David B. Larson's research while affiliated with Virginia College and other places

Publications (127)

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Using data gathered for 4,377 patients hospitalized on either a specialty geropsychiatric unit or a general psychiatric inpatient unit, over a six year period (1982-1987), the present study compares younger patients to older patients on diagnostic, demographic, and service data. From these comparisons emerge a number of diagnostic and service relat...
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A series of systematic reviews has revealed relatively high levels of interest in religion and spirituality in different nursing specialties, but not in general nursing research journals. To identify the extent to which spirituality and religiousness were measured in all quantitative and qualitative research articles published in Research in Nursin...
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This book, the first of its kind, reviews and discusses the full range of research on religion and a variety of mental and physical health outcomes. Based on this research, the authors build theoretical models illustrating the various behavioural, psychological, and physiological pathways by which religion might affect health. They also review rese...
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This article summarizes a review of all articles published in Pastoral Psychology, The Journal of Rleigion and Health, and The Journal of Pastoral Care between 1900 and 1999, identifying a total of 737 scholarly articles, of which 165 (22.4%) were research studies. The proportion of research studies, especially quantitative studies, increased signi...
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The role of religion in mental illness remains understudied. Most prior investigations of this relationship have used measures of religiosity that do not reflect its complexity and/or have examined a small number of psychiatric outcomes. This study used data from a general population sample to clarify the dimensions of religiosity and the relations...
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There has been increasing recognition and acceptance of the importance of addressing existential and spiritual suffering as an important and necessary component of palliative medicine and end-of-life care in the United States. This paper seeks to. empirically and systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research ba...
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Longitudinal studies of community samples consistently find links between active spiritual/religious involvement and increased chances for living longer, pointing to the relevance of spirituality/religion as a potential health factor. For a large proportion of either medically ill or mental health patients, spirituality/religion may provide coping...
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A review of quantitative research studies published between 1995 and 1999 in six major marriage and family academic journals revealed that 13.2% (114 of 864) included a measure of religion. This percentage (13.2%) is higher than that found in previous reviews of empirical research in psychological and psychiatric journals, suggesting that marriage...
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There is increasing research evidence that religious involvement is associated both cross-sectionally and prospectively with better physical health, better mental health, and longer survival. These relationships remain substantial in size and statistically significant with other risk and protective factors for morbidity and mortality statistically...
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The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping,...
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Longitudinal studies published during the past 30 years have found significant associations between frequent attendance at religious services and reduced risk of early mortality among community populations and in some patient populations such as those undergoing surgery. Since 1997, studies investigating the relationship between religious attendanc...
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An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to find studies on mortality rates among clergy. A total of twelve studies, published between 1959 and 2000, were identified that examined mortality among American and European clergy. All but one of the reports found lower all-cause death rates for clergy compared to the people in general population o...
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Research indicates that religion may have a positive effect on coping and possibly enhance clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine the level of religious interest of psychiatric inpatients and to assess whether religious commitment has an impact on selected outcome variables. There were 88 consecutive adult patients (50% men) who were admit...
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The authors reviewed the literature on mental health issues among clergy and other religious professionals, using electronic searches of databases of medical (Medline), nursing (CINAHL), psychology (PsycINFO), religious (ATLA), and sociological research (Sociofile). The existing research indicates the Protestant clergy report higher levels of occup...
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Spirituality has been receiving increased attention in health care in recent years. Surveys have identified that patients want their spiritual beliefs addressed in the clinical setting. Data suggests that spirituality may be helpful to people as they cope with serious illness and life events. Medical educators are recognizing spirituality as a core...
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Responds to R. P. Sloan and E. Bagiella's (see record 2001-06506-009)comments on the M. E. McCullough, et al (see record 2000-03769-001) article regarding religious involvement and morality. McCullough et al note that Sloan and Bagiella compared their findings with results from individual studies of hopelessness and physical activity that used cr...
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To review and discuss some of the research published in the last several decades that has addressed the role that religion plays in helping patients cope with serious medical illness. Although this is not a systematic review of the literature, it provides a sampling of the studies that have examined the relationship between religious involvement, c...
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive...
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This study reexamines the relevance of religiosity to the etiology of delinquency, given the inconsistent and inconclusive evidence found in the literature. Like previous researchers, the authors test whether the effects of religiosity on delinquency are spurious or completely indirect via social bonding, social learning, and sociodemographic varia...
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We examine the degree to which an individual's religious involvement significantly mediates and buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on youth crime. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the fifth wave of data from the National Youth Survey, focusing on black respondents given the historical as well as contemporary significance of the Africa...
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Spirituality and religion have been seen as beneficial, harmful, and irrelevant to health. We examine the recent research on this topic. We focus on (a) defining spirituality and religion both conceptually and operationally; (b) the relationships between spirituality/religion and health; and (c) priorities for future research. Although the effect s...
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A variety of research has documented the association between various measures of religion/ spirituality and physical health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this topic. The paper also discusses the mechanisms that are thought to underlie the associations found in the literature. Further, the paper presents several...
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With the theoretical backdrop of social disorganization and “resilient youth” perspectives, we hypothesize that individual religiosity is protective in helping at-risk youths such as those living in poor inner-city areas to escape from drug use and other illegal activities. To test this hypothesis, we draw data from an interview survey of 2,358 you...
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A meta-analysis of data from 42 independent samples examining the association of a measure of religious involvement and all-cause mortality is reported. Religious involvement was significantly associated with lower mortality (odds ratio = 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.39), indicating that people high in religious involvement were more likel...
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A meta-analysis of data from 42 independent samples examining the association of a measure of religious involvement and all-cause mortality is reported. Religious involvement was significantly associated with lower mortality (odds ratio = 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.20–1.39), indicating that people high in religious involvement were more likel...
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Clinical studies are beginning to clarify how spirituality and religion can contribute to the coping strategies of many patients with severe, chronic, and terminal conditions. The ethical aspects of physician attention to the spiritual and religious dimensions of patients' experiences of illness require review and discussion. Should the physician d...
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A review of quantitative research studies published between 1992 and 1996 in five major adolescent journals revealed that 11.8% (109 of 922) included a measure of religion. This percentage (11.8%) is 3 to 10 times higher than that found in previous reviews of empirical research in psychological and psychiatric journals, suggesting that adolescent r...
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The influence of religion on delinquency has been debated for more than 30 years, and yet, there remains a lack of consensus about the nature of this relationship. In an effort to bring some clarity to this area, this study assesses the religion-delinquency literature by using a methodological approach to reviewing a body of literature that is new...
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A probability sample of 3,968 community-dwelling adults aged 64-101 years residing in the Piedmont of North Carolina was surveyed in 1986 as part of the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) program of the National Institutes of Health. Attendance at religious services and a wide variety of sociodemographic an...
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This paper reviews the existing research on mortality among members of specific religious faiths in comparison with the general population and examines the methods used to ascertain and categorize religious affiliation in mortality research. Having obtained these studies by using standard literature retrieval methods, we then noted the methods used...
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We reviewed data from approximately 80 published and unpublished studies that examined the association of religious affiliation or involvement with depressive symptoms or depressive disorder. In these studies, religion was measured as religious affiliation; general religious involvement; organizational religious involvement; prayer or private relig...
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Controlled intervention studies offer considerable promise to better understand relationships and possible mechanisms between spiritual and religious factors and health. Studies examining spiritually augmented cognitive-behavioral therapies, forgiveness interventions, different meditation approaches, 12-step fellowships, and prayer have provided so...
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Authors examined effects of depressive symptoms on after-discharge survival of hospitalized medically ill male veterans. Psychosocial and physical health evaluations were performed on a consecutive sample of 1,001 patients ages 20-39 (16%) and 65-102 years (84%). Subjects or surviving family members were later contacted by telephone, and Cox propor...
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This chapter discusses the future directions in research on religion and mental health. The research on religion and mental health has been a source of sustained scientific interest for many researchers since the early 1980s. This vigorous activity has, almost through brute force, raised a general awareness among many scholars that a curious and pe...
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According to this review, religion plays a largely positive role in mental health; future research on severe mental disorders should include religious factors more directly.
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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between religious activities and cigarette smoking in community-dwelling older adults. Cigarette smoking and religious activities were assessed in a probability sample of 3968 persons age 65 years or older participating in the Duke Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPES...
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We examined the relationship between religious attendance, religious affiliation, and use of acute hospital services by older medical patients. Religious affiliation (n = 542) and church attendance (n = 455) were examined in a consecutive sample of medical patients aged 60 or older admitted to Duke University Medical Center. Information on use of a...
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Objective: To examine the effects of religious affiliation and religious coping on survival of acutely-hospitalized medically-ill male veterans following discharge. Sample and Methods: Between 1987 and 1989, comprehensive psychosocial and physical-health evaluations were performed on a consecutive sample of 1010 patients ages 20–39 and 65–102 years...
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To examine the relationship between religious activities and blood pressure in community-dwelling older adults. Blood pressure and religious activities were assessed in a probability sample of 3,963 persons age sixty-five years or older participating in the Duke EPESE survey. Participants were asked if their doctor had ever informed them that they...
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The authors conducted a systematic review of research on religion in seven major American Psychological Association Journals and found that from 1991 to 1994, 62 of 2,302 (2.7%) quantitative studies include a religious or spiritual variable. In most cases (79%), measures consisted only of a single religious question. Only 18 of the 62 (29%) studies...
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To better understand the role of clergy in relation to the practice of psychology, a systematic review of research on clergy in 8 major American Psychological Association journals was conducted. From 1991 to 1994, 4 of 2,468 (0.02%) quantitative studies considered clergy in their data. This examination of the literature suggests that psychology lac...
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To better understand the role of clergy in relation to the practice of psychology a systematic review of research on clergy in 8 major American Psychological Association journals was conducted. From 1991 to 1994 4 of 2,468 (0.02%) quantitative studies considered clergy in their data. This examination of the literature suggests that psychology lacks...
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First, to examine and explain the relationship between religious service attendance and plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and second, to examine the relationship between religious attendance and other immune-system regulators and inflammatory substances. During the third in-person interview (1992) of the Establishment of Populations for Epidemiol...
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This study examines the impact of religious programs on institutional adjustment and recidivism rates in two matched groups of inmates from four adult male prisons in New York State. One group had participated in programs sponsored by Prison Fellowship (PF); the other had no involvement with PF. PF and non-PF inmates are similar on measures of inst...
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The understanding of adjustment to aging calls for models that illustrate the interaction of psychosocial and health factors. The authors surveyed a group of retired Catholic sisters, examining the contributions of psychosocial factors and religiousness to life satisfaction, psychological distress, and depression. Life satisfaction was best explain...
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This article calls for greater collaboration between clergy and marriage and family therapists. It spells out the reasons for potential collaboration and suggests some specific ways it can occur. Marriage and family therapists acknowledge the highest rates of religious involvement of any mental health profession, placing them in a unique position t...
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This study was undertaken to assess the life views, practices, values, and aspirations of women with various stages of gynecologic cancer. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 108 women with various stages of cancer and 39 women with benign gynecologic disease. The questionnaire included items on demographics in addition to 16 multipl...
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The authors examined models of the relationships between religious activities, physical health, social support, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 4,000 persons age 65 and over. Religious activity was examined first as a single composite construct and then split into three component variables that were examined individually. Religious activity...
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: {L-End} The authors used the 1982 and 1988-89 American Psychiatric Association's Professional Activities Surveys (PAS) to describe changes in selected characteristics of United States psychiatrists treating patients age 65 and older. High geriatric case volume (HGCV) categories were considered if these exceeded 20% during the last typical full wo...
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Depression is a common disorder in the primary care setting; it is associated with considerable distress and dysfunction. The management of depressed primary care patients can be complicated by the fact that these patients may lack insight into the cause of their symptoms and report only the somatic manifestations of their disorder to their physici...
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Few reports in gynecologic literature have addressed patient preferences about terminal care. In light of the current discussions about end-of-life decision-making, a study was designed to assess the desires of patients with gynecologic cancer. A questionnaire was completed by 108 patients under treatment for gynecologic cancer at the University of...
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(AHCPR) has recently published clinical practice guidelines for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care. 6 The guidelines stipulate that two forms of counseling, patient education and psychotherapy, are of value in treating patients with major depressive disorder. The AHCPR's guidelines recommend that ps...
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This study documents the portrayal of religion on fictional prime time network television by determining the frequency and distribution of religious membership, the range of religious behaviors, and the valence (positive or negative), salience (importance), and context (humorous or serious) of the religious behaviors engaged in by speaking characte...
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The authors conducted a systematic review of research on religion in three major gerontology journals and found that from 1985 to 1991, 78 of 2,127 (3.6%) quantitative studies included a religious variable. In most cases (71%), measures consisted only of a single question, usually on religious denomination. Only 18% of the studies with a religious...
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Benzodiazepines are one of the most frequently prescribed classes of medications in the world. Thought to relieve the symptoms of anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, and some less common conditions, these medications are supported by a body of clinical trials demonstrating efficacy. However, there is also literature that suggests problems of abuse and dep...
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The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA-87) established criteria for Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes to use in admitting or retaining mentally ill patients. In effect, the law created five dispositional categories for residents or potential residents of nursing homes. Using data from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey c...
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Depressed primary care patients experience considerable morbidity and dysfunction. Results from the Medical Outcome Study revealed that patients with depressive symptoms reported as much or more pain and dysfunction than did patients with any of the eight other chronic medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, coronary artery disease) studied, a Depress...
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Data were obtained on patients' attribution of symptoms using two different post-marketing surveillance methods. In the patient-initiated method, outpatients were randomly assigned to have a printed notice conspicuously attached to the outside of their medication bags; the "outsert" requested the patients to monitor themselves during the next 2 wee...
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The issue of parental involvement in an adolescent's decision to abort a pregnancy is complex and controversial. Consequently, the impact of legislation to mandate parental involvement is reviewed. Although the costs of such legislation are high, there are at least three important clinical benefits. First, a legal mandate will require many adolesce...
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A series of 511 consultations to a psychiatric consultation-liaison service was studied. Patients diagnosed with substance abuse disorders were found more likely to be younger, male, and nonwhite. Payer status was not significantly different. Psychiatric consultants' recommendations for substance abuse patients more often consisted of aftercare ref...