David M. Almeida's research while affiliated with Pennsylvania State University and other places

Publications (104)

Article
Objectives: Sense of control (i.e. one’s beliefs about their ability to influence life circumstances) has been linked to various psychological outcomes. However, it is unknown if sense of control is protective against prescription drug misuse (PDM). The present study sought to evaluate if sense of control is associated with reduced odds of PDM 9 to...
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Two separate bodies of literature point to the link between family bereavement and cardiovascular health and between sleep quality and cardiovascular outcomes. However, less is known about the joint influence of family bereavement and sleep quality on cardiovascular functioning. The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between exper...
Article
Objectives Activity diversity – an index of active lifestyles that captures variety (number) and evenness (consistency) in activity engagement – is known to support health in adulthood. However, less is known who has higher or lower activity diversity, information that helps identify individuals who may be at greater risk for poor health. This pape...
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This article quantifies Daasanach water insecurity experiences in northern Kenya, examines how water insecurity is associated with water borrowing and psychosocial stress, and evaluates if water borrowing mitigates the stress from water insecurity. Of 133 households interviewed in seven communities, 94.0% were water insecure and 74.4% borrowed wate...
Article
Objectives It has been reported that job demands affect sleep, but how different levels of job demands affect sleep remains unclear. We examined whether curvilinear relationships exist between job demands and multiple sleep health outcomes. Design Cross-sectional analyses with linear and quadratic effects, using self-administered survey data. Set...
Article
Though often short-lived, emotional responsiveness to daily stressors (i.e., routine and sometimes unexpected everyday hassles) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Here, we present the novel hypothesis that a disruption of microvascular homeostasis is a key antecedent. We additionally postulate that ph...
Article
This study examined age-related patterns in exposure and affective reactivity to daily stressors across a 20-year time span among adults who were between 22 and 77 years old at their baseline interview. Longitudinal data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) consisted of three bursts of eight consecutive nightly interviews of stress a...
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Stress and sleep are related, but the nature and time course of this relation is not well understood. We explored the within-person associations of three components of emotional responses to everyday stressors, indexed by negative affect, reactivity (initial response to a stressor), recovery (persistence of the post-stressor response), and pile-up...
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Repeated assessments in everyday life enables collecting ecologically valid data on dynamic, within-persons processes. These methods have widespread utility and application and have been extensively used for the study of stressors and stress responses. Enhanced conceptual sophistication of characterizing intraindividual stress responses in everyday...
Article
Studies examining the effects of discrimination on emotional well-being have often overlooked (a) differential effects of both everyday and lifetime discrimination and (b) how both types of discrimination may exacerbate stressor-related affect-even when daily stressors are unrelated to discrimination. The current study examined the effects of daily...
Article
OBJECTIVES The current study examined longitudinal linkages between child sleep duration and children’s socioemotional, learning engagement, executive functioning, and academic outcomes across the full kindergarten (K) year. METHODS A measurement-burst design was employed to examine 3 different measures of child sleep duration in 7-day bursts at p...
Article
Objective: To investigate the associations between indices of family socioeconomic status and sleep during adolescence and to examine whether measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning mediate the observed associations. Methods: A total of 350 ethnically diverse adolescents (57% female; mean agewave1 = 16.4, SD = 0.7 years...
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Financial well-being may be an important context for daily emotional reactivity to relationship tension (e.g., arguments) whose salience varies across historical time or as a function of exposure to economic downturns. This study investigated how emotional reactivity, operationalized as daily fluctuations in negative and positive affect associated...
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Although there is a strong association between depressive symptoms and markers of inflammation, it remains unclear whether depressive symptoms at one point in life may predict inflammation later in life. Moreover, despite extant literature linking sleep with both depressive symptoms and inflammation, there is little research investigating poor slee...
Article
Introduction: There is reason to believe that introversion may relate to different patterns of negative and positive experiences in everyday life ("hassles" and "uplifts"), but there is little evidence for this based on reports made in daily life as events occur. We thus extend the literature by using data from ecological momentary assessments to...
Article
Daily stress, defined as the routine challenges of day-to-day living and the unexpected small hassles that disrupt everyday life, is predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related health outcomes; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Given that heightened blood pressure (BP) reactivity to stress is also purported to increas...
Article
We discuss the importance of including measures of dysregulated system dynamics in the operationalization of allostatic load. The concept of allostatic load, as originally proposed by McEwen and Stellar, included dysregulation not only in the resting state of physiological systems, but also in system dynamics. We describe previous work on cortisol...
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Rationale A large body of work demonstrates the impact of housing instability on health by exploring the effects of evictions and homelessness on psychological wellbeing of young adults and children. However, limited research leverages national longitudinal data to examine whether and how experiences of a range of housing insecurity events, rather...
Article
Negative perceptions of aging and older adulthood, including the idealization of youth, are common in the United States. Past work has found that holding negative perceptions of aging is closely associated with poor mental and physical health consequences, yet few studies have examined how these perceptions impact day-to-day experiences. The curren...
Article
Background Exposure to chronic psychological stress across multiple life domains (multi-domain chronic burden) is associated with poor health. This may be because multi-domain chronic burden influences daily-level emotional processes, though this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. Purpose The current study tested whether (a) multi-domain c...
Article
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In this study, we used data from the second wave of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Study, MIDUS Biomarkers and MIDUS 3. We applied the serial mediation model to explore the serial mediating effects of perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep quality and life satisfaction. A total of 945 participants were incl...
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Study Objectives Sleep is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular conditions. Holistic examination of within-person, multidimensional sleep patterns may offer more detailed information about the sleep-cardiovascular condition link, including who is more vulnerable to both. This study aimed to identify common sleep phenotypes in adulthood, estab...
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We examined whether subjectively and objectively measured sleep health composites have a relationship with heart disease. 6,820 adults (Mage = 53.4 years) from the Midlife in the United States study provided self-reported sleep characteristics and heart disease history. A smaller sample (n = 663) provided actigraphy sleep data. We tested two sleep...
Preprint
This article quantifies Daasanach water insecurity experiences in Northern Kenya, examines how water insecurity is associated with water borrowing and psychosocial stress, and evaluates if water borrowing mitigates the stress from water insecurity. Of 133 households interviewed in 7 communities, 95% were water insecure and 74.4% borrowed water thre...
Article
This study evaluated whether recent family member alcohol and substance use problems (ASP) and density of family ASP (i.e., number of members with ASP) predict alcohol-related problems and drug use-related problems among middle-aged and older adults. Data were drawn from participants (age 42–93 years, n = 2168) in the longitudinal Midlife in the Un...
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A physically active lifestyle has several health benefits in both the short- and long-term. This includes higher levels of emotional and psychological well-being and, in many cases, maintained well-being despite stressful experiences that can have countervailing, negative impacts on health. This symposium presents innovative research that (a) links...
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Theories suggest that with increasing age, adults more effectively regulate their emotions and seek to limit high physiological arousal. Prior research indicates physical activity attenuates negative affect reactivity to stress, but also increases physiological arousal. The present study extends prior work by examining age-related differences and c...
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Previous studies reveal that positive affective well-being is positively associated with physical activity. The present study extends this work by examining the relationship between positive events and physical activity in daily life. Participants (N=1,016, ages 43-90, 56% women) from the third wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences report...
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Research shows that, while the experience of stress relates to lower levels of physical activity (PA), people who perceive a greater sense of control engage in higher levels of PA. This study explores whether a sense of control specifically over stressful situations moderates the negative association between stressor exposure and PA in daily life....
Article
Background Cardiovascular disease is a critical public health issue and a growing body of literature on relationships and health point to individuals’ interactions and involvement with family members as significant correlates of cardiovascular outcomes. However, less is known about the implications of daily encounters with family members on cardiov...
Article
Prior studies have shown that parent and adolescent cortisol are associated across days and that this covariation may be adolescent-driven. This study extends this literature by (a) testing whether parents’ cognitive interference (i.e., distracting and ruminative thoughts potentially due to worry) mediates the linkages between adolescent and next-d...
Article
Greater engagement in a range of daily activities is associated with better cognitive functioning (Lee et al., Lee et al., 2020). The hippocampus, a subcortical brain structure implicated in learning, memory, spatial navigation and other aspects of cognitive functioning, may be structurally sensitive to exposure to and engagement with novel experie...
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Objective Previous research shows that Neuroticism predicts exposure and affective reactivity to daily stressors (Bolger and Zuckerman, 1995). Zautra and colleagues (2005) extended this work to daily positive events. Building on these frameworks, we examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of the occurrence and affective correlates of...
Article
Background and objective: The long-term negative impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) is now well-recognized; however, little research has explored the link between ACEs and daily stress processes in adulthood. The current study aimed to examine the effect of ACEs in the association between daily stressor exposure and daily negative affe...
Article
Background Daily stress plays a significant role in mental and physical health. Negative mood (e.g., hopelessness) and physical symptoms (e.g., headaches) are responses often associated with daily stressors. It is theorized that some people or populations are more vulnerable or reactive to daily stressors. We propose sexual orientation as one facto...
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Exposure to daily stressors specific to the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., threat of infection) is associated with emotional distress, heightened stress reactivity, and increased depressive symptomology. Herein, we examined whether current depressive symptomology modulates the association between COVID-19-related daily stressor exposure and negative affe...
Article
Heightened affective and physical reactions to daily stressful events predict poor long-term physical and mental health outcomes. It is unknown, however, if an experimental manipulation designed to increase interpersonal resources at work can reduce associations between daily stressors and physical and affective well-being. The present study tests...
Article
Objectives: Studies demonstrate the association between diverse emotions and health. However, we know little about how these emotions are related to activities in daily life. This study examined whether the diversity of daily activities ("activity diversity") is associated with the diversity of both positive and negative daily emotions ("emodivers...
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Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal gland (HPA) axis functioning has been linked with daily demands during adolescence. A ubiquitous, yet understudied daily demand in the lives of youth is the commute to school, which may be associated with the diurnal rhythm of cortisol as demonstrated in prior research among adults. The current study hypothesized that...
Article
Background Indices quantifying allostatic load (AL) and biological aging (BA) have independently received widespread use in epidemiological literature. However, little attention has been paid to their conceptual and quantitative overlap. By reviewing literature utilizing measures of AL and BA, and conducting comparative analysis, we highlight simil...
Article
Objective Using cross-sectional data on Black and white adults, this analysis examined whether age-related decrements in kidney function across adulthood were associated with parental education, and whether the association was differentially influenced by race. Further, this study assessed racial differences in life course pathways from parental ed...
Article
Researchers hypothesize that how people react to daily stressful events partly explains the relationship between personality and health, yet no study has examined longitudinal associations between these factors. The current study focused on the role of negative affect reactivity to daily stressful events as a mediating pathway between personality a...
Article
Objectives This study examined how household food insecurity (HFI) and chronic stress relate to adiposity among Tsimane’ hunter‐forager‐horticulturalists in remote Bolivia with limited access to energy‐dense processed foods that promote weight gain among industrialized populations. Methods Retrospective cross‐sectional data on HFI (via the Househo...
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Background Sleep is a robust determinant of next-day emotions, but people vary in the extent that their emotions fluctuate on days following short sleep duration. These individual differences in day-to-day sleep and emotion dynamics may have long-term health implications. Purpose To evaluate emotional vulnerability to short sleep (within-person as...
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Adolescent sleep research has focused heavily on duration and quality with less work examining chronotype, defined as individual differences in sleep–wake timings driven by the circadian rhythm. This study filled a gap in the literature by utilizing actigraphy-based sleep estimates in an accelerated longitudinal design in order to better understand...
Article
Neural dynamics in response to affective stimuli are linked to momentary emotional experiences. The amygdala, in particular, is involved in subjective emotional experience and assigning value to neutral stimuli. Because amygdala activity persistence following aversive events varies across individuals, some may evaluate subsequent neutral stimuli mo...
Article
This study examined the effects of participation in enjoyable activities and the experience of uplifting events on individuals’ momentary positive affect (PA) and tested for age differences in these effects. 176 adults (ages 25–66) completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) 5 times per day for 14 days. We found that individuals reported high...
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Prosocial activities, such as volunteering, predict better mental and physical health in late adulthood, but their proximal links to well-being in daily life are largely unknown. The current study examined day-to-day associations of prosocial activities with emotional and physical well-being, and whether these associations differ with age. We used...
Article
Objective This study replicates and expands Surachman et al.’s (2020) findings documenting socioeconomic status (SES) trajectories across the life course in an independent sample of Black (majority recruited from Milwaukee, WI) and white adults in the United States. We extend this work by examining whether SES trajectories and daily discrimination...
Article
Research documents the pernicious effects of daily stressors on well-being, but often ignored in these studies are people reporting no stressors. The current study compared adults who reported no daily stressors with adults who reported at least one stressor across 8 consecutive days on measures of well-being. Of the 2,804 respondents (age range =...
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Sexual minority (SM) adults (those who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual) consistently report more health problems compared to heterosexuals, and they tend to experience excess social stress. Although numerous studies have established links between social stress and clinical outcomes in SM adults, few studies have examined biological factors that may h...
Article
Exposure to and perceptions of stress have been associated with altered systemic inflammation, but the intermediate processes by which stress links to inflammation are not fully understood. Diurnal cortisol slopes were examined as a pathway by which self-reported psychosocial stress is associated with inflammation [i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), i...
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Full-text available
Indices quantifying allostatic load (AL) and biological aging (BA) have received widespread use in epidemiological and health science literature. However, little attention has been paid to the conceptual and quantitative overlap between these indicators. By reviewing literature utilizing measures of AL and BA, we highlight differences with respect...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined whether partner substance use problems predict problem drinking and how gender and age moderate this relationship. Problem drinking refers to alcohol use resulting in alcohol dependence or health and social consequences. Participants were adults (n=2142, 53% female, mean age=54, range= 33-83) from Wave 2 of the Midlife De...
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The current study used data from a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older adults to examine the synergistic relationship between negative and positive self-perceptions of aging on two types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior. Participants from Wave 3 of the National Study of Daily Experiences reported on their aware...
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Housing insecurity—or limited and/or unreliable access to quality housing— is a potent on-going stressor that can adversely impact individual well-being. This study extends previous research by investigating the impact of housing insecurity on both the emotional and physical health of aging African American adults using the Midlife in the United St...
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Control beliefs are important correlates of cognitive health and aging. In addition, how old or young one feels is a self-perception of aging that may play a role in understanding control-cognition associations. We explored whether subjective age moderates associations among control beliefs and cognitive performance using data from the third wave o...
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The current study examined whether problem drinking in older adulthood is associated with greater longitudinal risk of functional impairment and mortality through 2016. Problem drinking consists of patterns of alcohol use resulting in symptoms of alcohol dependence or health and social consequences. Participants were adults (n=2654, 56.1% female) f...
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Objectives To investigate the heterogeneous effects of education on sleep duration for Black and White adults and how the education effects changed between 2004 and 2018. Methods A total of 251,994 adult participants in the 2004 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey were included in pooled cross-sectional data analyses. Separately for Black and...
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Managers often do not get the recommended amount of sleep needed for proper functioning. Based on conservation of resources theory, we suggest that this is a result of sleep having both resource gains (improved affect) and losses (less time) that compete to determine managers' perceived productivity the next day. This trade-off may, in turn, determ...
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Objective and Background The current study examines the types of childhood experiences with mothers (i.e., maternal abuse, affection, discipline) among caregivers of aging mothers and investigates whether membership in specific latent classes, particularly maternal maltreatment, is associated with psychological functioning among caregivers. Method...
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Purpose Risks of dehydration and cognitive decline increase with advancing age, yet the relation between dehydration, water intake, and cognitive performance among older adults remains understudied. Methods Using data from the 2011–2014 cycles of the Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES), we tested if calculated serum osmolarity (Sosm)...
Article
Objectives: Support from one's spouse has long been documented as a significant determinant of health for married individuals. However, non-spousal family support may play an important role in health particularly for unmarried individuals. Therefore, this study examined whether the association between non-spousal family support and diagnosis of he...
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Objective: Experimental evidence suggests that inadequate sleep disrupts next-day affective processing and evokes greater stress reactivity. However, less research has focused on whether sleep predicts next-day affective reactivity to naturally occurring stressors and positive events in daily life, as well as the reversed direction of association...
Article
Rationale A large body of work demonstrates the impact of caregiving burden on the well-being of parents of individuals with developmental conditions or mental health problems. However, a relative dearth of research examines this impact longitudinally into parents’ older age. Objective. The current study examines (1) longitudinal changes in the eff...
Article
The two branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) have been individually linked to changes in cognitive functioning: The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) has been associated with healthy cognitive aging, whereas excessive sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity has been linked to heightened cognitive decline. Despite these separate findi...
Article
Sense of purpose has proven a consistent predictor of positive outcomes during adulthood. However, it remains unclear how purposeful adults respond to positive events in their daily lives. The current study examined whether sense of purpose predicted the frequency of daily positive events, as well as participants' affect on days with a positive eve...
Article
Purpose This study investigated the extent to which multiple sleep dimensions are associated with inflammation during adolescents' transition to young adulthood, a developmental period when sleep difficulties and systemic inflammation levels are on the rise. Additionally, the moderating roles of socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity were explore...
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This article views adult development through the lens of daily life experiences and recent historical changes in these experiences. In particular, it examines whether theories that postulate general linear increases in well-being throughout adulthood still hold during times of less prosperity and more uncertainty. Descriptive analyses of the Nation...
Article
Background Epidemiological data suggest a link between psychological stress and increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The purpose of this investigation was to directly examine the influence of daily psychosocial stress on microvascular adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in h...
Article
Leisure engagement is believed to offer emotional benefits. However, relatively few studies have examined how leisure engagement influences emotional well-being in the context of individuals’ everyday lives. The current study examined the associations between leisure engagement and daily emotional well-being, as measured by participants’ mean level...
Article
Objective: Higher affect variability (the extent to which individuals vary in their affect over time) has been associated with poorer health indicators, but associations with inflammation are less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether affect variability was associated with inflammation in ways consistent with the...
Article
Emodiversity, or the variety and relative abundance of emotions experienced, provides a metric that can be used to understand emotional experience and its relation to well-being above and beyond average levels of positive and negative affect. Past research has found that more diverse emotional experiences, both positive and negative, are related to...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the use of saliva to assess age-related changes in important biological systems, describes how saliva can be used to assess naturally occurring fluctuations of biomarkers in adults’ daily lives, and offers cutting-edge statistical approaches that can help answer research questions that involve these multivariate and dynamic phe...
Preprint
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Background: There is a lack of empirical effort that systematically investigates the clustering of comorbidity among known risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and elevated inflammation) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and how different types of comorbidity may link differently to kidney function among healthy adult...
Article
Prior studies suggest bidirectional relationships between parent and adolescent behavior. This study examined how parents and their adolescent child’s cortisol patterns are associated across days and if there are bidirectional associations between parent and child cortisol. Participants included two samples of employees and their children who parti...
Article
Objectives: Participating in a variety of daily activities (i.e., activity diversity) requires people to adjust to a variety of situations and engage in a greater diversity of behaviors. These experiences may, in turn, enhance cognitive functioning. This study examined associations between activity diversity and cognitive functioning across adulth...
Article
The aims of the present study were to examine whether daily stressors are associated with engagement in emotional support and whether these associations differ by gender. Analyses were conducted using Wave 2 of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS II) data and its subproject, National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). The sample consisted of adults...
Article
Positive emotions help us during times of stress. They serve to replenish resources and provide relief from stressful experiences. Positive emotions may be particularly beneficial during times of stress by dampening negative emotional reactivity and quickening recovery from stressful events. In this study, we used a daily diary design to examine ho...
Article
There is evidence that insufficient sleep and more stressors are individually associated with poor metabolic health outcomes. Examining sleep and stressors jointly may account for greater variability in health outcomes; however, we know little about the combined effect of both insufficient sleep and more stressors on metabolic health. This study ex...
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This study examines the roles of daily stress processes as a possible mediator of how life course socioeconomic inequality is reproduced in day-to-day experiences and creates disparities in clinical risk for rapid kidney function declines in adulthood. Data are from 1174 middle and older adults (56% female; ages 40–84, Mage = 56.2) who participated...
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The purpose of the present study is to examine whether positive affect and negative affect can predict the changes in cognitive abilities, assessed by episodic memory and executive functioning, during the transition to late adulthood. Using the longitudinal data from the national survey of midlife development in the United States (MIDUS), this stud...
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Personality may be associated with sleep health, however, the majority of existing studies rely on self-reported measures of sleep (often focusing on sleep duration). The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and self-reported and actigraphy measured sleep. This study included 3928 participants and...
Poster
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Individuals tend to report more stressors on days after nights with fewer hours of sleep. There may be individual differences such that this negative sleep duration—stressor perception relationship is stronger for some than others, which may have implications for health outcomes. However, we know little about whether differences in stressor percept...
Article
Full-text available
The two branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) have been individually linked to age-related changes in cognitive functioning: The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is thought to support healthy cognitive aging, whereas the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been linked to heightened cognitive decline. Despite these separate findings an...
Article
Full-text available
The negative impact of having a child with special needs on parental well-being is well documented. Previous research has suggested age attenuation of these impacts. However, this has not yet been examined longitudinally in late life. Therefore, it is unclear how the effect of having a child with a developmental disability or mental health problem...