# David M. Boore's research while affiliated with United States Geological Survey and other places

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## Publications (203)

Amplifications of seismic waves traveling upward through a continuous, interface-free velocity profile are consistently smaller when computed using the square-root-impedance (SRI) method than when computed using full-resonance (FR) calculations. This was found for a wide range of velocity profiles. For realistic profiles, for which the gradient of...

The purpose of a median ground-motion logic tree is to capture the center, body, and range of possible ground-motion amplitudes for each earthquake scenario considered in a seismic hazard analysis. For site-specific hazard analyses, the traditional approach of populating the logic tree branches with ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) selected...

In this article, ground-motion models (GMMs) for subduction earthquakes recently developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation-Subduction (NGA-Sub) project are compared. The four models presented in this comparison study are documented in their respective articles submitted along with this article. Each of these four models is based on the a...

The backbone approach to constructing a ground-motion logic tree for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) can address shortcomings in the traditional approach of populating the branches with multiple existing, or potentially modified, ground-motion models (GMMs) by rendering more transparent the relationship between branch weights and the r...

This article summarizes the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) Subduction (NGA-Sub) project, a major research program to develop a database and ground motion models (GMMs) for subduction regions. A comprehensive database of subduction earthquakes recorded worldwide was developed. The database includes a total of 214,020 individual records from 1,880...

We develop semi-empirical ground motion models (GMMs) for peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and 5%-damped pseudo-spectral accelerations for periods from 0.01 to 10 s, for the median orientation-independent horizontal component of subduction earthquake ground motion. The GMMs are applicable to interface and intraslab subduction earthqu...

Traditional ground-motion models (GMMs) are used to compute pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) from future earthquakes and are generally developed by regression of PSA using a physics-based functional form. PSA is a relatively simple metric that correlates well with the response of several engineering systems and is a metric commonly used in engine...

We present a Hellenic database of intensity measures from uniformly processed strong ground motion recordings, together with metadata on earthquake source attributes and recording site conditions. The database consists of information from 471 earthquakes between 1973 and 2015 that produced 2993 usable recordings from 333 sites. A key element of thi...

Using a recently completed database of uniformly processed strong-motion data recorded in Greece, we derive a ground-motion prediction model (GMPM) for horizontal-component peak ground velocity, peak ground acceleration, and 5% damped pseudoacceleration response spectra, at 105 periods ranging from 0.01 to 10 s. The equations were developed by modi...

A method discussed in Gibbs, Boore, et al. (1994) was applied to surface-source, downhole-receiver recordings at 22 boreholes, in the San Francisco Bay area in central California and the San Fernando Valley of southern California, to determine the average damping ratio of shear waves over depth intervals ranging from about 10 m to as much as 245 m...

The three sets of ground-motion predictions (GMPs) of Boore (2018; hereafter, B18) are compared with a much larger dataset than was used in deriving the predictions. The B18 GMPs work well for response spectra at periods between ∼0.15 and 4.0 s after an adjustment accounting for a path bias at distances beyond 200 km—this was the maximum distance u...

The U.S. Geological Survey national seismic hazard maps have historically been produced for a reference site condition of V S30 760 m/sec. For other site conditions, site factors are used, which heretofore have been developed using ground motion data and simulations for shallow earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Research results from the NGA-E...

We model the macroseismic damage distribution of four important intermediate-depth earthquakes of the southern Aegean Sea subduction zone, namely the destructive 1926 M = 7.7 Rhodes and 1935 M = 6.9 Crete earthquakes, the unique 1956 M = 6.9 Amorgos aftershock (recently proposed to be triggered by a shallow event), and the more recent 2002 M = 5.9...

An updated Hellenic database of strong ground motion recordings together with the earthquake source properties and the site characterization of the recording stations are described here. The strong motion database consists of 2751 corrected recordings from 497earthquakes of focal depths h<45km and 338 recording stations, with source to site distanc...

We employ the stochastic finite-fault modeling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as adapted by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the southern Aegean Sea subduction (southern Greece). To calibrate the necessary model parameters of the stochastic finite-fault method, we...

The ground-motion models provided by me to the Next Generation Attenuation-East (NGA-East) project in 2015 have been updated by considering three additional Fourier spectra attenuation models and by conducting a mixed-effect analysis of the residuals between the ground-motion intensity measures computed from the attenuation models and the data from...

Strong-motion data from large (M ≥ 7.2) shallow crustal earthquakes invariably make up a small proportion of the records used to develop empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Consequently GMPEs are more poorly constrained for large earthquakes than for small events. In this article peak ground accelerations (PGAs) observed in 38 ear...

Earthquake ground motions are typically recorded with one vertical and two horizontal components. It has become standard practice to represent the horizontal component of ground shaking in a manner that recognizes a range of amplitudes with changing azimuths. These variable amplitudes can be generically denoted RotDxx, where xx indicates the percen...

NGA-Subduction is a large multidisciplinary, multi-year research program to develop database resources and ground motion models (GMMs) for subduction-zone earthquakes. Coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) and funded by FM Global, the project entails extensive technical interactions among many individuals and orga...

Various measures using the two horizontal components of recorded ground motions have been used in a number of studies that derive ground-motion prediction equations and construct maps of shaking intensity. We update relations between a number of these measures, including those in Boore et al. (2006) and Boore (2010), using the large and carefully c...

Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground-motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference-rock site conditions (VS30 = 760, 2000, and 3000 m=s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies...

We present ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for computing natural log means and standard deviations of vertical-component intensity measures (IMs) for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The equations were derived from a global database with M 3.0–7.9 events. The functions are similar to those for our horizontal GMPEs....

We evaluate six crustal amplification models based on National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) B/C crustal profiles proposed for use in western North America (WNA) and often used in other active crustal regions where crustal properties are unknown. One of the models is based on an interpolation of generic rock velocity profiles previou...

This short note contains two contributions related to deriving depth-dependent velocity and density models for use in computing generic crustal amplifications. The first contribution is a method for interpolating two velocity profiles to obtain a third profile with a time-averaged velocity (V) over bar (Z) to depth Z that is equal to a specified va...

We present ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for computing natural log means and standard deviations of vertical-component intensity measures (IMs) for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The equations were derived from a global database with M 3.0-7.9 events. The functions are similar to those for our horizontal GMPEs....

The stochastic method of ground-motion simulation specifies the amplitude spectrum as a function of magnitude (M) and distance (R). The manner in which the amplitude spectrum varies with M and R depends on physical-based parameters that are often constrained by recorded motions for a particular region (e.g., stress parameter, geometrical spreading,...

The stochastic method of ground-motion simulation assumes that the energy in a target spectrum is spread over a duration D-T. D-T is generally decomposed into the duration due to source effects (D-S) and to path effects (D-P). For the most commonly used source, seismological theory directly relates D-S to the source corner frequency, accounting for...

The stochastic method of simulating ground motions requires the specification of the shape and scaling with magnitude of the source spectrum. The spectral models commonly used are either single-corner-frequency or double-corner-frequency models, but the latter have no flexibility to vary the high-frequency spectral levels for a specified seismic mo...

The NGA-West2 project is a large multidisciplinary, multi-year research program on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The research project has been coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), with extensive technical interactions among many individua...

The NGA-West2 project database expands on its predecessor to include worldwide ground motion data recorded from shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regimes post-2000 and a set of small-to-moderate-magnitude earthquakes in California between 1998 and 2011. The database includes 21,336 (mostly) three-component records from 599 events. The...

A presentation of the model parameters and comparison of the median ground-motion values from the NGA-West2 GMPEs is presented for a suite of deterministic cases. In general, the median ground motions are similar, within a factor of about 1.5-2.0 for 5 < M < 7 and distances between 10-100 km Differences increase (on the order of 2-3) for large-magn...

We provide ground motion prediction equations for computing medians and standard deviations of average horizontal component intensity measures (IMs) for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The equations were derived from a global database with M 3.0–7.9 events. We derived equa-tions for the primary M-and distance-dependence of t...

The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before...

We develop an empirical model of the decay of Fourier amplitudes for earthquakes of M 3-6 recorded on rock sites in eastern North America and discuss its implications for source parameters. Attenuation at distances from 10 to 500 km may be adequately described using a bilinear model with a geometric spreading of 1/R-1.3 to a transition distance of...

Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. From many available GMPEs, we select those models recommended for use in seismic hazard assessments in the Global Earthquake Model. We present a GMPE selection procedure that evaluates multidimensiona...

http://peer.berkeley.edu/publications/peer_reports/reports_2013/webPEER-2013-22-GEM.pdf

A large database of ground motions from shallow earthquakes occurring in active tectonic regions around the world, recently developed in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center’s NGA-West2 project, has been used to investigate what such a database can say about the properties and processes of crustal fault zones. There are a relatively small numb...

The square-root-impedance (SRI) method is a fast way of computing approximate site amplification that does not depend on the details from velocity models. The SRI method underestimates the peak response of models with large impedance contrasts near their base, but the amplifications for those models is often close to or equal to the root mean squar...

The mainshock and moderateu2010magnitude aftershocks of the 6 April 2009 M 6.3 Lu2019Aquila seismic sequence, about 90 km northeast of Rome, provided the first earthquake groundu2010motion recordings in the urban area of Rome. Before those recordings were obtained, the assessments of the seismic hazard in Rome were based on intensity observations a...

: Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) relate a ground-motion parameter (e.g. peak ground acceleration) to a set of explanatory variables describing the source, wave propagation path and site conditions. In the past five decades many hundreds of GMPEs for the prediction of PGA and linear elastic response spectral ordinates have been published...

The stochastic method of ground-motion simulation is often used in combination with the random-vibration theory to directly compute ground-motion intensity measures, thereby bypassing the more computationally intensive time-domain simulations. Key to the application of random-vibration theory to simulate response spectra is determining the duration...

Most strong-motion data processing involves acausal low-cut filtering, which requires the addition of sometimes lengthy zero pads to the data. These padded sections are commonly removed by organizations supplying data, but this can lead to incompatibilities in measures of ground motion derived in the usual way from the padded and the pad-stripped d...

We propose a site classification scheme based on the predominant period of the site, as determined from the average horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios of ground motion. Our scheme extends Zhao et al. (2006) classifications by adding two classes, the most important of which is defined by flat H/V ratios with amplitudes less than 2. The pro...

Stress parameters (Δσ) are determined for nine relatively well-recorded earthquakes in eastern North America for ten attenuation models. This is
an update of a previous study by Boore et al. (2010). New to this paper are observations from the 2010 Val des Bois earthquake, additional observations for the 1988 Saguenay
and 2005 Riviere du Loup earthq...

Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (V S30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (V Sz , with z being...

The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA-West) project in 2008 are becoming widely used in seismic hazard analyses. However, these new models are considerably more complicated than previous GMPEs, and they require several more input parameters. When employing the NGA...

The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g...

We compare our recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for western North America (WNA; Boore and Atkinson, 2008 [BA08]) and eastern North America (ENA; Atkinson and Boore, 2006 [AB06]; Atkinson, 2008 [A08]) to newly available ground-motion data. Based on these comparisons, we suggest revisions to our GMPEs for both WNA and ENA. The revisi...

The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (< 1Hz) on strong-motion intensity parameters such as ground velocities, displacements and response spectral ordinates can be dramatic...

The PEER
NGA
ground-motion prediction equation
s (GMPEs)
were derived by five developer teams over several years, resulting in five sets of GMPEs. The teams used various subsets of a global database of ground motions and metadata from shallow earthquakes
in tectonically active regions in the development of the equations. Since their publication, th...

New measures of spectral intensity based on the horizontal components of ground shaking are introduced. These new measures are independent of the in situ orientation of the recordings and encompass the full range of spectral amplitudes over all possible rotation angles. Unlike previously introduced measures that are also orientation independent, no...

We determined the stress parameter, Delta sigma, for the eight earthquakes studied by Atkinson and Boore (2006), using an updated dataset and a revised point-source stochastic model that captures the effect of a finite fault. We consider four geometrical-spreading functions, ranging from 1/R at all distances to two- or three-part functions. The Del...

Why do stochastic point-source and finite-fault simulation models not agree on the predicted ground motions for moderate earthquakes at large distances? This question was posed by Ken Campbell, who attempted to reproduce the Atkinson and Boore (2006) ground-motion prediction equations for eastern North America using the stochastic point-source prog...

Comparisons of ground motions from two widely used point-source and finite-source ground-motion simulation programs (SMSIM and EXSIM) show that the following simple modifications in EXSIM will produce agreement in the motions from a small earthquake at a large distance for the two programs: (1) base the scaling of high frequencies on the integral o...

An M 6.7 intermediate-depth (66 km), in-slab earthquake occurring near the island of Kythera in Greece on 8 January 2006 was well recorded on networks of stations equipped with acceleration sensors and with broadband velocity sensors. All data were recorded digitally using recording instruments with resolutions ranging from almost 11 to 24 bits. We...

Most digital accelerograph recordings are plagued by long-period drifts, best seen in the velocity and displacement time series obtained from integration of the acceleration time series. These drifts often result in velocity values that are nonzero near the end of the record. This is clearly unphysical and can lead to inaccurate es- timates of peak...

1016 strong-motion records at 527 free-field stations and 131 records at 42 strong-motion arrays at buildings and bridges were obtained for the Pingtung earthquake doublet from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau's dense, digital strong-motion network. We carried out standard processing of these strong-motion records at free-field stations. A data se...

Many groups contributed to a blind interpretation exercise for the deter- mination of shear-wave slowness beneath the Santa Clara Valley. The methods in- cluded invasive methods in deep boreholes as well as noninvasive methods using active and passive sources, at six sites within the valley (with most investigations being conducted at a pair of clo...

The data sets, model parameterizations, and results from the five NGA models for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions are compared. A key difference in the data sets is the inclusion or exclusion of aftershocks. A comparison of the median spectral values for strike-slip earthquakes shows that they are within a factor of 1.5 for ma...

Three K2 triaxial accelerometers were operating at 200 samples per second within the region of strong shaking during the recent Mw 8.4, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0 Sumatran earthquakes and the many smaller events that followed. Presently, records from two stations, Pulau Sikuai (PSKI) and Silabu (SLBU) have been processed. Station PSKI is located 392 and 165...

We present a method to solve for slowness models from surface-source downhole-receiver seismic travel-times. The method estimates the slownesses in a single inversion of the travel-times from all receiver depths and accounts for refractions at layer boundaries. The number and location of layer interfaces in the model can be selected based on lithol...

In the seismic design of structures, estimates of design forces are usually provided to the engineer in the form of elastic response spectra. Predictive equations for elastic response spectra are derived from empirical recordings of ground motion. The geometric mean of the two orthogonal horizontal components of motion is often used as the response...

New earthquake ground-motion relations for hard-rock and soil sites in eastern North America (ENA), including estimates of their aleatory uncertainty (vari-ability) have been developed based on a stochastic finite-fault model. The model incorporates new information obtained from ENA seismographic data gathered over the past 10 years, including thre...

The 2003 San Simeon, California, earthquake (M 6.5) generated a set of colocated and closely spaced high-rate (1-sample-per-second) Global Positioning System (GPS) positions and ground motions from digital accelerographs in the Park- field region (at epicentral distances of 50 to 70 km). The waveforms of displacements derived from the 13 GPS receiv...

The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal hori-zontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. Thi...

Unfavorable site conditions may give rise to significant local amplification of ground motion during earthquakes. Thus, for an efficient mitigation of seismic risk, site-specific studies are of uttermost importance. Site effects may be characterized either by quantifying Vs30 and using empirical relationships for ground motion prediction or by forw...

The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal horizontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This...

Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the...

It is well known that the geologic materials beneath Earth's surface can have a first-order effect on ground motions from earthquakes. Fundamental to an understanding of the effects of geology on ground motion, and central to any prediction of these effects, is a description of the geologic materials that affect wave propagation. The material prope...

A set of fourteen invasive and non-invasive geophysical methods are compared for the measurement of the shear-velocity (Vs) profile of unconsolidated sediments near the Coyote Creek outdoor Classroom (CCOC), Santa Clara Valley, California. The various methods are important in the task of establishing Vs profiles for purposes of earthquakes hazard s...

Processing of strong-motion data in many cases can be as straightforward as filtering the acceleration time series and integrating to obtain velocity and displacement. To avoid the introduction of spurious low-frequency noise in quantities derived from the filtered accelerations, however, care must be taken to append zero pads of adequate length to...

An important record of ground motion from a M6.4 earthquake occurring on May 1, 2003, at epicentral and fault distances of about 12 and 9 km, respectively, was obtained at a station near the city of Bingöl, Turkey. The maximum peak ground values of 0.55 g and 36 cm/s are among the largest ground-motion amplitudes recorded in Turkey. From simulation...

Recordings from strong-motion accelerographs are of fundamental importance in earthquake engineering, forming the basis for all characterizations of ground shaking employed for seismic design. The recordings, particularly those from analog instruments, invariably contain noise that can mask and distort the ground-motion signal at both high and low...

This paper examines whether the extremely high ground motion values that are calculated for probabilistic seismic hazard analyses
in critical facilities are physically attainable.

In this paper we summarize our recently-published work on estimating horizontal response spectra and peak acceleration for shallow earthquakes in western North America. Although none of the sets of coefficients given here for the equations are new, for the convenience of the reader and in keeping with the style of this special issue, we provide tab...

Data from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake recorded at 26 sites in and near Anchorage, Alaska, show a number of systematic
features important in studies of site response and in constructing long-period spectra for use in earthquake engineering.
The data demonstrate that National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (nehrp) site classes are a useful...

Digital strong-motion instruments allow routine recovery of ground motions at periods much longer than possible with older
analog instruments, and under favorable conditions it may be possible to recover the residual displacements near earthquakes,
particularly if both the rotational and translational components of motion are recorded (currently on...

The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic re- gions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al....

Displacements derived from many of the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake show drifts when only a simple baseline de- rived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero level of the acceleration are respons...