Daniel Pauly's research while affiliated with University of British Columbia - Vancouver and other places

Publications (492)

Article
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While numerous Marine Protected Areas (MPA) have been created in the last decades, their effectiveness must be assessed in the context of the country’s biodiversity conservation policies and must be verified by local observations. Currently, the observations of local stakeholders, such as those from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academics,...
Article
Rebuilding overexploited marine populations is an important step to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 14-Life Below Water. Mitigating major human pressures is required to achieve rebuilding goals. Climate change is one such key pressure, impacting fish and invertebrate populations by changing their biomass and biogeography. H...
Article
A length–frequency sample ( n = 295) from a fossil population of the Ordovician trilobite Triarthrus eatoni Hall, 1838, assembled and analyzed by J. L. Cisne in 1973 is here reexamined using methods of length–frequency analysis commonly used in fishery science and marine biology. Theoretical considerations and the empirical data at hand suggest tha...
Article
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Warming increases the metabolic rates of fishes and drives their oxygen demands above environmental oxygen supply, leading to declines in fish growth and smaller population sizes. Given the wide variability in species' sensitivity to changing temperature and oxygen levels, warming and oxygen limitation may be altering the composition of fish commun...
Article
To bridge physiological and evolutionary perspectives on size at maturity in fishes, we focus on the approximately invariant ratio between the estimated oxygen supply at size at maturity (Qm) relative to that at asymptotic size (Q∞) among species within a taxonomic group, and show how two important theories related to this phenomenon complement eac...
Article
Fishing provides the world with an important component of its food supply, but it also negatively impacts the biodiversity of marine and freshwater ecosystems, especially when industrial fishing is involved. To mitigate these impacts, civil society needs access to fisheries data (i.e., catches and catch-derived indicators of these impacts). Such da...
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Climate change is altering the distribution and composition of marine fish populations globally, which presents substantial risks to the social and economic well-being of humanity. While deriving long-term climatic baselines is an essential step for detecting and attributing the magnitude of climate change and its impacts, these baselines tend to b...
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Migrations of large pelagic fishes across the Pacific are usually inferred from tagging or genetic studies. Even though these techniques have improved over time, they still fail to demonstrate large transoceanic migrations, usually proposing ‘routes’ that do not cycle seasonally. The current study uses the concept of ‘philopatry’ in 11 large pelagi...
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An assessment of the stock status and historical changes in abundance of Coilia mystus and C. nasus in the Yangtze River Estuary, China, was carried out based on field surveys conducted in 2019–2020 and published length-frequency (L/F) data from earlier periods. These two species’ current and past relative biomasses (B/BMSY) were estimated using a...
Article
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The length–weight relationships (LWR) of the common seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède, 1804) and the leafy seadragon Phycodurus eques (Günther, 1865), Syngnathidae, are presented in this paper, based on specimens raised in the Birch Aquarium at Scripps, La Jolla, California. Furthermore, we used the length at known age of 40 specimens of...
Article
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The Eastern Mediterranean Sea is the most invaded sea on the planet, with 666 nonindigenous species now recorded in the region. However, not all of these become successful in their new environments. Success here is defined by wide geographical spread, increased abundances, and larger maximum sizes than their native range. The silver-cheeked toadfis...
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Over the past 4 decades there has been a growing concern for the conservation status of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). In 2002, the first elasmobranch species were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Less than 20 yr later, there were 39 species on Appendix II and 5 o...
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Global warming affects the phenology of the Earth’s flora and fauna, notably by advancing the date at which many plants and animals tend to reproduce. We use fish, where this reproductive acceleration is well-documented, to present a simple approach based on sine curves to predict, in spring spawning fish, the minimum number of days (Δdmin) that sp...
Technical Report
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A report by leading fisheries experts shares novel analysis on the scale, context, and impacts of the age-old fishing practice of bottom trawling. The report shares new data and analysis combined with policy recommendations to inspire constructive action around this controversial practice.
Article
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The Chaetognatha are a marine invertebrate phylum including 132 extant, carnivorous species in nine families and two orders, but with unclear protostomian affinities in the animal kingdom. We document the gradual recognition of the distinctiveness of chaetognaths by early taxonomists, with some emphasis on the often-overlooked studies by Chinese ma...
Article
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The prevailing determinant of maturation in fishes is thought to be a redirection of energy from growth to reproduction. Instead, the Gill Oxygen Limitation Theory predicts that maturation, and thus reproduction, is induced when a fish reaches a critical ratio of oxygen supply to demand (Qm/Qmaint). The consistency of this critical ratio has been p...
Article
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Invasive species pose threats to either human health or inflict ecological and/or economic damage. The silver-cheeked toadfish (Lagocephalus sceleratus), a Lessepsian species, is one of the most harmful species in the Mediterranean Sea, because of its potent neurotoxin, impacts on marine biodiversity, and the increased costs and labor they inflict...
Article
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Following a brief review of their biology, this contribution is an attempt to provide a global overview of the catches of mesopelagic fishes (of which 2.68 million tonnes were officially reported to the FAO) throughout the world ocean from 1950 to 2018, to serve as a baseline to a future development of these fisheries. The overview is based on a th...
Article
The standard response to the question “why do fish reach first maturity when they do” is that, at some point (or age), they perceive environmental stimuli, which are converted via the pituitary and the hypothalamus into triggers for a hormonal cascade leading to gonadal maturation and the release of gametes. Yet, the question rarely asked is why fu...
Chapter
Iraq has very rich freshwater resources, among the most abundant in the Middle East, due to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the Basrah River and the Mesopotamian marshes, which serve as nursery grounds for a number of diadromous fish. Jointly, these rivers and the marshlands provide crucial nutrients to the fisheries of the northern Gulf, particul...
Article
The fishery for Northern Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off Newfoundland and Labrador, Eastern Canada, presents the most spectacular case of an exploited stock crashed in a few decades by an industrial bottom trawl fishery under a seemingly sophisticated management regime after half a millennium of sustainable fishing. The fishery, which had generated...
Article
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In the last decades, several targets for marine conservation were set to counter the effects of increasing fishing pressure, e.g., protecting 10% of the sea by 2020, and establishing large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs). Using the ‘reconstructed’ catch data for 1950 to 2018 made available by the Sea Around Us initiative, we show that the dec...
Article
To make sound decisions about the future of fisheries, managers need to have a good understanding of the amount of fish that have been caught over long periods. Unfortunately, current stock assessment processes are often flawed, as they are frequently based on data time series that do not represent the full range of change. The process of selecting...
Article
We report a sudden explosive rise in abundance off southeastern China of a fish species that is hypoxia-tolerant, Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus, Family Synodontidae), belonging to an Order (the Aulopiformes) encompassing overwhelmingly deep-sea fishes, but which predominantly occurs in coastal water. We suggest that this is made possible by the ve...
Article
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The Mozambique Channel region in East Africa has diverse marine ecosystems and serves as a migratory corridor for economically important species. Local and foreign industrial fisheries operate in the Mozambique Channel, but regional small-scale fisheries are the crucially important fisheries that provide food security, livelihoods, and economic opp...
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This contribution applies the “mean tem-perature of the catch” (MTC) concept of Cheung et al. (Nature 497:365–368, 2013) to fish catch data for Lake Peipsi, Estonia/Russia, covering the years 1931 to 2019. The preferred temperature of each of the ten target fish species was obtained from the literature, and combined with the species-specific catch...
Article
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In countries like Sierra Leone, where fisheries-independent stock assessments and complex population models are financially and technically challenging, catch statistics can approximate fluctuations in fish stocks where more precise data is not available. However FAO FishStat, the most widely-used time-series data on global fisheries catch landings...
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Our societies will change following the COVID-19 crisis, as well as ocean management. Here we present 10 action points in a marine context, to re-energize our economies and avert the biodiversity and climate change crises of which the present COVID-19 crisis represents a portend: (1) promote carbon neutral economies to mitigate global warming; (2)...
Article
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The gill-oxygen limitation theory (GOLT) provides mechanisms for key aspects of the biology (food conversion efficiency, growth and its response to temperature, the timing of maturation, and others) of water-breathing ectotherms (WBEs). The GOLT’s basic tenet is that the surface area of the gills or other respiratory surfaces of WBE cannot, as two-...
Chapter
Fishes occur in a wider range of habitats than any other vertebrate or invertebrate group, from the upper reaches of streams in high mountain ranges to the mouths of temperate and tropical rivers, and from the intertidal zone to the ocean׳s abyss. Fish grow in size, spawn and die, either from natural causes (predation, diseases, ageing) or from bei...
Article
The maximum sustainable yield (MSY) concept is widely considered to be outdated and misleading. In response, fisheries scientists have developed models that often diverge radically from the first operational version of the concept. We show that the original MSY concept was deeply rooted in ecology and that going back to that version would be benefi...
Technical Report
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This contribution updates to 2018 a reconstruction of the catches of the Spanish marine fisheries in the Mediterranean (excluding the Balearic Islands) and the Gulf of Cadiz region (i.e., in the Atlantic) that initially covered the years 1950 to 2010. One major issue in this update was the absence of fishing gear information for catch per taxon. To...
Article
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Sixteen marine fish species (populations) exploited by Chinese fisheries were assessed, using published time series of catch and the CMSY and BSM methods. Given the catch times series as inputs, some ancillary information and reasonable constraints, carrying capacity, maximum sustainable yield, and likely time series of biomass and exploitation rat...
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Purpose of review: This review brings together recent key research related to the role of fisheries as a source of nutrients to improve human health and discusses the implications of fisheries policy on food- and nutrient-security. Recent findings: Recent studies highlight the critical role of fisheries to support human nutrition, describing the...
Preprint
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Understanding conflicts between objectives of fisheries and conservation is the key to finding win-win situations for marine biodiversity and fishers. Many marine species are threatened by harmful interactions with fisheries, but the threats they face are associated with the fishing gear used. Here, we undertake a novel analysis of marine species a...
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Small-scale fisheries are globally marginalized by management institutions; thus, they have to endure the consequences of ineffective regulations, environmental uncertainty, social traps and market inequity. Small-scale fisheries in Peru, one of the world's leading fishing countries, are important contributors to national employment, food security...
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A timeline of commercial fisheries extinctions and a list of threatened or extirpated marine species are presented to document the rapidly declining abundance of marine resources in the Turkish part of the Black Sea and Marmara Sea. Turkish nationally reported fisheries data were compared over a 50-year period from 1967 (the first year data were sp...
Article
Article 4 of EU Regulation 1380/2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) define ‘technical measure’ as “a measure that regulates the composition of catches by species and size and the impacts on components of the ecosystems resulting from fishing activities by establishing conditions for the use and structure of fishing gear and restrictions on ac...
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The status of 15 marine fish and invertebrate populations exploited by Chinese, South Korean or Japanese fishing fleets were assessed, using two newly developed computer-intensive methods, CMSY and BSM. The results show that among the 15 populations in question, 2 have collapsed, 3 are grossly over-fished and 9 are overfished. Also, we compared res...
Preprint
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A group of ocean experts brainstormed about the most pressing actions to be taken in favour of ocean conservation in the context of SARS-CoV2
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Brexit creates a systemic shock that provides a unique opportunity for the UK to implement a new sustainable Fisheries Policy to better manage the multiple stocks on which future fishers will depend on leaving the European Union. At the same time, the global slowdown of commercial fishing as a result of COVID-19 has reduced pressure on some threate...
Article
Fisheries around Africa have historically suffered from the erroneous perception that there is little to no data on or knowledge about these activities, beyond the sometimes questionable or sparse official reported capture statistics. However, concerted efforts by scientists in and associated with Africa have changed this over the last decades. Thi...
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To assess the changes that fisheries have imposed on the functioning of coastal marine ecosystems in China, 19 published Ecopath models were used to construct particle size distribution (PSD) spectra. The results show that high biomass of jellyfish from ranching operation impacted almost all of the ecosystems studied here. As well, an increasing im...
Article
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Due to limited data availability, only a small subset of the exploited fish and invertebrate populations have been assessed along Chinese coasts, which precludes comprehensive management of the fisheries. Here, we applied a length-based Bayesian biomass estimator (LBB) to 14 fish and invertebrate stocks in China’s coastal waters to estimate their g...
Chapter
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This contribution presents the detailed responses to the peer-review of Froese et al. (2019) "Estimating stock status from relative abundance and resilience" (ICES J. Mar. Sci. 2019) which outlined a method called "AMSY" for inferring biomass trends for stocks for which only catch-per-unit-effort and limited ancillary ('priors') data are available....
Article
The rationale and a strategy for the estimation of length‐weight relationships (LWR) using preserved specimens of less common fish species in museums is presented, along with preliminary results pertaining to 56 specimens and 31 species of fish from the Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia, the Marine Biological Specimen Museum of Chinese Academy o...
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The role that women play in fisheries around the world is receiving increasing international attention yet the contributions by women to fisheries catches continues to be overlooked by society, industry and policy makers. Here, we address this lack of visibility with a global estimation of small-scale fisheries catches by women. Our estimates revea...
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Commercial fisheries catches by countries are documented since 1950 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Unfortunately, this does not hold for marine recreational catches, of which only few, if any, estimates are reported to FAO. We reconstructed preliminary estimates of likely marine recreational catches for 1950—2014, based on independ...
Chapter
Fishing is our last industrial activity exploiting a wild renewable resource. The oceans, long perceived as an environment preserved from human action, have not escaped the general pattern of resource depletion under human exploitation. Scientists help society understand our changing ocean ecosystems and to identify global drivers of impacts on mar...
Article
A summary of the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT) is presented, i.e., of a theory seeking to explain a variety of life processes in fish and aquatic invertebrate by the fact that that the surface of their gills (and hence their oxygen supply) cannot, as 2-dimensional objects, keep up with the growth of their 3-dimensional bodies, and thus with...
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The Law of the Sea and regional and national laws and agreements require exploited populations or stocks to be managed so that they can produce maximum sustainable yields. However, exploitation level and stock status are unknown for most stocks because the data required for full stock assessments are missing. This study presents a new method [abund...
Article
Comparing the outputs of food web models with those from other independent approaches is necessary to build confidence in the use of these models to help manage fisheries. Mass-balance models such as Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) and stable isotope analysis are widely used to describe food webs, but the results from these methodologies are rarely compa...
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Based on growth and related fishery parameters, three approaches, yield-per-recruit (Y/R), utility-per-recruit (U/R) analyses, and relative biomass (B/B0) analyses were applied to 21 economically important, trawl-caught species in China's coastal seas to estimate their relative yield, economic value and biomass under different schedules of fishing...
Article
The Bohai Sea, in Northeastern China, which has been severely overexploited since the 1950s, is not only an exemplary case of the ‘fishing down’ phenomenon (where large, high-trophic level fish are replaced by smaller fish and invertebrates as the overall biomass is reduced), but also can be used to illustrate one of the masking effects for fishing...
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This article contains data on subsidies provided to the fisheries sector by maritime countries. The dataset is the culmination of extensive data collection efforts, extracting information from peer-reviewed and grey literature, national budgets, online databases, websites and other relevant sources (e.g. OECD, World Bank and WTO), in order to estim...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article contains data on subsidies provided to the fisheries sector by maritime countries. The dataset is the culmination of extensive data collection efforts using peer-reviewed and grey literature, national budgets, online databases, websites and other relevant sources (e.g. OECD, World Bank and WTO), in order to estimate the scope and magni...
Article
Steneck and Pauly present an historical account of the growth of the fishing industry and an update on the status of fish populations today, using several case studies to highlight the complex and profound effects that fishing has on marine ecosystems.