David A. Ralston's research while affiliated with American University Washington D.C. and other places

Publications (95)

Article
We investigate the relationships between gender-role-orientation (i.e., androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated) and subjective career success among business professionals from 36 societies. Drawing on the resource management perspective, we predict that androgynous individuals will report the highest subjective career success, follow...
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Since the days of Hofstede (1980), cross-cultural comparisons of countries based on societal-level work values have been a norm. This approach has been represented more recently in Ronen and Shenkar’s (2013) 11 clusters of country cultures. However, more contemporary research found within-country heterogeneity of values/behaviors is substantial and...
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In this study, we assess the internal and external validity of Gelfand et al.’s (2011) recently developed measure of cultural tightness-looseness (CTL). Our study is composed of six countries (China, Mexico, Netherlands Russia, Spain, U.S.) with three subsamples (business professionals, K-12 teachers, college students) per country. For these 18 sub...
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In this study, we assess the internal and external validity of Gelfand et al.’s (2011) recently developed measure of cultural tightness-looseness (CTL). Our study is composed of six countries (China, Mexico, Netherlands Russia, Spain, U.S.) with three subsamples (business professionals, K-12 teachers, college students) per country. For these 18 sub...
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This multilevel study investigated the effect of national institutional environments on the relationship between corporate responsibility practices and financial performance in multiple European countries, controlling for firmlevel predictors. By doing so, we demonstrate that neither institutional theory nor stakeholder theory is adequate to invest...
Preprint
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This multilevel study investigated the effect of national institutional environments on the relationship between corporate responsibility practices and financial performance in multiple European countries, controlling for firm-level predictors. By doing so, we demonstrate that neither institutional theory nor stakeholder theory is adequate to inves...
Article
We examine the direct relationships for both individual values and organizational-level culture on the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) in a multilevel, multi-society study. In addition, we investigate the moderating roles of organizational- and societal-level cultures. Using 2343 respondents from 12 samples, we performed hierarchical linear...
Preprint
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In this multilevel study, we examine the direct relationships for both individual values and organizational-level culture on the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX). In addition, we investigate the moderating roles of organizational- and societal-level cultures. Using 2,343 respondents from 12 samples, we performed hierarchical linear modelling...
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Many single-country studies have examined compatibility between the individual values of the employee and organizational cultural values, typically referred to as person-organization (P-O) fit. However, little progress has been made in understanding whether P-O fit relationships generalize across countries and, if so, whether and how societal value...
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In this study, we investigate the nature of values change of business professionals in four powerbroker countries (China, Japan, Russia, United States) over a two-decade period (1992–2011; Young, Ahlstrom, Bruton, & Rubanik, 2011). We revisit the crossvergence argument for values evolution as initially proposed by Ralston, Gustafson, Cheung, and Te...
Article
Using a stratified random sample drawn from 11,709 business professionals’ survey responses across 26 societies, we investigated and failed to find support for the construct validity of the Schwartz Values Survey's (SVS) a priori 10-factor circumplex model of human values, originally developed from student and teacher responses. Subsequent explorat...
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This study examines changes in values of Chinese professionals across high, moderate, and low development regions between 1993/94 and 2004/05 and as such explores values in China’s recent past. The 1993/94 to 2004/05 period was crucial during China’s evolution from a socialist state to one more open to capitalism. The foundation of our investigatio...
Article
Numerous studies have investigated between-country cultural differences. However, the subnational cultural differences, particularly in emerging markets, have remained an underexplored research topic despite its importance. Likewise, multiperiod studies in the cross-cultural management area have also remained an underexplored topic. This study conc...
Article
How does length of exposure to communism, the communist footprint, affect individuals’ influence behaviors at work today? While imprinting theory has debated how exposure/lack thereof to communism—communist imprint—affects individuals, it has disregarded the exposure’s length. We show that the shorter the communist footprint, the less negative prof...
Article
Purpose A large and growing number of researchers set out to cross-culturally examine empirical relationships. The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers, who are new to multicountry investigations, a discussion of the issues that one needs to address in order to be properly prepared to begin the cross-cultural analyses of relationships....
Article
While there has been some increased scholarship on CSR in developing countries, and new insights into the cultural and local specifics of CSR engagement, there is need for additional research that can inform a more nuanced and sophisticated research agenda that links to public policy and development goals in more substantive ways. Various authors h...
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Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and i...
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Research on corporate responsibility (CR), a topic that has grown in importance over the past few decades, has focused primarily on developed countries. In this study, we look to the future and direct our attention to the values/attitudes of business professionals in two high-growth economies of the Asia Pacific; namely, China and India. These two...
Article
This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of institutions and national culture on corporate social responsibility (CSR) values and managerial values. in the Finno-Ugrian countries of Estonia, Finland, and Hungary. Finno Ugrian countries provided an institutional window since their beginnings as similar in heritage and subsequent d...
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Full-text available
Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and i...
Article
Scholarly interest in culturally-driven determinants of ethical behavior has grown substantially in recent years. This phenomenon is due to increasing pressure placed on top management teams of multinational firms to ensure high moral standards. One theory that has been overlooked in culture-based business ethics research is generational subculture...
Article
Our study tested the predictive power of socioeconomic development theory and age differences theory to explain work values across cultures and across age groups. We compared the values orientations of future managers, business students under the age of 25, with those of current managers and professionals, who we split into three decade groups (30...
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Our study of the cultural values of managers in the Greater Middle East uses a unique sample of 989 respondents across seven countries (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Pakistan, Turkey, and the UAE). The primary focus of our paper is the assessment of the differences and similarities in collectivism, individualism, and universalism values within t...
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We explore macro-level factors that shape perceptions of the ethicality of favors in Asian workplaces using the subordinate influence ethics (SIE) measure. We also expand and use the crossvergence model to examine the cross-level relationship between socio-cultural (i.e., traditional/secular; survival/self-expression; in-group favoritism) and busin...
Article
To what extent does the Anglo Cluster remains a cultural cluster in today's managerial and professional workforce? Across six Anglo countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, U.K., and U.S.), we found significant differences in values orientations (openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence values) that...
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This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex v...
Article
This study tested the predictive power of cultural differences theory and life stage theory to explain work values across age groups and cultures. We compared the values orientations of future managers (N = 768) with those of current mid-career managers and professionals (N = 726) across six diverse societies: Brazil, Germany, Indonesia, Russia, th...
Article
The purpose of our article is to describe the initial development process of the subordinate influence ethics (SIE) measure, an instrument that was cross- culturally conceived, designed, and validity tested to measure upward influence ethics strategies of professional subordinates across different societies, as well as within a single society. Deve...
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This study investigated the attitudes toward social, economic, and environmental corporate responsibilities of 3064 current managers and business students in 8 european countries. Participants in Western European countries had significantly different perspectives on the importance of these corporate responsibilities (CR) than those in central and e...
Article
This paper sequentially addresses a conceptual and an empirical goal. Our conceptual goal was to develop a globally relevant model of the relationship between work role stressors and strain using conservation of resources (COR) theory as our foundation. Stressors included in the model are role conflict and role ambiguity, with three resources – mas...
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In this paper, we investigate the effects of societal values and life stage on subordinate influence ethics. Based on the evolving crossvergence theory of macro-level predictors of values evolution, we demonstrate the applicability of crossvergence theory in the micro-level context. Furthermore, our study provides the first empirical multi-level an...
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With a 41-society sample of 9990 managers and professionals, we used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the impact of both macro-level and micro-level predictors on subordinate influence ethics. While we found that both macro-level and micro-level predictors contributed to the model definition, we also found global agreement for a subordin...
Article
Our review of corporate responsibility (CR) research in International Management journals during the past decade identified 321 articles of interest. We categorized and bibliographically referenced these articles to provide a foundation for future research in this arena. Our categorization scheme consisted of categorizing articles into one of the f...
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In this retrospective, I chronicle the development of the crossvergence theory of values evolution, which states: it is the dynamic interaction of the sociocultural influences with the business ideology influences that provides the driving force to precipitate the development of new and unique values systems in societies. Crossvergence theory was i...
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This cross-national study investigates antecedents and outcomes of corporate responsibility (CR) practices to stakeholders and the natural environment in the contrasting contexts of China and the US. In general, we found partial support for the proposition that the divergence of CR stakeholder practices across nations is dependent on the institutio...
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Malgré la diffusion du concept de développement durable dans les instances internationales, la sensibilité écologique ou sociale varie beaucoup d’un pays à un autre : alors qu’elle culmine dans certains pays elle est quasi absente dans d’autres. Si différentes raisons sont évoquées pour expliquer ces différences internationales, la littérature se f...
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In this empirical study of work values differences between Cuba and the United States, the data reveal findings that confirm the expectations of the conventional wisdom on individualism for a comparison between a Latin culture-communist system and an Anglo culture-capitalist system. However, the study findings for collectivism defy this conventiona...
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Advocates for a social Europe are worried that the accession of ex-Eastern Bloc countries into the European Community would lead European corporations to emphasize a financial orientation rather than a societal orientation. We examined this question in a study of the values orientations of 3,836 managers in 16 countries representing established EU,...
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This study examines the influence of economic and political factors that contribute to the convergence and/or divergence in value priorities of five East Asian societies—China, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. We find that political and social-economic factors influence the values orientations of managers within this region. However,...
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This paper raises the question and provides empirical evidence regarding the status of the evolution of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in China today. In this study, we compare the SOEs to domestic private-owned enterprises (POEs) and foreign-controlled businesses (FCBs) in the context of their organizational cultures. While a new ownership for...
Conference Paper
We found that regardless of individual differences in individualistic values orientation, societal individualism moderates gender differences on views regarding self-indulgent upward influence. In more individualistic societies, where relationships are viewed in relation to self and expectations are negotiated, female managers are more accepting of...
Article
This study investigated cross-national gender differences in attitudes toward strategies of upward influence across 16 diverse countries. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for significant economic and socio-cultural moderators on these relationships, while controlling for demographic and organizational characteristics. Overall, compared...
Article
This special topic forum, commissioned to stimulate theory development on building effective networks, contains eleven papers spanning the micro, meso, macro, and meta levels of analysis. Each paper breaks new ground; collectively, they suggest that we are at a crossroads in network research. Important opportunities remain, however, for further wor...
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This study presents a 12-year (1989¥V2001) longitudinal comparison of managerial values systems in China, Hong Kong, and the U.S. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we test the validity of the three competing perspectives ¥V convergence, divergence, and crossvergence ¥V on values system evolution in these three societies. We use the sociocultural...
Article
We explore the ethical facets of within-company upward influence behavior. Our focus is Vietnam, where only minimal research has been conducted, with comparison data from China, France, and the US—countries that have had both past and present relationships with Vietnam. Our hypotheses are developed within the contexts of the historical, business id...
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A comparison of the influence style ethics in Thailand and the U.S. for managers in two life stage (age) groups, early adulthood and middle adulthood is presented. Our findings confirm that Eastern and Western cultures emphasize different influence styles. Our findings also indicate that life stage is as important as culture, and possibly more impo...
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This study investigated perspectives on corporate environmental and social responsibilities of 5539 managers and professionals in 22 countries. In particular, we studied the influence of personal values (individualism, collectivism, universalism), personal characteristics (age, gender, education and organizational position level), organizational ch...
Article
This study investigated the generation cohort value orientations of 774 Chinese and 784 U.S. managers and professionals. The three Chinese generations (Consolidation, Cultural Revolution, Social Reform) since the establishment of Communist China were significantly more open to change and self-enhancement but less conservative and self-transcendent...
Article
We examined the neutralizing effects of political skill on relationships between per-ceived role conflict and strain. Strain was measured as psychological anxiety, somatic complaints, and physiological strain (heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Results support the moderating effects of political skill: greater political skill re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigated perceptions of corporate environmental and social responsibilities of 5,539 managers and professionals in 22 countries. . In particular, we studied the influence of personal values (individualism, collectivism, universalism), personal characteristics (age, gender, education and organizational position level), organizational...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated perceptions of corporate enviromnental and social responsibilities of 5,539 managers and professionals in 22 countries. In particular, we studied the influence of personal values (individualism, collectivism, universalism), personal characteristics (age, gender, education and organizational position level), organizational ch...
Article
Cross-national studies of job stress have not kept pace with other streams of research in the international milieu. To begin to address this lack of development, we examined the relationships among role stressors, general self-efficacy (GSE), and burnout across nine regions (i.e., U.S., Germany, France, Brazil, Israel, Japan, China, Hong Kong, and...
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We begin with a review of the upward influence literature for the past twenty years. In particular, we examine the extent to which upward influence behavior is congruent with the value dimensions proposed in the established values research and the extent to which the U.S. based measures are applicable in the Asian context. A model of cross-cultural...
Article
The paper compares the extent and content of businesses' communications about corporate social responsibility (CSR) in France, the Netherlands, the U.K., and the U.S. In particular, the study investigates the nature of CSR principles, processes, and stakeholder issues discussed in web pages. The results show that businesses in the four countries do...
Article
The authors examine six cultures from the three economic centers of the world: Europe (Germany and the Netherlands), Asia (Hong Kong and India), and the Americas (Mexico and the United States). The findings from this exploratory study begin to identify patterns of influence strategies across cultures that are in part consistent with the existing cr...
Article
The shortage of qualified managers to assign to overseas positions has necessitated rethinking of the viable candidates pools. A relatively new group of global managers have emerged, inpatriate managers. These are foreign nationals and third-country nationals who are relocated to the organization's domestic headquarters to serve as a “linking-pin”...
Article
Research examining the tactics used to influence others has served as a significant line of inquiry over the past two decades. Critical to this stream of work has been the development of measures used to assess the frequency of upward influence tactics. This article reexamines a taxonomy and instrumentation originally presented by Kipnis et al. and...
Article
Research examining the tactics used to influence others has served as a significant line of inquiry over the past two decades. Critical to this stream of work has been the development of measures used to assess the frequency of upward influence tactics. This article reexamines a taxonomy and instrumentation originally presented by Kipnis et al. and...
Article
This paper presents a cross-cultural comparison of U.S., Canadian-Anglophone, Canadian-Francophone, and Mexican managers' attitudes toward upward influence strategies. Generally, it was found that all four groups have similar perspectives in terms of the relative acceptability of various influence strategies. However, examination of absolute rating...
Article
This paper presents a cross-cultural comparison of U.S., Canadian-Anglophone, Canadian-Francophone, and Mexican managers' attitudes toward upward influence strategies. Generally, it was found that all four groups have similar perspectives in terms of the relative acceptability of various influence strategies. However, examination of absolute rating...
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Full-text available
We examine managerial work values and subsequent behaviors of Vietnamese managers that foreign investors may face doing business in Vietnam. To establish a global reference-point, we compare the managerial values of Vietnamese managers with those of Chinese and U.S. managers. The findings from this exploratory study, while not always intuitive, sho...
Article
Our goal is to develop a profile of Chinese managers, and in particular a profile of the New Generation of Chinese managers. The purpose for developing this profile is primarily to provide relevant information for non-Chinese business people, especially Westerners, who plan to engage in business in China. This profile is based on measures of indivi...
Article
Independent samples were used to assess the construct validity of the Measure of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings (MIBOS) scale (K. Kumar & M. Beyerlein, 1991). The 4 samples included managerial personnel (n = 288), members of 2 professional organizations (n = 144), clerical employees (n = 110), and working students (n = 279). Thre...
Article
This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigati...