revie...
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Objectives: To examine changes in completeness of reporting and frequency of sharing review materials in systematic reviews (SRs) over time; and factors associated with these changes. Methods: We examined a random sample of 300 SRs with meta-analysis indexed in PubMed, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus and Education Col...
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Background Identifying what therapies constitute complementary, alternative, and/or integrative medicine (CAIM) is complex for a multitude of reasons. An operational definition is dynamic, and changes based on both historical time period and geographical location whereby many jurisdictions may integrate or consider their traditional system(s) of me...
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Introduction Many predatory journals fail to follow best publication practices. Studies assessing the impact of predatory journals have focused on how these articles are cited in reputable academic journals. However, it is possible that research from predatory journals is cited beyond the academic literature in policy documents and guidelines. Give...
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Purpose: To inform updated recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care on screening for prostate cancer in adults aged 18 years and older in primary care. This protocol outlines the planned scope and methods for a series of systematic reviews. Methods: Updates of two systematic reviews and a de novo review will be conducted...
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Background The results and data availability of vaccine trials directly affect the decisions of healthcare providers, the public, and policymakers as to whether the vaccine should be applied. However, the reporting and data sharing level of COVID-19 vaccine studies are not clear. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. A systematic search u...
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The publication of systematic reviews has rapidly increased making it challenging to remain apprised of and interpret evidence from their growing number. A newer form of evidence synthesis, overview of reviews, synthesizes evidence from multiple systematic reviews. Authors would benefit from evidence- and consensus-based guidance for the complete a...
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Background: Reproducibility is a central tenant of research. Explicit reproducibility checks are made across different disciplines trying to assess the replication of previously published studies. We aimed to synthesize the literature on reproducibility and describe its epidemiological characteristics, including how reproducibility is defined and a...
Preprint
Background Determining which therapies fall under the umbrella of complementary, alternative, and/or integrative medicine (CAIM) is difficult for several reasons. An operational definition is dynamic, and changes depending on both historical time period and geographical location, with many countries integrating or considering their traditional syst...
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Background: Despite the nearly ubiquitous reported use of peer review among reputable medical journals, there is limited evidence to support the use of peer review to improve the quality of biomedical research and in particular, imaging diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) research. Purpose: To evaluate whether peer review of DTA studies published by...
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Background Preferential publication of studies with positive findings can lead to overestimation of diagnostic test accuracy (i.e. publication bias). Understanding the contribution of the editorial process to publication bias could inform interventions to optimize the evidence guiding clinical decisions. Purpose/Hypothesis To evaluate whether accu...
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The Strategy for Patient Oriented Research (SPOR) Evidence Alliance is a research initiative in Canada whose mission is to promote the synthesis, dissemination, and integration of research results into health care and public health decision-making and clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to ( i) outline the governance and committee structure...
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Objectives: To estimate the frequency of data and code availability statements in a random sample of systematic reviews with meta-analysis of aggregate data, summarise the content of the statements and investigate how often data and code files were shared. Methods: We searched for systematic reviews with meta-analysis of aggregate data on the effec...
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Uvod: Preporučene smjernice za izvještavanje u sustavnim pregledima i metaanalizama (engl. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, PRISMA) prvi su put objavljene 2009. godine kako bi autorima sustavnih pregleda omogućile transparentno izvještavanje o predmetu istraživanja, korištenim metodama i dobivenim rezultatima. Tij...
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Background Despite growing recognition of the importance of sex and gender considerations in health research, they are rarely integrated into research design and reporting. We sought to assess the integration of sex, as a biological attribute, and gender, as a socially constructed identity, in published reporting guidelines. Methods We conducted a...
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Objective To evaluate the current hiring practices of academic institutions around the world, with regard to the mention of advertisements for Open Science (OS) in research based, faculty and postdoctoral positions. Study Design Cross-sectional study, using 189 global institutions from the Center for Science and Technology (CSTS) Leiden ranking of...
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Alongside the growing concerns regarding predatory journal growth, other questionable editorial practices have gained visibility recently. Among them, we explored the usefulness of the Percentage of Papers by the Most Prolific author (PPMP) and the Gini index (level of inequality in the distribution of authorship among authors) as tools to identify...
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Background Convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat COVID-19 and is under investigation in numerous randomized clinical trials, but results are publicly available only for a small number of trials. The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of convalescent plasma treatment compared to placebo or no treatment and all-cause morta...
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Purpose: To inform recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care on potentially inappropriate prescribing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication use among adults aged 65 years and older in primary care settings. This protocol outlines the planned scope and methods for a systematic review of the benefits and harms and acceptabi...
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Background Problems continue to exist with the reporting quality and risk of bias in search methods and strategies in systematic reviews and related review types. Peer reviewers who are not familiar with what is required to transparently and fully report a search may not be prepared to review the search components of systematic reviews, nor may the...
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Florian Naudet and co-authors discuss strengthening requirements for sharing clinical trial data.
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Background Bleeding is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the world. Tranexamic acid reduces bleeding in trauma and surgery. Several systematic reviews of randomized trials have investigated tranexamic acid in the prevention of bleeding in caesarean delivery. However, the conclusions from systematic reviews are conflicting. This overview ai...
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Objective: We evaluated reporting completeness and transparency in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted using administrative data based on 2021 CONSORT Extension for Trials Conducted Using Cohorts and Routinely Collected Data (CONSORT-ROUTINE) criteria. Study design and setting: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Methodology Register were searche...
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Background Predatory journals are illegitimate journals that do not meet expected publication best practices. Many of these journals can be found using Google, making them readily available to patients searching online for health information. The goal of this study was to obtain information about how patients use the internet to get health informat...
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Objective To describe characteristics of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted using electronic health records (EHRs), including completeness and transparency of reporting assessed against the 2021 CONSORT Extension for RCTs Conducted Using Cohorts and Routinely Collected Data (CONSORT-ROUTINE) criteria. Study design MEDLINE and Cochrane M...
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Objective Registries are important data sources for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), but reporting of how they are used may be inadequate. The objective was to describe the current adequacy of reporting of RCTs using registries. Study Design and Setting We used a database of trials using registries from a scoping review supporting the developm...
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Objectives To explore the impact of data-sharing initiatives on the intent to share data, on actual data sharing, on the use of shared data and on research output and impact of shared data. Eligibility criteria All studies investigating data-sharing practices for individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials. Sources of evidence We searc...
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Background: Protocols are an essential document for conducting randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, the completeness of the information provided is often inadequate. To help improve the content of trial protocols, an international group of stakeholders published the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT...
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BACKGROUND:Protocols are an essential document for conducting randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, the completeness of the information provided is often inadequate. To help improve the content of trial protocols, an international group of stakeholders published the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT)...
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Background: Literature searches underlie the foundations of systematic reviews and related review types. Yet, the literature searching component of systematic reviews and related review types is often poorly reported. Guidance for literature search reporting has been diverse and, in many cases, does not offer enough detail to authors who need more...
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The extent to which a retraction might require revising previous scientific estimates and beliefs – which we define as the epistemic cost - is unknown. We collected a sample of 229 meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2016 that had cited a retracted study, assessed whether this study was included in the meta-analytic estimate and, if so, re-cal...
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Patient reported outcomes are increasingly included in research studies to provide the patient perspective. Grant applicants and grant reviewers require guidance on the key information that should be included in funding applications to demonstrate rigorous methods for patient reported outcomes. This paper provides prioritised practical recommendati...
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Importance Extenuating circumstances can trigger unplanned changes to randomized trials and introduce methodological, ethical, feasibility, and analytical challenges that can potentially compromise the validity of findings. Numerous randomized trials have required changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, but guidance for reporting such modific...
Preprint
Background: Problems continue to exist with the reporting of and risk of bias in search methods and strategies in systematic reviews and related review types. Peer reviewers who are not familiar with what is required to transparently and fully report a search may not be prepared to review the search components of systematic reviews, nor may they kn...
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Plain English summary In academia, authorship on a research publication is a central means to obtain credit for one’s contribution to a research project. In order to guide authorship decision making and facilitate transparent processes, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has produced recommendations for authorship. These...
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Background Data-sharing policies in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) should have an evaluation component. The main objective of this case–control study was to assess the impact of published re-uses of RCT data in terms of media attention (Altmetric) and citation rates. Methods Re-uses of RCT data published up to December 2019 (cases) were searche...
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Introduction Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Study (STARD) was developed to improve the completeness and transparency of reporting in studies investigating diagnostic test accuracy. However, its current form, STARD 2015 does not address the issues and challenges raised by artificial intelligence (AI)-centred interventions. As such, w...
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Objectives This randomized controlled trial aimed to test whether women or men would be preferred with identical curriculum vitae (CV); and the impact of the career stage in the evaluators’ choice. Study Design and Setting A simulated post-doctoral process was carried forward to be assessed for judgment. Level 1 and 2 Brazilian fellow researchers...
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Background Incorporating cluster randomized trials (CRTs) into meta-analyses is challenging because appropriate standard errors of study estimates accounting for clustering are not always reported. Systematic reviews of CRTs often use a single constant external estimate of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to adjust study estimate standa...
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In an effort to better utilize published evidence obtained from animal experiments, systematic reviews of preclinical studies are increasingly more common-along with the methods and tools to appraise them (e.g., SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory animal Experimentation [SYRCLE's] risk of bias tool). We performed a cross-sectional study of a sa...
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Randomised controlled trials are increasingly conducted as embedded, nested, or using cohorts or routinely collected data, including registries, electronic health records, and administrative databases, to assess if participants are eligible for the trial and to facilitate recruitment, to deliver an embedded intervention, to collect trial outcome da...
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In this response to Labib and Evans, authors of the Hong Kong Principles look forward to collaborating with those from the broad research integrity community to ensure that issues of equity, diversity and inclusion will become part of the ecosystem of research integrity.
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Objective: To explore the impact of the Annals of Internal Medicine (AIM) data-sharing policy for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in terms of output from data-sharing (i.e. publications re-using the data). Study design and setting: Retrospective study. RCTs published in the AIM between 2007 and 2017 were retrieved on PubMed. Publications whe...
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Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are biased and difficult to reproduce due to methodological flaws and poor reporting. There is increasing attention for responsible research practices and implementation of reporting guidelines, but whether these efforts have improved the methodological quality of RCTs (e.g., lower risk of bias) is unknown....
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Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as "predatory", deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
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Background: Funded health research is being published in journals that many regard as “predatory”, deceptive, and non-credible. We do not currently know whether funders provide guidance on how to select a journal in which to publish funded health research. Methods: We identified the largest 46 philanthropic, public, development assistance, public-p...
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Background Investigations of transparency, reproducibility and replicability in science have been directed largely at individual studies. It is just as critical to explore these issues in syntheses of studies, such as systematic reviews, given their influence on decision-making and future research. We aim to explore various aspects relating to the...
Preprint
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Background: Despite growing recognition of the importance of sex and gender considerations in health research, they are rarely integrated into research design and reporting. We sought to assess the integration of sex, as a biological attribute and gender as a socially constructed identity in published reporting guidelines. Methods and Findings: We...
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Objectives Data sharing practices remain elusive in biomedicine. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the problems associated with the lack of data sharing. The objective of this article is to draw attention to the problem and possible ways to address it. Study Design and Setting This article examines some of the current open access and data shar...
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Objectives Randomised controlled trials conducted using cohorts and routinely collected data, including registries, electronic health records and administrative databases, are increasingly used in healthcare intervention research. A Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement extension for trials conducted using cohorts and routi...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rush to scientific and political judgements on the merits of hydroxychloroquine was fuelled by dubious papers which may have been published because the authors were not independent from the practices of the journals in which they appeared. This example leads us to consider a new type of illegitimate publishing enti...