David Luque's research while affiliated with Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and other places

Publications (68)

Preprint
The additional singleton task has become a popular paradigm to explore visual statistical learning and selective attention. In this task, participants are instructed to find a different-shaped target among a series of distractors as fast as possible. In some trials, the search display includes a singleton distractor with a different colour, making...
Article
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In studies on probabilistic cuing of visual search, participants search for a target among several distractors and report some feature of the target. In a biased stage the target appears more frequently in one specific area of the search display. Eventually, participants become faster at finding the target in that rich region compared to the sparse...
Article
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Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is thought to lead to maladaptive behaviours and dysfunctional decision making, both in the clinical and healthy population. The seminal study reported by Luhmann and collaborators in 2011 [1] showed that IU was negatively associated with choosing a delayed, but more probable and valuable, reward over choosing an imm...
Article
Visual search is faster when it occurs within repeated displays, a phenomenon known as contextual cuing (CC). CC has been explained as the result of an automatic orientation of attention toward a target item driven by learned distractor-target associations. In 3 experiments we tested the specific hypothesis that CC is an automatic process of attent...
Article
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Habit-like eating behavior is repeatedly pointed to as a key cognitive mechanism contributing to the emergence and maintenance of obesity. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to assess the existent behavioral evidence for the Habit Hypothesis for Overeating (HHO) which states that obesity is the consequence of an imbalance betw...
Preprint
In studies on probabilistic cuing of visual search, participants search for a target among several distractors and report some feature of the target. In a biased stage the target appears more frequently in one specific area of the search display. Eventually, participants become faster at finding the target in that rich region compared to the sparse...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing awareness across the neuroscience community that the replicability of findings on the relationship between brain activity and cognitive phenomena can be improved by conducting studies with high statistical power that adhere to well-defined and standardized analysis pipelines. Inspired by efforts from the psychological sciences, and...
Article
Reward affects our attention to stimuli, prioritizing those that lead to high-value outcomes. Recently, it has been suggested that such reward-related cognitive prioritization might be associated with the process of learning new stimulus-response (S-R) associations, because both are acquired through extended reward training, and once established, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is growing awareness across the neuroscience community that the replicability of findings on the relationship between brain activity and cognitive phenomena can be improved by conducting studies with high statistical power that adhere to well-defined and standardised analysis pipelines. Inspired by efforts from the psychological sciences, and...
Preprint
In this opinion letter we critical assess a new explanatory hypothesis for habitual behaviour in humans, the goal replacement hypothesis. This hypothesis claims that habits are other forms of goal-directed behaviour, what challenges one core assumption of reward learning models. However, we show in this letter that this hypothesis can only explain...
Article
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It is usually easier to find objects in a visual scene as we gain familiarity with it. Two decades of research on contextual cuing of visual search show that repeated exposure to a search display can facilitate the detection of targets that appear at predictable locations in that display. Typical accounts for this effect attribute an essential role...
Preprint
It is usually easier to find objects in a visual scene as we gain familiarity with it. Two decades of research on contextual cuing of visual search show that repeated exposure to a search display can facilitate the detection of targets that appear at predictable locations in that display. Typical accounts for this effect attribute an essential role...
Article
In probabilistic cuing of visual search, participants search for a target object that appears more frequently in one region of the display. This task results in a search bias toward the rich quadrant compared with other quadrants. Previous research has suggested that this bias is inflexible (difficult to unlearn) and implicit (participants are unaw...
Article
It is well established that associative learning, such as learning new cue-outcome pairings, produces changes in attention: cues that are good predictors of relevant outcomes become prioritised compared with those that are non-predictive or redundant. However, there is controversy about whether such a learnt attentional bias results from a controll...
Article
Full-text available
Reward-learning theory views habits as stimulus-response links formed through extended reward training. Accordingly, animal research has shown that actions that are initially goal-directed can become habitual after operant overtraining. However, a similar demonstration is absent in human research, which poses a serious problem for translational mod...
Article
The exploitation-exploration (EE) trade-off describes how, when making a decision, an organism must often choose between a safe alternative with a known pay-off, and one or more riskier alternatives with uncertain pay-offs. Recently, the concept of the EE trade-off has been extended to the examination of how organisms distribute limited attentional...
Preprint
This is a conceptual replication of Stage 1 training of Experiment 2 of Beesley et al. (2015), and a companion report to Walker et al. (Submitted).
Article
Facial emotion constitutes an important source of information, and rapid processing of this information may bring adaptive advantages. Previous evidence suggests that emotional faces are sometimes prioritised for cognitive processing. Three experiments used an emotion-induced blindness task to examine whether this prioritisation occurs in a purely...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reward learning theory views habits as stimulus–response links formed through extended reward training. Accordingly, animal research has shown that actions that are initially goal-directed can become habitual after operant overtraining. However, a similar demonstration is absent in human research, which poses a serious problem for translational mod...
Article
The human brain is an efficient, adaptive, and predictive machine, constructing a generative model of the environment that we then perceive and become conscious of. Here, we show that different types of prediction-errors – the discrepancies between top-down expectations and bottom-up sensory input – are integrated across processing levels and senso...
Article
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Previous studies have provided evidence that selective attention tends to prioritize the processing of stimuli that are good predictors of upcoming events over nonpredictive stimuli. Moreover, studies using eye-tracking to measure attention demonstrate that this attentional bias towards predictive stimuli is at least partially under voluntary contr...
Preprint
The process of learning an associative relationship between two events, such as a cue-response pairing, can be shaped by changes in attention. It is well established that predictive cues are prioritized for attentional processing compared to those that are non-predictive. However, there is controversy about whether this attentional bias is controll...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous studies have provided evidence that selective attention tends to prioritize the processing of stimuli that are good predictors of upcoming events over nonpredictive stimuli. In the present study we explored whether the mechanism responsible for this effect critically reflects the influence of prior experience of predictiveness (history of...
Article
Full-text available
Blocking refers to the finding that less is learned about the relationship between a stimulus and an outcome if pairings are conducted in the presence of a second stimulus that has previously been established (via pretraining) as a reliable predictor of that outcome. Attentional models of associative learning suggest that blocking reflects a reduct...
Data
Syntax used for the analysis of the N1-component in the inner speech experiment (amplitude data). The data were analysed with this syntax using the program IBM SPSS Statistics (v. 23).
Article
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Efference copies refer to internal duplicates of movement-producing neural signals. Their primary function is to predict, and often suppress, the sensory consequences of willed movements. Efference copies have been almost exclusively investigated in the context of overt movements. The current electrophysiological study employed a novel design to sh...
Article
Full-text available
System memory consolidation is conceptualized as an active process whereby newly encoded memory representations are strengthened through selective memory reactivation during sleep. However, our learning experience is highly overlapping in content (i.e., shares common elements), and memories of these events are organized in an intricate network of o...
Article
The effect of retroactive interference between cues predicting the same outcome (RIBC) occurs when the behavioral expression of a cue–outcome association (e.g., A→O1) is reduced due to the later acquisition of an association between a different cue and the same outcome (e.g., B→O1). In the present experimental series, we show that this effect can b...
Article
A large body of research has shown that learning about relationships between neutral stimuli and events of significance-rewards or punishments-influences the extent to which people attend to those stimuli in future. However, different accounts of this influence differ in terms of the critical variable that is proposed to determine learned changes i...
Article
It has been suggested that attention is guided by two factors that operate during associative learning: a predictiveness principle, by which attention is allocated to the best predictors of outcomes, and an uncertainty principle, by which attention is allocated to learn about the less-known features of the environment. Recent studies have shown tha...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized, even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an 'attentional habit'. Recording event-related potentials...
Article
Full-text available
Locating a target among distractors improves when the configuration of distractors consistently cues the target’s location across search trials, an effect called contextual cuing of visual search (CC). The important issue of whether CC is automatic has previously been studied by asking whether it can occur implicitly (outside awareness). Here we as...
Article
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Propositional and associative processes have been proposed to explain human associative learning. Our main objective in this study was to evaluate whether propositional knowledge may gain control over behavior even under high time-pressure conditions, as suggested by propositional single-process models. In the experiment reported, different groups...
Article
In our study, we tested the hypothesis that feature-based and rule-based generalization involve different types of processes that may affect each other producing different results depending on time constraints and on how generalization is measured. For this purpose, participants in our experiments learned cue-outcome relationships that followed the...
Article
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It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention towards the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatmen...
Article
A cross-modal symbolic paradigm was used to elicit EEG activity related to semantic incongruence. Twenty-five undergraduate students viewed pairings of visual lexical cues (e.g., DOG) with congruent (50% of trials) or incongruent (50%) auditory nonlexical stimuli (animal vocalizations; e.g., sound of a dog woofing or a cat meowing). In one conditio...
Article
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Cognitive illusions are often associated with mental health and well-being. However, they are not without risk. This research shows they can interfere with the acquisition of evidence-based knowledge. During the first phase of the experiment, one group of participants was induced to develop a strong illusion that a placebo medicine was effective to...
Article
The neural response to positive and negative feedback differs in their event-related potentials. Most often this difference is interpreted as the result of a negative voltage deflection after negative feedback. This deflection has been referred to as the feedback-related negativity component. The reinforcement learning model of the feedback-related...
Article
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Associative theories have been widely used to explain human contingency learning. Standard experimental procedures in the field have requested verbal judgments as a measure of the cue-outcome relationships learned. According to these theories, knowledge retrieval is based on spreading activation processes. However, verbal judgments may allow or eve...
Article
In reinforcement learning (RL), discriminative stimuli (S) allow agents to anticipate the value of a future outcome, and the response that will produce that outcome. We examined this processing by recording EEG locked to S during RL. Incentive value of outcomes and predictive value of S were manipulated, allowing us to discriminate between outcome-...
Article
Extinction and its related phenomena are central to the study and development of associative learning theory. For a better understanding of the processes involved in extinction, it is important to know how general these phenomena are in different species. Extensive evidence of extinction in invertebrate species would be necessary in order to test t...
Article
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Attentional theories of associative learning and categorization propose that learning about the predictiveness of a stimulus influences the amount of attention that is paid to that stimulus. Three experiments tested this idea by looking at the extent to which stimuli that had previously been experienced as predictive or nonpredictive in a categoriz...
Article
The neural basis of feedback expectation, which is crucial in learning theory, has only been minimally studied. Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), an ERP component that appears prior to the presentation of feedback, has been proposed as being related to feedback expectation. The present study showed, for the first time, amplitude modulations of t...
Article
Current associative theories of contingency learning assume that inhibitory learning plays a part in the interference between outcomes. However, it is unclear whether this inhibitory learning results in the inhibition of the outcome representation or whether it simply counteracts previous excitatory learning so that the outcome representation is ne...
Article
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Previous research on causal learning has usually made strong claims about the relative complexity and temporal priority of some processes over others based on evidence about dissociations between several types of judgments. In particular, it has been argued that the dissociation between causal judgments and trial-type frequency information is incom...
Article
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Although it is thought that within-compound associations are necessary for the occurrence of both backward blocking and unovershadowing, it is not known whether this variable plays a similar role in mediating the two phenomena. Similarly, the roles of within-compound associations in forward blocking and in reduced overshadowing have not been tested...
Article
Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is an ERP component that distinguishes positive from negative feedback. FRN has been hypothesized to be the product of an error signal that may be used to adjust future behavior. In addition, associative learning models assume that the trial-to-trial learning of cue-outcome mappings involves the minimization of an...
Article
Full-text available
Two types of theories are usually invoked to account for cue-interaction effects in human-contingency learning, performance-based theories, such as the comparator hypothesis and statistical models, and learning-based theories, such as associative models. Interestingly, the former models predict two important cue-interaction effects, forward and bac...
Article
Full-text available
Backward blocking (BB) and interference between cues (IbC) are cue competition effects produced by very similar manipulations. In a standard BB design both effects might occur simultaneously, which implies a potential problem to study BB. In the present study with humans, the magnitude of both effects was compared using a non causal scenario and a...
Article
In the present study, we examined the differential effect on backward blocking (BB) and on interference between cues (IbC) of including a delay right before the test phase vs. between training phases 1 and 2 in humans. While models of IbC predict a spontaneous recovery (SR) of responding if the delay is placed immediately before the test instead of...
Article
Associative theories of learning have been used to explain human contingency learning since the 1980's. Recent findings have led several authors to claim that there is no evidence clearly showing the engagement of associative processes of acquisition or representation in human contingency learning, and to propose non-associative accounts. Prim-ing...
Article
Full-text available
Retroactive interference between cues trained apart was long ago studied in the psychology of memory, within the paired associate tradition. Current theories of learning, however, predict that interference between cues should not occur if they are trained elementally. Here we review the available evidence on retroactive interference between cues tr...
Article
Retroactive interference between cues trained apart was long ago studied in the Psychology of Memory, within the paired associate tradition. Current theories of learning, however, predict that interference between cues should not occur if they are trained elementally. Here we review the available evidence on retroactive interference between cues tr...
Article
Retroactive interference between cues of the same outcome (i.e., IbC) occurs when the behavioral expression of an association between a cue and an outcome (e.g., A-->O1) is reduced due to the later acquisition of an association between a different cue and the same outcome (e.g., B-->O1). Though this interference effect has been traditionally explai...
Article
In an interference-between-cues design (IbC), the expression of a learned Cue A–Outcome 1 association has been shown to be impaired if another cue, B, is separately paired with the same outcome in a second learning phase. The present study examined whether IbC could be caused by associative mechanisms independent of causal reasoning processes. This...
Article
In an interference-between-cues design, the expression of a learned Cue A --> Outcome 1 association has been shown to be impaired if another cue, B, is separately paired with the same outcome in a second learning phase. In the present study, we assessed whether this interference effect is mediated by participants' previous causal knowledge. This wa...

Citations

... In contrast, the dorsal striatum (DS), which encompasses the caudate and putamen, has been associated with compulsively driven (i.e., 'wanting') food intake [107,108]. Compulsive overeating may be characterized by insensitivity to food-related reward value (either increased or decreased) or to the presence of aversive health and emotional outcomes [109][110][111]. As such, habitual overeating, especially in clinical populations, may be understood as the result of aberrant food-reward learning -a process potentially underpinned by the shift from VS-to DS-oriented response to food-related stimulus [107,112]. ...
... Motivated by major concerns about false positive results in neuroscience in general and neuroimaging in particular (Turner et al. 2018;Pavlov et al. 2021), we split our data into pilot and confirmatory samples to finalize our analysis methods before processing the larger confirmatory sample. While a small pilot sample in itself has low statistical power, including a confirmatory sample where we narrow the hypothesis space and research degrees of freedom gives us low type-1 "false positive" error rates (see section "Statistical Power Calculation" in Supplementary Material). ...
... In other words, the persistence of the attentional bias does not necessarily imply that it is driven by an automatic and inflexible habit. Ultimately, whether or not probabilistic cuing qualifies as an attention habit depends on what is meant by a habita longstanding matter of debate and controversy itself (De Houwer, 2019;Luque & Molinero, 2021). One of the defining features of habits is that they are independent from goals and, thus, insensitive to changes in the value or the contingency of rewards (Dickinson, 1985;Wood & Rünger, 2016). ...
... All our themes are evident in their article. We also draw attention to international efforts to estimate the replicability of influential EEG experiments (Pavlov et al., 2020). These mass replication projects provide a broad overview. ...
... These temporally learned configurations then translate to long-term memory along with the learning time, subsequently guiding focal attention to the target location when learned pattern re-occurs on later occasions. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that the learning of the distractor configuration could also facilitate the target detection without the guidance to the target location (Vadillo et al., 2020a). Vadillo et al. (2020a) observed a significant contextual cueing effect in visual search even when the target location cannot be predicted by the distractors in repeated configurations (with the locations of distractors kept constant but the locations of the target changed randomly). ...
... A potential over-reliance on habitual relative to goal-directed action control may thus help explain the persistence of maladaptive behaviors such as persistent maladaptive avoidance (e.g., Wood & Rünger, 2016). The mechanisms involved in the HABITUAL AVOIDANCE IN COMPETITION WITH GOAL-DIRECTED APPROACH -PREPRINT 4 reduction of maladaptive habits are important topics in habit research (Luque & Molinero, 2020). ...
... One recent study, for example, reported ultrafast distractor rejection using natural scene stimuli (Hickey et al., 2019), suggesting that global scene information can rapidly constrain naturalistic search. Indeed, our natural environments typically contain predictive structure and regularities that can not only guide attention (Kaiser et al., 2016;Theeuwes, 2021;Võ et al., 2019), but are also informative about what can be safely ignored (Vadillo et al., 2021). Sources of initial distraction (e.g., traffic outside your new office window), may simply disappear into the background once familiar to the brain. ...
... While in triplet learning explicit knowledge regarding the sequences of visual stimuli improves performance [123] and larger search biases have been found sometimes for individuals that are aware of a target regularity in visual search [124], no such effect was reported with learning to suppress a location. In a study that explicitly tested this, it was shown that the amount of suppression was exactly the same, irrespective of whether the experimental manipulation highlighted or masked the underlying statistical regularity [48]. ...
... The cue is then presented as a distractor in a second task, so that paying attention to it interferes with the goal of responding efficiently to the target stimulus. In this context, increased response times to the target (Anderson, Laurent, & Yantis, 2011a;Le Pelley, Vadillo, & Luque, 2013;Luque, Molinero, Jevtovic, & Beesley, 2020), or increased capture of the first within-trial fixations by the distractor (Anderson & Yantis, 2012;, are taken as evidence for an automatic bias towards the distractor driven by previous learning. These effects are reminiscent of those produced by physically salient stimuli (Theeuwes, 1991(Theeuwes, , 1992Theeuwes, De Vries, & Godijn, 2003). ...