Daphna Bassok's research while affiliated with University of Virginia and other places

Publications (42)

Article
This study uses longitudinal data to follow a cohort ( N = 4,465) of all early childhood education teachers working in publicly funded, center-based settings in Louisiana over a 3-year period. We present the proportion of teachers still at their sites across six time points between 2016 and 2019, providing the first statewide, longitudinal estimate...
Article
The leaders of child care centers shape the everyday experiences of child care teachers, who play a critical role in supporting young children. While research has linked leadership to policy-relevant outcomes such as teacher job satisfaction and turnover, little is known about specific leader characteristics linked to teacher job outcomes. In K-12,...
Article
Full-text available
Early care and education (ECE) experiences shape children’s developmental trajectories, particularly for children who have or may have disabilities. However, caregivers of children with disabilities have faced considerable challenges finding care for their children, which have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using survey data from nearly 3,...
Article
High rates of teacher turnover in child care settings have negative implications for young children's learning experiences and for efforts to improve child care quality. Prior research has explored the prevalence and predictors of turnover at the individual teacher level, but less is known about turnover at the center level––specifically, how turno...
Article
Federal accountability policy mandates that states administer standardized tests beginning in third grade. In turn, third-grade test scores are often viewed as a key indicator in policy and practice. Yet literacy struggles begin well before third grade, as do racial and socioeconomic disparities in children’s literacy skills. Kindergarten readiness...
Article
This study explored the validity of a widely-used, performance-based assessment of children’s school readiness skills in the fall and spring of preschool. Using a sample of 1109 children (mean age in the fall = 4.54 years; SD = 3.69 months) in 90 classrooms, we compared children’s school readiness skills as assessed by teachers using Teaching Strat...
Article
Full-text available
Despite substantial federal, state, and local investments in improving early care and education (ECE), we know little about whether ECE program quality has improved over time. The lack of data tracking the quality of publicly funded ECE programs at scale creates a substantial evidence gap for policymakers attempting to weigh the returns on, and fut...
Article
This brief provides a systemwide look at early childhood teacher turnover using data from all publicly funded, center-based early childhood programs in Louisiana, including subsidized child care, Head Start, and pre-kindergarten. It provides new evidence on the prevalence of turnover and explores whether teachers who leave differ from those who sta...
Article
Use of observational measures to monitor preschool quality is growing rapidly. Although a large body of research has examined the validity of classroom observation tools within the context of researcher-conducted studies, little research to date has examined the extent to which the observations conducted as a part of state accountability efforts co...
Article
Enrolling in publicly funded early childhood education involves searching for programs, applying, verifying eligibility, and registering with the program. Many families do not complete this process, despite demonstrated interest. In this study, we assessed support for families as they verify eligibility as a means for increasing enrollment completi...
Article
High-quality preschool experiences can promote children’s short- and long-term development, yet many children in the United States still lack access to high-quality care. Many states have turned to Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) in an attempt to solve this problem. Unfortunately, recent empirical work has shown that most QRIS ratings...
Article
Parental engagement is central to Head Start’s two-generation mission. Drawing on research linking teacher-child racial/ethnic match to educational outcomes, the present study explores whether teacher-child match increases parental involvement in Head Start activities designed to support children and families. Using data from the 2006 and 2009 wave...
Article
This study is a randomized control trial of full- versus half-day prekindergarten (pre-K) in a school district near Denver, Colorado. Four-year-old children were randomly assigned an offer of half-day (4 days/week) or full-day (5 days/week) pre-K that increased class time by 600 hours. The full-day pre-K offer produced substantial, positive effects...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to enhance the quality of early childhood education (ECE) at scale, nearly all U.S. states have recently adopted Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS). These accountability systems give providers and parents information about program quality and create both reputational and financial incentives for program improvement. However,...
Article
Full-text available
This AERA Open special topic takes stock of the current knowledge about scaled-up early childhood education (ECE) programs. Rapidly rising ECE participation rates in recent decades have coincided with wide variability in the types of programming available for young children. This expansion makes understanding heterogeneity in effects of ECE crucial...
Article
This study employs data from both kindergarten cohorts of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n ~ 12,450 in 1998; n ~ 11,000 in 2010) to assess whether associations between preschool participation and children's academic and behavioral outcomes—both at school entry (Mage = 5.6 years in both cohorts) and through third grade—have changed over tim...
Article
A rising proportion of four-year-olds now attend formal, or center-based, early childhood education (ECE) programs. Formal settings, such as Head Start, public preschool, and subsidized child care centers vary significantly in regulation, funding, and service provision. As these differences may have substantial implications for child development an...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines whether parents’ overall satisfaction with their child’s early childhood education (ECE) program is correlated with a broad set of program characteristics, including (a) observational assessments of teacher-child interactions; (b) structural features of the program, such as teacher education and class size; (c) practical and con...
Article
Public investments in early childhood education have increased sharply over the past three decades. Nonetheless, many children in the United States do not have access to high-quality early education settings and large sociodemographic gaps in children's early learning remain. In this article, we argue that to address these issues, early learning po...
Article
Nationwide, the percentage of four-year-olds enrolled in state-supported preschool programs has more than doubled since the early 2000s as states dramatically increased their investments in early childhood education. Florida’s Voluntary Pre-kindergarten Program (VPK), which began in 2005, has been a national leader with respect to preschool access....
Article
Private and public investments in early childhood education have expanded significantly in recent years. Despite this heightened investment, we have little empirical evidence on whether children today enter school with different skills than they did in the late nineties. Using two large, nationally representative data sets, this article documents h...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the early life experiences of kindergarteners in 1998 and 2010 using two nationally representative data sets. We find that (a) young children in the later period are exposed to more books and reading in the home, (b) they have more access to educational games on computers, and (c) they engage with their parents more, inside and...
Article
Over the past two decades states have drastically increased their investments in pre-kindergarten programs. One major question about state investments in early childhood education programs is to what extent these initiatives create new child care options rather than crowding-out existing private child care options. We investigate this issue using F...
Article
This study leverages nationally representative data (N ≈ 6,000) to examine the magnitude of quality differences between (a) formal and informal early childhood education and care providers; (b) Head Start, prekindergarten, and other center-based care; and (c) programs serving toddlers and those serving preschoolers. It then documents differences in...
Article
Full-text available
Recent accounts suggest that accountability pressures have trickled down into the early elementary grades and that kindergarten today is characterized by a heightened focus on academic skills and a reduction in opportunities for play. This paper compares public school kindergarten classrooms between 1998 and 2010 using two large, nationally represe...
Article
In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to high-quality programs. Research Findings: Us...
Article
Early Childhood Longitudinal-Birth Cohort data were used to examine the extent to which preschool and kindergarten teachers aligned in their beliefs regarding the importance of school competencies at kindergarten entry, whether misalignment in beliefs predicted academic and sociobehavioral adjustment in kindergarten, and if relations were moderated...
Article
Between 1999 and 2011, the percentage of Head Start teachers nationwide with an Associate's Degree or higher more than doubled from 38 to 85%. Over the same period, the percentage of teachers with a BA also rose rapidly from 23 to 52%. This paper uses within-program fixed-effects models and a 13-year panel of administrative data on all Head Start p...
Article
Historically, the early childhood care and education (ECCE) workforce has been characterized as a low-education, low-compensation, low-stability workforce. In recent years, considerable investments have been made to correct this, but we lack evidence about the extent to which these investments were accompanied by changes in the characteristics of t...
Article
We use two nationally representative data sets to estimate the prevalence of kindergarten “redshirting”—the decision to delay a child’s school entry. We find that between 4% and 5.5% of children delay kindergarten, a lower number than typically reported in popular and academic accounts. Male, White, and high-SES children are most likely to delay ki...
Article
The success of any governmental subsidy depends on whether it increases or crowds out existing consumption. Yet to date there has been little empirical evidence, particularly in the education sector, on whether government intervention crowds out private provision. Universal preschool policies introduced in Georgia and Oklahoma offer an opportunity...
Article
Over the past decade states have surpassed the federal Head Start program as the primary public funder of preschool slots. This paper investigates trends in Head Start enrollment in the context of increased state investment in early childhood. Using national, longitudinal data I find no evidence Head Start programs in states with expanding state pr...
Conference Paper
Background: The quality of care in early childhood education settings has become a primary focus for improving school readiness and development, with recent estimates demonstrating that two-thirds of all four-year-old children participate in early childhood education, up almost 25 percent from three decades ago (Magnuson, Ruhm, & Waldfogel, 2007)....
Article
Full-text available
Public investment in early childhood education is rising rapidly. Between 1990 and 2008, the number of three to five year olds enrolled in public early childhood education and care programs (excluding kindergarten) more than doubled from 1.2 to 2.7 million children. 2 This rise in public investment – attributed to such factors as growth in female l...
Article
Recent studies suggest that the effects of attending preschool vary by race. These findings are difficult to interpret because the likelihood of enrolling a child in preschool also differs across groups. This study used newly released, nationally representative data to examine whether the impact of preschool participation at age 4 varies across rac...
Article
Full-text available
Attendance in preschool centers can yield short-term benefits for children from poor or middle-class families. Yet debate persists in Europe and the United States over whether centers yield gains of sufficient magnitude to sustain children's cognitive or social advantages as they move through primary school. We report on child care and home environ...
Article
This paper examines the effects of different child-care arrangements on children's cognitive and social proficiencies at the start of kindergarten. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we identify effects using OLS, matching and instrumental variables estimates. Overall, center-based care raises reading and math scores, but has a...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has demonstrated that attending center care is associated with cognitive benefits for young children. However, little is known about the ideal age for children to enter such care or the "right" amount of time, both weekly and yearly, for children to attend center programs. Using national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal...

Citations

... Increasing compensation for ECE teachers has been found to significantly reduce teacher turnover , which is very high. One recent study found an annual turnover rate of about 40% in the child care sector in Louisiana (Bellows et al., 2021). Reducing turnover leads to more stable environments for children in care, improving child development outcomes (Markowitz, 2019). ...
... There has been a sustained increased interest in understanding occupational mental health (OMH) from both the academic and practitioners' perspectives. OMH has become a major concern for organizations that are finding it hard to retain talented employees who are either underperforming due to mental health issues or have decided to leave their jobs based on these concerns (1,2). The effects of OMH are also selfreinforcing; any drop in productivity due to mental health issues will lead to further mental health deterioration as the pressure starts to build to bridge the productivity deficit (3). ...
... Studies have established that school readiness predicts both school and life success; therefore, its precise assessment is critical (Russo et al., 2019). Furthermore, children who progress to kindergarten with fewer school readiness skills show lower school achievement throughout schooling (Burchinal et al., 2015). ...
... Although there is a series of studies which aim at investigating the factors which determine the efficacy of quality education assurance [21,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36], very few focus on the measurement of the teachers' attitudes towards education quality management [37] or are concerned with education quality assurance [38,39]. Some of the studies are based on the validation of questionnaires, which evaluate the teachers' attitudes towards the dimensions of certain models, such as the total quality management [40,41]. ...
... ECE teacher wellbeing is a consistent predictor of teachers' intentions to stay in the child care workforce, the quality of their teaching, and their ability to benefit from professional development programs ( Grant, Jeon, & Buettner, 2019 ;Hubel et al., 2020 ;Jeon, Kwon, & Choi, 2018 ;Kwon et al., 2020 ). Currently, ECE teachers are leaving the field in record numbers due to the poor wages and the lingering effects of the Covid-19 pandemic ( Bassok, Markowitz, Bellows, & Sadowski, 2021 ). This is a particular problem for ECE programs that serve infants and toddlers. ...
... Among classrooms making use of the CLASS are Head Start preschools, where over 200 research studies demonstrate that children with higher-scoring Head Start teachers-and thus, more effective facilitators of teacher-student interactions-had better social and academic outcomes than their peers with low-scoring teachers . A study which examined the use of the CLASS to rate early childhood education programs in the state of Louisiana, United States, found similar results: children with higher-scoring teachers made greater gains across various domains of development throughout the academic year (Vitiello et al. 2018). ...
... However, the implementation of educational interventions directed at the family poses several challenges, not least competing with efficiencies from a historical academic infrastructure of school-based educational interventions. Access to households to conduct interventions are more limited than for those targeted at schools and teachers, the extant family-based instrument for interventions of cash transfers are fairly blunt tools, though perhaps the emergence of more digital innovations and the increase in contact between families and schools during the COVID-19 pandemic may provide new opportunities (Weixler et al., 2020). The additional challenges in working with families will also affect the extent to which the fidelity of these family-based interventions can be observed (Vaden-Kiernan et al., 2018). ...
... Measurement has been a challenge, considering their often broad scope, in identifying links between ratings and children's positive development. 6 These findings raise important questions about the function of QRISs and suggest that rather than framing the primary function of QRIS as quantitatively measuring and rating quality to predict child outcomes (especially when there is a concern about whether the outcomes are equitable and meaningful), the field should consider conceptualizing these systems primarily as a way to inform ECE improvement, provide parents, families, and caregivers with information to make an informed care decision, and track and promote children's equitable access to quality experiences in early childhood. ...
... Many parents value having a teacher who shares their racial or ethnic identity when searching for care for their very young children (Fuller et al., 1996). And, data are starting to suggest that there are tangible benefits for teacher-child racial ethnic match even among very young children, including increases in parental engagement (Markowitz, Bassok, & Grissom, 2020), teacher ratings of children's skills and competencies (Bates & Glick, 2013;Downey & Pribesh, 2004), and children's academic performance (Dee, 2004;Downer et al., 2016;Wright et al., 2017). Policymakers designing supports for ECE in the wake of COVID have an opportunity to support the diversity of the ECE workforce in part by targeting center-based child care settings. ...
... Nevertheless, a recently randomized control trial of full versus half-day preschool programs showed that the full-day produced substantial and positive effects on children's academic outcomes but also on teacher-reported measures of socioemotional development. At kindergarten entry, children offered full-day continued to outperform peers on an estimate of basic literacy (Atteberry et al., 2019). ...