Darren J. Gray's research while affiliated with Australian National University and other places

Publications (222)

Article
Full-text available
Bhutan has reported a total of 2596 COVID-19 cases and three deaths as of September 15, 2021. With support from India, the United States, Denmark, the People’s Republic of China, Croatia and other countries, Bhutan was able to conduct two rounds of nationwide vaccination campaign. While many countries struggle to overcome vaccine refusal or hesitan...
Article
Full-text available
Background Achieving the elimination of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections requires a sufficient understanding of the current epidemiological status of STH endemicity. We aimed to examine the status of STH in Myanmar – a country with the eighth highest STH prevalence in the world, 10 years after instigation of the national deworming program...
Article
Objective: To assess the contribution of partners in the introduction of two new vaccines concurrently: pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into the routine Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh. Design: We conducted a prospective process evaluation that included the theory of ch...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Undernutrition is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), which is estimated to be responsible for 1.9 million TB cases per year globally. The effectiveness of micronutrient supplementation on TB treatment outcomes and its prognostic markers (sputum conversion, serum zinc, retinol and haemoglobin levels) has been poorly understood...
Article
Full-text available
Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a significant public health problem affecting over 900 million people globally. Health education has been shown to complement mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of these intestinal worms. We reported recently results of a cluster randomised control trial (RCT) showing the positiv...
Article
Full-text available
The common cold is a leading cause of morbidity and contributes significantly to the health costs in Bhutan. The study utilized multivariate Zero-inflated Poisson regression in a Bayesian framework to identify climatic variability and spatial and temporal patterns of the common cold in Bhutan. There were 2,480,509 notifications of common cold betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite recent progress in rural economic development and food production, the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) and use of unimproved toilet facilities are widespread in Bangladesh. Evidence regarding the consequencs of household FI and poor sanitation on child morbidity is scarce. This study aimed to understand the associati...
Article
•Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a threat to the health, wellbeing and economic prosperity of billions of people worldwide, often causing serious disease or death. •Commonly considered diseases of low and middle-income nations, the presence of NTDs in high income countries such as Australia is often overlooked. •Seven of the 20 recogni...
Article
Full-text available
Anaemia is a major public health problem among children < 5 years of age in Bangladesh due to recurrent intestinal parasite infections. The aim of this study was to understand the association between combining deworming and MNP home fortification (MNP + Deworming) and the prevalence of anaemia among children < 5 years of age in Bangladesh. We used...
Article
Full-text available
Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are still prevalent among schoolchildren in the Philippines. We evaluated the risk factors associated with STH and the relationship between STH and nutritional indices among schoolchildren aged 9-10 years in Laguna province, the Philippines.Methods We used the baseline data from 40 schools enrol...
Article
Full-text available
Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have long been an important public health concern in the Philippines. In this review, we describe the current status of STH infections there and highlight the control efforts undertaken to reduce STH burden. Main text A nationwide STH mass drug administration (MDA) programme was started in 2006...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in massive global disruptions with considerable impact on the delivery of health services and national health programmes. Since the detection of the first COVID-19 case on 5th March 2020, the Royal Government of Bhutan implemented a number of containment measures including border closure and national lockdowns. Ag...
Article
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) cause substantial disease and disability globally. Health education has proven complementary to school-based drug administration programs for STH control. We determined the generalizability of the impact of "The Magic Glasses" health education package for STH prevention in schoolchildren in Laguna provi...
Article
Full-text available
Pneumonia is one of the top 10 diseases by morbidity in Bhutan. This study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal trends and risk factors of childhood pneumonia in Bhutan. A multivariable Zero-inflated Poisson regression model using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was undertaken to quantify associations of age, sex, altitude,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Severe dengue is a life-threatening complication; rapid identification of these cases, followed by adequate management is crucial to improve the clinical prognosis. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors and predictors of severe dengue. Methods: A literature search for studies reporting risk factors of severe dengue amo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Indonesia is undergoing a nutrition transition (NT) comprised of rising rates of overweight/obesity and consumption of high fat food/snacks but is still struck by undernutrition, causing a double burden of malnutrition. Little research pertains to the double burden of malnutrition and its associations with diet in rural Indonesia using p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Despite recent progress in rural economic development and food production, the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) and use of unimproved toilet facilities are widespread in Bangladesh. Limited studies have sought to understand the relationship of household FI and sanitation, separately and in combination, with child morbidity. T...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Like other regions, dengue-endemic areas have faced the additional public health and socio-economic impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 and dengue co-infections have been reported, with complicated p...
Article
Parasitic infections caused by Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis remain a major public health threat in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. An understanding of climate and other environmental influences on the geographical distribution and emergence of parasitic diseases is a crucial step to guide targeted control and prevention progr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Bhutan, with increasing incidence and widening geographic spread over recent years. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and clinical management of dengue among medical practitioners in Bhutan. Methods We administered a survey questionnaire to all practitioners currently re...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen worldwide. China has the third highest TB burden in the world, with a high reported burden in Hunan Province (amongst others). This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of TB and identify socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental drivers in Hunan Province,...
Article
Full-text available
The Greater Accra Region is the smallest of the 16 administrative regions in Ghana. It is highly populated and characterized by tropical climatic conditions. Although efforts towards malaria control in Ghana have had positive impacts, malaria remains in the top five diseases reported at healthcare facilities within the Greater Accra Region. To furt...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria in Bhutan has fallen significantly over the last decade. As Bhutan attempts to eliminate malaria in 2022, this study aimed to characterize the space–time clustering of malaria from 2010 to 2019. Malaria data were obtained from the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Program data repository. Spatial and space–time cluster analyses of Plasmod...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in Hunan province, China. Methods An ecological study was conducted using DR-TB data collected from the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province between 2012 and 2018. Spatial clustering of DR-TB was explored using the Getis-Ord statis...
Article
Full-text available
Dengue has been a perennial public health problem in Medan city, North Sumatera, despite the widespread implementation of dengue control. Understanding the spatial and temporal pattern of dengue is critical for effective implementation of dengue control strategies. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiology and spatio-temporal patterns of de...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2005, over 30 epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between nitrate in drinking water and adverse health outcomes. Conditions that lead to nitrate pollution in water, such as open defecation, the proximity of septic tanks to water sources, and the use of inorganic fertilizer, are rampant in Indonesia, which has experienced li...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dengue is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease globally, with a 30-fold increase in global incidence over the last 50 years. In Bhutan, dengue incidence has been on the rise since 2004, with numerous outbreaks reported across the country. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are vulnerable to dengue in Bhut...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pneumonia is one of the top 10 diseases by morbity in Bhutan. This study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal trends and risk factors of pneumonia in Bhutan. A multivariable Zero-inflated Poisson regression using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was undertaken to quantify associations of age, sex, rainfall, maximum temperatur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Efforts towards malaria control in Ghana have had positive impacts. However, these efforts need to be locally tailored to further accelerate progress. The aim of this study was to examine the climatic drivers of malaria transmission in the Greater Accra Region and identify inter-district variation of malaria burden. Monthly malaria cases for the Gr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Efforts towards malaria control in Ghana have had positive impacts. However, these efforts need to be locally tailored to further accelerate progress. The aim of this study was to examine the climatic drivers of malaria transmission in the Greater Accra Region and identify inter-district variation of malaria burden. Methodology: Monthly...
Article
Dengue poses a significant health and economic burden in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Approaches for control need to be aligned with current knowledge on the epidemiology of dengue in the region. Such knowledge will ensure improved targeting of interventions to reduce dengue incidence and its socioeconomic impact. This review was undertaken to d...
Article
Full-text available
Bhutan experienced its largest and first nation-wide dengue epidemic in 2019. The cases in 2019 were greater than the total number of cases in all the previous years. This study aimed to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns and effective reproduction number of this explosive epidemic. Weekly notified dengue cases were extracted from the Nationa...
Article
Full-text available
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Indonesia. However, prevalence data for many parts of the country are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine human STH prevalence and knowledge and practices relating to STH risk behaviour, to provide a current view of the status of STH infection in rural communities in Central J...
Chapter
Strongyloidiasis and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus-1) are important infections that are endemic in many countries around the world with an estimated 370 million infected with Strongyloides stercoralis alone, and 5–10 million with HTVL-I. Co-infections with these pathogens are associated with significant morbidity and can be fatal. HTLV-I infec...
Article
Full-text available
Dengue is an important emerging vector-borne disease in Bhutan. This study aimed to quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue and their relationship to environmental factors in dengue-affected areas at the sub-district level. A multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed using a Bayesian framework with spatial and s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is currently considerable international debate around school closures/openings and the role of children in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whilst evidence suggests that children are not impacted by COVID-19 as severely as adults, little is still known about their transmission potential, and with a lot of...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosomiasis japonica is an ancient parasitic disease that has severely impacted human health causing a substantial disease burden not only to the Chinese people but also residents of other countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia and, before the 1970s, Japan. Since the founding of the new People's Republic of China (P. R. China), effective...
Article
Full-text available
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious health challenge with low survival prognosis. The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, plays a role in the aetiology of CCA, through hepatobiliary abnormalities: liver mass (LM), bile duct dilation, and periductal fibrosis (PDF). A population-based CCA screening program, the Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Car...
Article
Full-text available
At a time when Bhutan is on the verge of malaria elimination, the aim of this study was to identify malaria clusters at high geographical resolution and to determine its association with local environmental characteristics. Malaria cases from 2006–2014 were obtained from the Vector-borne Disease Control Program under the Ministry of Health, Bhutan....
Article
Background: Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) of antihelminthics to at-risk populations is still the main strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. However, MDA, as a stand-alone intervention, does not prevent reinfection. Accordingly, complementary measures to prevent STH reinfection, such as health education an...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) of antihelminthics to at-risk populations is still the main strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. However, MDA, as a stand-alone intervention, does not prevent reinfection. Accordingly, complementary measures to prevent STH reinfection, such as health education and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Treatment outcomes among patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are often sub-optimal. Therefore, the early prediction of poor treatment outcomes may be useful in patient care, especially for clinicians when they have the ability to make treatment decisions or offer counselling or additional support to patients. T...
Article
Full-text available
Many latrine campaigns in developing countries fail to be sustained because the introduced latrine is not appropriate to local socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions, and there is an inadequate community health education component. We tested a low-cost, locally designed and constructed all-weather latrine (the “BALatrine”), together...
Article
Full-text available
In the original publication of this article [1], there is an error in the section of ‘Ethics approval and consent to participate’ at the end of the article, the correct Ethics reference number should be HE551404 rather than HE591067.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Giardiasis is a common diarrhoeal disease caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. It is prevalent in low-income countries in the context of inadequate access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and is frequently co-endemic with neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Large-scale periodic...
Article
Full-text available
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant neoplasm of the biliary tract. Thailand reports the highest incidence of CCA in the world. The aim of this study was to map the distribution of CCA and identify spatial disease clusters in Northeast Thailand. Individual-level data of patients with histopathologically confirmed CCA, aggregated at the sub-distr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Current guidelines and targets for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on school-based deworming for school-age children, given the high risk of associated morbidity in this age group. However, expanding deworming to all age groups may achieve improved STH control among both the community in general and school-age children, by...
Article
Full-text available
Background Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is caused by a multitude of diverse pathogens, with significant morbidity and mortality in the developing world. The objective of this review was to characterise the diversity and relative importance of common infectious aetiologies of AUFI in South and Southeast Asia. Methods We conducted a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease in Ethiopia, killing more than 30 thousand people every year. This study aimed to determine whether the rates of poor TB treatment outcome varied geographically across Ethiopia at district and zone levels and whether such variability was associated with socioeco...
Article
Full-text available
In spite of spectacular progress towards the goal of elimination of schistosomiasis, particularly in China but also in other areas, research gaps and outstanding issues remain. Although expectations of achieving elimination of this disease have never been greater, all constraints have not been swept aside. Indeed, there are some formidable obstacle...
Article
Full-text available
In 1996, schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma japonicum was declared eradicated in Japan. In the People’s Republic of China, S. japonicum transmission has been interrupted in the major endemic areas in the coastal plains but the disease persists in the lake and marshland regions south of the Yangtze River. The disease remains a public health problem...