David A. Patterson's research while affiliated with University of Montana and other places

Publications (211)

Preprint
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Technology ecosystems often undergo significant transformations as they mature. For example, telephony, the Internet, and PCs all started with a single provider, but in the United States each is now served by a competitive market that uses comprehensive and universal technology standards to provide compatibility. This white paper presents our view...
Article
The evolution that serverless computing represents, the economic forces that shape it, why it could fail, and how it might fulfill its potential.
Article
A challenging aspect of Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) concerns adequately accounting for the relative value of the injured and restored or replaced resources. This issue is particularly relevant in the case of applying HEA to injured tribal trust (reservation) lands which enjoy special legal and cultural status. NOAA guidelines for HEA applica...
Preprint
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Serverless cloud computing handles virtually all the system administration operations needed to make it easier for programmers to use the cloud. It provides an interface that greatly simplifies cloud programming, and represents an evolution that parallels the transition from assembly language to high-level programming languages. This paper gives a...
Article
The unique settings of tribal lands and preferences of tribal members can complicate the effective application of standard natural resource use valuation tools within these tribal settings. We present a study which utilised referendum format contingent valuation methods to value foregone tribal use of the dioxin-contaminated Penobscot River in Main...
Article
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Applications of individual observation travel cost models have employed two alternative dependent variable specifications, (trips) and (person-trips), defined as (trips*groupsize). For 58 National Park Service data sets, willingness to pay (WTP) was estimated using both the trips and person-trips construction. Significant differences were found in...
Article
We directly compare trip willingness to pay (WTP) values between dichotomous choice contingent valuation (DCCV) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) stated preference surveys of private party Grand Canyon whitewater boaters. The consistency of DCCV and DCE estimates is debated in the literature, and this study contributes to the body of work compar...
Article
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With the increasing commoditization of computer vision, speech recognition and machine translation systems and the widespread deployment of learning-based back-end technologies such as digital advertising and intelligent infrastructures, AI (Artificial Intelligence) has moved from research labs to production. These changes have been made possible b...
Article
We directly compare trip willingness to pay (WTP) values between 1985 and 2015 stated preference surveys of private party Grand Canyon boaters using identically designed valuation methods. The temporal gap of 30 years between these two studies is well beyond that of any tests of WTP temporal stability in the literature. Comparisons were made of mea...
Article
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Scientific analyses commonly compose multiple single-process programs into a dataflow. An end-to-end dataflow of single-process programs is known as a many-task application. Typically, HPC tools are used to parallelize these analyses. In this work, we investigate an alternate approach that uses Apache Spark—a modern platform for data intensive comp...
Article
This report makes the case that a well-designed Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) can match, and even exceed, the performance and code density of existing commercial Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC) while maintaining the simplicity and cost-effectiveness that underpins the original RISC goals. We begin by comparing the dynamic instruc...
Preprint
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Toil is portable, open-source workflow software that supports contemporary workflow definition languages and can be used to securely and reproducibly run scientific workflows efficiently at large-scale. To demonstrate Toil, we processed over 20,000 RNA-seq samples to create a consistent meta-analysis of five datasets free of computational batch eff...
Article
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The impressively low cost and improved quality of genome sequencing provides to researchers of genetic diseases, such as cancer, a powerful tool to better understand the underlying genetic mechanisms of those diseases and treat them with effective targeted therapies. Thus, a number of projects today sequence the DNA of large patient populations eac...
Article
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We conducted bird surveys in 10 of the first 11 years following a mixed-severity fire in a dry, low-elevation mixed-conifer forest in western Montana, United States. By defining fire in terms of fire severity and time-since-fire, and then comparing detection rates for species inside 15 combinations of fire severity and time-since-fire, with their r...
Article
The world’s genomics data will never be stored in a single repository – rather, it will be distributed among many sites in many countries. No one site will have enough data to explain genotype to phenotype relationships in rare diseases; therefore, sites must share data. To accomplish this, the genetics community must forge common standards and pro...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific analyses commonly compose multiple single-process programs into a dataflow. An end-to-end dataflow of single-process programs is known as a many-task application. Typically, tools from the HPC software stack are used to parallelize these analyses. In this work, we investigate an alternate approach that uses Apache Spark -- a modern big d...
Conference Paper
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"Next generation" data acquisition technologies are allowing scientists to collect exponentially more data at a lower cost. These trends are broadly impacting many scientific fields, including genomics, astronomy, and neuroscience. We can attack the problem caused by exponential data growth by applying horizontally scalable techniques from current...
Technical Report
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The objective of this report is to characterize the baseline levels of economic activity and related ecosystem services values for the Bristol Bay wild salmon ecosystem. The overarching purpose of this report is to provide baseline economic information to the Environmental Protection Agency in order to inform review of mining proposals in the Nushu...
Article
The Colorado River is one of the most highly developed watersheds in the United States and has relatively unique long-term datasets for both recreational visitation and water levels from Lake Mead and Lake Powell, the 2 largest reservoirs in the United States. Previous efforts to model the relationship of recreation and reservoir water levels have...
Article
As the last standardization effort was done in 2004, the software engineering curriculum is currently being revised. Haven't we reached the point where agile development should be part of all software engineering curricula? And if so, shouldn't new curriculum standards ensure that it is? Thus, the answer to the question in the title of this article...
Article
Computing workloads often contain a mix of interactive, latency-sensitive foreground applications and recurring background computations. To guarantee responsiveness, interactive and batch applications are often run on disjoint sets of resources, but this incurs additional energy, power, and capital costs. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of...
Article
Computing workloads often contain a mix of interactive, latency-sensitive foreground applications and recurring background computations. To guarantee responsiveness, interactive and batch applications are often run on disjoint sets of resources, but this incurs additional energy, power, and capital costs. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of...
Conference Paper
Developers of rapidly growing applications must be able to anticipate potential scalability problems before they cause performance issues in production environments. A new type of data independence, called scale independence, seeks to address this challenge by guaranteeing a bounded amount of work is required to execute all queries in an applicatio...
Article
The National Park Service (NPS) currently manages a large and diverse system of park units nationwide which received an estimated 279 million recreational visits in 2011. This article uses park visitor data collected by the NPS Visitor Services Project to estimate a consistent set of count data travel cost models of park visitor willingness to pay...
Article
Federal wildland fire management policy in the United States directs the use of value-based methods to guide priorities. However, the economic literature on the effect of wildland fire on nonmarket uses, such as recreation, is limited. This paper introduces a new approach to measuring the effect of wildfire on recreational use by utilising newly av...
Article
This article reports on an application of choice experiment methods to anglers targeting blue marlin and other pelagic species in Hawaii. Data was collected through the Hawaii Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistical Survey in 2006. Based on 480 completed surveys, respondents were dominantly male (94.2%), Asian (51.6%), had relatively high incomes...
Conference Paper
Though crowdsourcing holds great promise, many struggle with framing tasks and determining which members of the crowd should be recruited to obtain reliable output. In some cases, expert knowledge is desired but, given the time and cost constraints of the problem, may not be available. In this case, it would be beneficial to augment the expert inpu...
Article
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Newly-released web applications often succumb to a "Success Disaster," where overloaded database machines and resulting high response times destroy a previously good user experience. Unfortunately, the data independence provided by a traditional relational database system, while useful for agile development, only exacerbates the problem by hiding p...
Conference Paper
Elasticity of cloud computing environments provides an economic incentive for automatic resource allocation of stateful systems running in the cloud. However, these systems have to meet strict performance Service-Level Objectives (SLOs) expressed using upper percentiles of request latency, such as the 99th. Such latency measurements are very noisy,...
Article
To ensure the timely publication of articles, Communications created the Virtual Extension (VE) to expand the page limitations of the print edition by bringing readers the same high-quality articles in an online-only format. VE articles undergo ...
Conference Paper
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Given the multicore microprocessor revolution, we argue that the architecture research community needs a dramatic increase in simulation capacity. We believe FPGA Architecture Model Execution (FAME) simulators can increase the number of useful architecture research experiments per day by two orders of magnitude over Software Architecture Model Exec...
Conference Paper
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We present RAMP Gold, an economical FPGA-based architecture simulator that allows rapid early design-space exploration of manycore systems. The RAMP Gold prototype is a high-throughput, cycle-accurate full-system simulator that runs on a single Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA board, and which simulates a 64-core shared-memory target machine capable of booting...
Conference Paper
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Large-scale websites are increasingly moving from relational databases to distributed key-value stores for high request rate, low latency workloads. Often this move is motivated not only by key-value stores' ability to scale simply by adding more hardware, but also by the easy to understand predictable performance they provide for all operations. W...
Article
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CLOUD COMPUTING, the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping the way IT hardware is designed and purchased. Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require the large capital outlays in hardwar...
Conference Paper
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Surprisingly, console logs rarely help operators detect problems in large-scale datacenter services, for they of- ten consist of the voluminous intermixing of messages from many software components written by independent developers. We propose a general methodology to mine this rich source of information to automatically detect system runtime probl...
Conference Paper
The hardware trend of the last 15 years of dynamically trying to improve performance with little software visibility is not only irrelevant today, its counterproductive; adaptivity must be at the software level if parallel software is going to be portable, fast, and energy-efficient. A portable parallel program is an oxymoron today; there is no rea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large-scale, user-facing applications are increasingly moving from relational databases to distributed key/value stores for high-request-rate, low-latency workloads. Often, this move is motivated not only by key/value stores' ability to scale simply by adding more hardware, but also by the easy to understand predictable performance they provide for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evaluating the resiliency of stateful Internet services to significant workload spikes and data hotspots requires realistic workload traces that are usually very difficult to obtain. A popular approach is to create a workload model and generate synthetic workload, however, there exists no characterization and model of stateful spikes. In this paper...
Conference Paper
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A recent trend for data-intensive computations is to use pay-as-you-go execution environments that scale transparently to the user. However, providers of such environments must tackle the challenge of configuring their system to provide maximal performance while minimizing the cost of resources used. In this paper, we use statistical models to pred...
Conference Paper
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We describe a novel application of using data min- ing and statistical learning methods to automatically monitor and detect abnormal execution traces from console logs in an online setting. Different from existing solutions, we use a two stage detection system. The first stage uses frequent pattern mining and distribution estimation techniques to c...
Article
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Industry needs help from the research community to succeed in its recent dramatic shift to parallel computing. Failure could jeopardize both the IT industry and the portions of the economy that depend on rapidly improving information technology. Jeopardy for the IT industry means opportunity for the research community. If researchers meet the paral...
Article
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Collaborative web applications such as Facebook, Flickr and Yelp present new challenges for storing and querying large amounts of data. As users and developers are focused more on performance than single copy consistency or the ability to perform ad-hoc queries, there exists an opportunity for a highly-scalable system tailored specifically for rela...
Article
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Manufacturers will likely offer multiple products with differing numbers of cores to cover multiple price-performance points, since Moore's Law will permit the doubling of the number of cores per chip every two years. While diversity may be understandable in this time of uncertainty, it exacerbates the already difficult jobs of programmers, compile...
Conference Paper
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One of the most challenging aspects of managing a very large data warehouse is identifying how queries will behave before they start executing. Yet knowing their performance characteristics - their runtimes and resource usage - can solve two important problems. First, every database vendor struggles with managing unexpectedly long-running queries....
Article
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Horizontally scalable Internet services present an opportunity to use automatic resource allocation strategies for system management in the datacenter. In most of the previous work, a controller employs a performance model of the system to make decisions about the optimal allocation of resources. However, these models are usually trained offline or...
Article
We describe the design and implementation of SWORD, a scalable resource discovery service for wide-area distributed systems. In contrast to previous systems, SWORD allows users to describe desired resources as a topology of interconnected groups with required intragroup, intergroup, and per-node characteristics, along with the utility that the appl...
Conference Paper
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The console logs generated by an application contain messages that the application developers believed would be useful in de- bugging or monitoring the application. Despite the ubiquity and large size of these logs, they are rarely exploited in a syste matic way for monitoring and debugging because they are not read- ily machine-parsable. In this p...
Article
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Greater Yellowstone ecosystem and to the Central Idaho area in an attempt to restore the endangered gray wolf to the Rocky Mountains. The restoration of wolves to Yellowstone National Park has become one of the most successful wildlife conservation programs in the history of endangered species conservation. Yellowstone is now considered one of the...
Article
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Although there is prior work on energy conservation in datacenters, we identify a new approach based on the syn- ergy between virtual machines and statistical machine learn- ing, and we observe that constrained energy conservation can improve hardware reliability. We give initial results on a cluster that reduces energy costs by a factor of 5, redu...
Article
Internet services are already significant forces in searching, retail purchases, music downloads, and auctions. One vision of 21st century IT is that most users will be accessing such services over a descendant of the cell phone rather than running shrink-wrapped software on a descendant of the PC.
Article
Internet services are already significant forces in searching, retail purchases, music downloads, and auctions. One vision of 21st century IT is that most users will be accessing such services over a descendant of the cell phone rather than running shrink-wrapped software on a descendant of the PC.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract—This paper,presents,preliminary,findings on a cash and,contingent,valuation,(cv) experiment.,The study,replicates major elements of an earlier (1990) experiment, which solicited hypothetical,and,actual,donations,to benefit instream,flows for Montana,fisheries. Extensions,of the earlier work,include: repeat contacts to increase response rat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The recent switch to parallel microprocessors is a milestone in the history of computing. Industry has laid out a roadmap for multicore designs that preserves the programming paradigm of the past via binary compatibility and cache coherence. Conventional wisdom is now to double the number of cores on a chip with each silicon generation. A multidis...
Article
The article presents a letter from David A The article presents a letter from David A. Patterson, the outgoing President of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), concerning the association's future. He suggests areas of growth and operational improvement in order to attract potential members to the association. Patterson suggests doing mor...
Article
As my term ends, I offer my perspective on two important challenges facing ACM.
Article
David A Patterson, ACM president, made campaign statements while entering the race for president ship. His first resolution was to preserve and promote programs like ACM digital library, journals, conferences, USACM, Queue, and the Professional development center. He exceed in the targets such as, to recruits new professionals for reaching to new t...
Article
Many of these monthly missives have addressed the different ways ACM is working to change the image of computing professionals. This month, in the spirit of April Fool's Day, we root out the ACM President's effort to change that image one person at a time---starting at the top.
Article
This article reports on a list of the top 25 out-of-print computer science books as voted by ACM members This article reports on a list of the top 25 out-of-print computer science books as voted by ACM members. 1982's "The Elements of Programming Style," by B.W. Kernighan and P.J. Plauger topped the list. 1979's "Classics in Software Engineering,"...
Article
This article presents a letter from ACM president David A This article presents a letter from ACM president David A. Patterson. Patterson offers four concrete suggestions for how to draw students to computer science (CS). Patterson's goal is the creation of a CS curriculum that reflect current opportunities and challenges in information technology...
Article
The article presents information on the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) study of the offshoring of software jobs, a large and thorough examination that summarizes current research in the field The article presents information on the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) study of the offshoring of software jobs, a large and thoroug...
Article
The Communications of the ACM (CACM) launched the Computer Science Teachers Association in January 2005, for improving the quality of pre-college education and helping recruit a wider range of students for providing a new direction to the CACM. To satisfy the customers with CACM, the ACM's aim changed from a prestigious publication to research into...
Conference Paper
Federated geographically-distributed computing platforms such as PlanetLab [1] and the Grid [2, 3] have recently become popular for evaluating and deploying network services and scientific computations. As the size, reach, and user population of such infrastructures grow, resource discovery and resource selection become increasingly important. Alth...
Conference Paper
PC users have started viewing crashes as a fact of life rather than a problem. To improve operating system dependability, systems designers and programmers must analyze and understand failure data. In this paper, we analyze Windows XP kernel crash data collected from a population of volunteers who contribute to the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for...
Article
Much of the work to date on dependability benchmarks has focused on costly, comprehensive measurements of whole-system dependability. But benchmarks should also be useful for developers and researchers to quickly evalu- ate incremental improvements to their systems. To address both audiences, we propose dividing the space of depend- ability benchma...
Article
The US government's Department of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) sponsors a grand challenge for autonomous vehicles to complete a 100-plus mile, off-road course in the Mojave Dessert. Thrace began on October 8, 2005, with each entrant given a CD defining a 132-mile, obstacle-laden course. The success of the challenge could help ac...
Article
I’m sick of hearing all the whining about how outsourcing is going to migrate all IT jobs to the country with the lowest wages. The paranoia inspired by this domino theory of job migration causes American and West European programmers to worry about India, Indian programmers to worry about China, Chinese programmers to worry about the Czech Republi...
Article
Should computer scientists and engineers take on a greater responsibility to help reduce the loss of life and property damage from natural disasters?
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growth in the scale of systems and networks has created many challenges for their management, especially for event processing. Our premise is that scaling event processing requires parallelism. To this end, we observe that event processing can be divided into intra-event processing such as filtering and inter-event processing such as root cause...
Article
The Professional Development Course (PDC) introduced by the ACM is aiming to double the number of online courses, adding 500 books from Safari and classic computer science books. The PDC model allows members to pick 10 books per month to put on the personal bookshelf to read. The motto of the ACM is to support the science and practice of computing,...
Article
Inaccurate impressions of the opportunities of 21st century CS are shrinking the next generation of IT professionals. You can help by dispelling incorrect beliefs about employment and by helping improve pre-college education.