David A. Ross's research while affiliated with University of Alberta and other places

Publications (88)

Article
Patients with psychiatric illness present a unique challenge to clinicians: in contrast to the traditional medical model, in which patients are conceptualised as being stricken by a disease, patients with certain psychiatric illnesses may seem complicit in the illness. Questions of free will, choice and the role of the physician can cause clinician...
Article
Objective: Individual residency programs often struggle to keep pace with scientific advances and new training requirements. Integrating a modern neuroscience perspective into the clinical practice of psychiatry is particularly emblematic of these challenges. The National Neuroscience Curriculum Initiative (NNCI) was established in 2013 to develop...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with psychiatric illness often present a unique challenge to medical students: in contrast to some medical conditions, in which patients may seem to be stricken by a disease, patients with certain psychiatric illnesses may seem complicit with the illness. Questions of free will, choice, and the role of the physician can quickly become over...
Article
Background This is an exciting time in psychiatry. For the last few years, we have been witnessing an accelerated pace of genetic discoveries that are redefining our understanding of mental health disorders spanning from autism to schizophrenia. Insights have come from common and rare genetics alike, fueled by techniques that have a higher resoluti...
Article
The International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG) created a Residency Education Committee with the purpose of identifying key genetic knowledge that should be taught in psychiatric training programs. Thirteen committee members were appointed by the ISPG Board of Directors, based on varied training, expertise, gender, and national origin. The...
Article
Purpose: A large body of literature has demonstrated racial and gender disparities in the physician workforce, but limited data are available regarding the potential origins of these disparities. To that end, the authors evaluated the effects of race and gender on Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society (AOA) and Gold Humanism Honor Society (GHHS)...
Article
Objectives: Residency is a critical step in the professional development of physicians. Given the high stakes of the process, it is not surprising, although nonetheless troubling, that professional misconduct may occur: multiple studies have, rightfully, condemned applicants for plagiarising personal statements or misrepresenting publications. To...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The transition from medical school to residency is a critical step in the careers of physicians. Because of the standardized application process–wherein schools submit summative Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPE’s)–it also represents a unique opportunity to assess the possible prevalence of racial and gender disparities, as show...
Article
A young man was referred by his Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care provider to the outpatient mental health clinic due to concerns for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. He served in the military for 4 years, including a 6-month tour in Iraq. While in Iraq he worked as an assault vehicle operator and was involved in frequent foot...
Article
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integ...
Article
As psychiatrists, we are asked to treat patients with extremely complex illnesses. There are many possible ways to think about and formulate cases, including a range of psychological and social perspectives, each with their own strengths and limitations. To varying degrees, these perspectives have rightfully guided the development of our field and...
Article
Importance: Previous studies have found racial and ethnic inequities in the receipt of academic awards, such as promotions and National Institutes of Health research funding, among academic medical center faculty. Few data exist about similar racial/ethnic disparities at the level of undergraduate medical education. Objective: To examine the ass...
Article
Objective: Traditional, lecture-based methods of teaching pharmacology may not translate into the skills needed to communicate effectively with patients about medications. In response, the authors developed an interactive course for third-year psychiatry residents to reinforce prescribing skills. Methods: Residents participate in a facilitated g...
Article
Objective The authors assessed psychiatric trainees’ understanding of recovery-oriented care, a therapeutic philosophy with varied meanings but wide purchase in contemporary mental health policy. Methods Four cohorts of residents were presented with a clinical vignette as part of a written curricular evaluation and asked what it would mean to engag...
Article
Objective The authors sought to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating small private online course (SPOC) technology with flipped classroom techniques in order to improve neuroscience education across diverse training sites. Methods Post-graduate medical educators used SPOC web conferencing software and video technology to implement an integrat...
Article
Being a physician is intrinsically stressful. Due to the steep learning curve in knowledge acquisition, long hours on call, and profound increase in the level of responsibility during residency, this may be the most stressful part of a physician’s training. As there are considerable data linking stress to the onset of depression, anxiety, and subst...
Article
In 2012, Thomas Insel,¹ director of the National Institute of Mental Health, wrote an essay entitled The Future of Psychiatry ( = Clinical Neuroscience), echoing a familiar trope in our field.² The themes he described then are even more relevant today. Technologic advances have enhanced our ability to study the brain, and new findings have reshaped...
Article
The authors describe the development and implementation of a new adult psychiatry residency didactic curriculum based on adult learning principles and an integrative, patient-centered approach that includes a progressive 4-year neuroscience curriculum. The authors describe the process of conducting a needs assessment, engaging stakeholders and deve...
Article
As part of the National Resident Matching Program, programs must submit a rank order list of desired applicants. Despite the importance of this process and the numerous manifest limitations with traditional approaches, minimal research has been conducted to examine the accuracy of different ranking strategies. The authors developed the Moore Optimi...

Citations

... This could be explained by impairments in basic visual functione.g perception of contrast, speed and orientationthat have been found in individuals with psychosis and clinical high risk groups, in laboratory settings (Türközer and Ross, 2021). Saccadic eye movement and deficits in smooth pursuit eye movement, which allow to track objects in motion, have thus been established as a biomarker for psychosis (Brakemeier et al., 2020). ...
... The COVID-19 pandemic has been a cause of significant psychological stress for most individuals, and social factors such as isolation, anxiety, and financial difficulties have been implicated in playing a role in the development of various neuropsychiatric complications [3]. In addition to these pandemic-associated social stresses, biological complications include direct viral encephalitis, autoimmune-mediated responses, medication side effects, hypoxic brain injury, and delirium, which can collectively cause varied presentations of neuropsychiatric symptoms [4]. Neuropsychiatric complications have been reported in the acute stages of COVID-19 and post-infection period. ...
... However, the DA hypothesis has been criticized. For example, around 1/3 of the patients do not respond to the DA-blocking antipsychotics (Bartley & Ross, 2020;Ichinose & Park, 2020). Further, these drugs have only a limited effect on negative and cognitive symptoms (Ichinose & Park, 2020). ...
... Impulsivity is a complex psychological phenotype which presents a central role in many mental disorders ( Blum and Ross, 2020 ). According to Moeller et al. (2001) impulsivity has been widely defined as action without forethought or conscious judgment, behavior without adequate thought and the tendency to act with less forethought than do most individuals of equal intellectual ability. ...
... But when the scientific tools of his day proved inadequate for such an undertaking, Freud's work shifted to exploring psychological models in greater depth (Northoff 2012). His work developing psychotherapy and psychoanalysis set in motion a splitbrain from mindthat, following the advent of electroencephalography (EEG), would ultimately lead to the separation of neurology and psychiatry (Eloge 2020). Ironically, for someone who set out to integrate the field, he may have inadvertently exacerbated the severe dualism that would become cemented in psychiatry for another 100 years. ...
... Much of it may have to do with how it is perceived in our culture. Perhaps because of the insidious impact of dualism-in which mind and brain are treated as separate-something called mindfulness seems antithetical to biological psychiatry (9). Similarly, there may be a tension between modern medicine and an intervention that is connected to spiritual traditions (especially when it is enthusiastically embraced by New Age gurus). ...
... Pain intensification during opioid withdrawal is also associated with relapse risk (37,38). If a patient recovering from OUD is exposed to a nociceptive stimulus, the increased pain sensitivity can motivate opioid use, and thus, perpetuate the addictive cycle (39). Distress is another critical risk factor of return to opioid use (28,29,34). ...
... The authors chose these topics due to the ability to cover innovative areas in both psychiatry and neurology (e.g., autoimmune encephalitis in the NMDA receptor section), areas of emerging research and clinical practice development ("frontiers"; [1]), and highlight diseases and treatment not emphasized elsewhere in the medical school curriculum. Each topic also allows for explicit connection between either scientific research (basic or clinical) and clinical practice [5]. A portion of the course is devoted to strengthening skills in critical review of the literature and evidencebased practice, including research methods and design, consistent with the skills necessary for neuroscience literacy [1], with the goal of fostering life-long learning [2]. ...
... The individual differences present before, during, and after the traumatic event play a determinant role on how this event will be processed [1]. One example of these personal differences in perception and processing is that police killings of unarmed African-American individuals seem to negatively impact the mental health of African-American spectators, but rarely lead to such responses in Caucasian Americans [2]. Stress influences brain functioning, stirring the modulation of cognitive faculties, either in a positive or protective matter by increasing the individual's ability to mentally rebound from adversity (mental resilience), or in a negative way in the form of excessive and persistent stress that can overwhelm the compensatory system, leading to psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [1,3,4]. ...
... As childhood is a critical time for brain growth and development, exposure to childhood adversities (CAs) can increase the risk of mental health problems in adulthood, and increase the likelihood of encountering stressful events in later life (Infurna et al., 2016). In this context, numerous studies have documented the effects of childhood trauma and adversities on mental health, both in terms of epidemiological factors and possible molecular biological mechanisms (Walker et al., 2019). ...