Daniel Lévy-Bruhl's research while affiliated with Santé Publique France and other places

Publications (345)

Article
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Background: The World Health Organization declared a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), on March 11, 2020. The standardized approach of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) allows for quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality of diseases and in...
Preprint
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Background: This study aimed to describe the use of diagnostic testing for COVID-19 in France until December 2021, the characteristics of people infected, and places of contamination. Methods: Data were collected from the national 2021 Health Barometer cross-sectional study, which was conducted between February and December 2021 and included French...
Article
Background: Vaccine recommendations for healthcare workers (HCW) aim to protect them and reduce transmission to susceptible patients. We conducted a national randomised survey in 2019 whose main objectives were to estimate national vaccination coverage (VC) for measles, pertussis, varicella, and influenza in HCW working in healthcare facilities (H...
Preprint
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Background Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) aims to protect them and to reduce transmission to susceptible patients. Influenza, measles, pertussis, and varicella vaccinations are recommended but not mandatory for HCW in France. Insufficient vaccine coverage for these diseases in HCW has raised the question of introducing mandatory vaccinatio...
Conference Paper
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Background The effective reproduction number (Rt) represents the average number of secondary cases generated by an infected person. During an outbreak, near-real-time monitoring of Rt constitutes a key indicator for detecting changes in disease transmission and assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The estimation of Rt usually requires iden...
Article
Objective The 23 French Regional Pneumococcal Observatories (ORPs) analyzed antibiotic resistance and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from invasive infections in France over a 12-year period. Methods Between 2009 and 2021, the ORPs analyzed 19,319 strains, including 1,965 in children and 17,354 in adults. Strains were assess...
Article
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Background A rapid increase in incidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (sub-lineage BA.1) occurred in France in December 2021, while the Delta variant was prevailing since July 2021. We aimed to determine whether the risk of a severe hospital event following symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection differs for Omicron versus Delta. Methods We conducte...
Article
Importance: An association between pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been previously established. However, it is unclear whether the decrease in IPD incidence observed after implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with concomitant changes in...
Article
Background Interventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic may impact other respiratory diseases.AimsWe aimed to study the course of pertussis in France over an 8-year period including the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with COVID-19 mitigation strategies, using multiple nationwide data sources and regression models.Methods...
Article
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Introduction: We aimed to describe patients with coexisting infective endocarditis (IE) and bacterial meningitis (BM). Methods: We merged two large prospective cohorts, an IE cohort and a BM cohort, with only cases of definite IE and community-acquired meningitis. We compared patients who had IE and BM concurrently to patients with IE only and B...
Article
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Background The burden of influenza morbidity and mortality in nursing homes (NH) is high. Vaccination of residents and professionals working in NH is the main prevention strategy. Despite recommendations, vaccination coverage among professionals is generally low. Methods We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey of NH using a single-stage s...
Article
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Background The incidence of invasive disease caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) has increased in multiple countries in the past 15 years. However, despite these reports, to the best of our knowledge, no systematic reviews and combined estimates of the incidence of invasive GAS have been done in key high-risk groups. To address this, we estimated...
Article
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IntroductionIn France, three complementary surveillance networks involving hospitals and paediatrician practices currently allow pertussis surveillance among infants (<1 year old) and children (1-12 years old). Data on incidences among adolescents (13-17 years old) and adults (≥ 18 years) are scarce. In 2017, a sentinel surveillance system called S...
Article
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With vaccination against COVID-19 stalled in some countries, increasing vaccine accessibility and distribution could help keep transmission under control. Here, we study the impact of reactive vaccination targeting schools and workplaces where cases are detected, with an agent-based model accounting for COVID-19 natural history, vaccine characteris...
Article
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Neuf mois après le lancement de la campagne vaccinale contre la Covid-19 en France, plus de 50 millions de personnes ont été vaccinées. Au 17 octobre 2021, 76% de la population a reçu au moins une première dose de vaccin et 74% est complètement primovaccinée. Les couvertures vaccinales (CV) varient notam-ment en fonction de l'âge et des département...
Preprint
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Background A rapid increase in incidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in France in December 2021, while the Delta variant was prevailing since July 2021. Aim To determine whether the risk of occurrence of a serious hospital event in adults following symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection differs for Omicron versus Delta. Methods A retrospective co...
Article
Introduction Despite seasonal influenza vaccination programmes in most countries targeting individuals aged ≥ 65 (or ≥ 55) years and high risk-groups, significant disease burden remains. We explored the impact and cost-effectiveness of 27 vaccination programmes targeting the elderly and/or children in eight European settings (n = 205.8 million). M...
Article
Europe has experienced a large COVID-19 wave caused by the Delta variant in winter 2021/22. Using mathematical models applied to Metropolitan France, we find that boosters administered to ≥ 65, ≥ 50 or ≥ 18 year-olds may reduce the hospitalisation peak by 25%, 36% and 43% respectively, with a delay of 5 months between second and third dose. A 10% r...
Article
Background In France, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been recommended in 2016 for men who have sex with men (MSM) up to age 26 years. Aim We aimed to estimate HPV vaccine coverage in 18–28 year-old MSM and identify uptake determinants. Methods We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, sexually transmitt...
Article
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Background After one year of stop-and-go COVID-19 mitigation, in the spring of 2021 European countries still experienced sustained viral circulation due to the Alpha variant. As the prospect of entering a new pandemic phase through vaccination was drawing closer, a key challenge remained on how to balance the efficacy of long-lasting interventions...
Article
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Since December 2019, over 1.5 million SARS-CoV-2-related fatalities have been recorded in the World Health Organization European Region - 90.2% in people ≥ 60 years. We calculated lives saved in this age group by COVID-19 vaccination in 33 countries from December 2020 to November 2021, using weekly reported deaths and vaccination coverage. We estim...
Article
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Background We aimed to assess the settings and activities associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant circulation in France, as well as the protection against symptomatic Delta infection. Methods In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults recruited between 23 May and 13 August...
Article
Background In April–May, 2013, France modified its pertussis vaccination schedule, which uses the acellular pertussis vaccine, from three primary doses at 2, 3, and 4 months of age and a first booster at 16–18 months of age (former schedule) to two primary doses at 2 and 4 months of age and a first booster at 11 months of age (new schedule). We aim...
Preprint
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Background The burden of influenza morbidity and mortality in nursing homes (NH) is high. Vaccination of residents and healthcare workers (HCW) is the main prevention strategy. Despite recommendations, HCW vaccination coverage is generally low. Methods We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey of NH using a single-stage stratified random sa...
Article
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Background: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against COVID-19 with the original virus and other lineages circulating in France. Methods: In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults with onset of symptoms between 14 February and 3 May 2021. Controls were non-infected adul...
Article
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Background We aimed to assess the role of different setting and activities in acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults recruited between 27 October and 30 November 2020. Controls were individuals from the Ipsos market research database matched to cases by age, sex, region,...
Article
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Background The roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines is a multi-faceted challenge whose performance depends on pace of vaccination, vaccine characteristics and heterogeneities in individual risks. Methods We developed a mathematical model accounting for the risk of severe disease by age and comorbidity, and transmission dynamics. We compared vaccine prior...
Preprint
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As vaccination against COVID-19 stalls in some countries, increased accessibility and more adaptive approaches may be useful to keep the epidemic under control. Here we study the impact of reactive vaccination targeting schools and workplaces where cases have been detected, with an agent-based model accounting for COVID-19 natural history, vaccine...
Article
Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (TTS) has been identified as a rare adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination with Vaxzevria. We modelled the benefits and risks of Vaxzevria distribution from May to September 2021 in metropolitan France where other vaccines are available, considering French hospitalisation data and European data on TTS. Across...
Article
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Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics whose intensity varies according to the circulating virus type and subtype. We aim to estimate influenza-like illness (ILI) incidence attributable to influenza viruses in France from October 2014 to May 2019. Physicians participating in the French Sentinelles network reported the number of patients with IL...
Article
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Assessment of the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and extent of the COVID-19 epidemic. Here, we report estimated seroprevalence in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed neutralising antibodies at three points throughout the first epidemic wave. Testing 11,0...
Preprint
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After one year of stop-and-go COVID-19 mitigation, some European countries still experience sustained viral circulation due to the B.1.1.7 variant. As the prospect of phasing out this stage through vaccination draws closer, it is critical to balance the efficacy of long-lasting interventions and their impact on the quality of life. Focusing on the...
Article
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Following the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant, social distancing was strengthened in France in January 2021. Using a two-strain mathematical model calibrated on genomic surveillance, we estimated that curfew measures allowed hospitalisations to plateau by decreasing transmission of the historical strains while B.1.1.7 continued to grow. Sc...
Article
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Background Regional monitoring of the proportion of the population who have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 is important to guide local management of the epidemic, but is difficult in the absence of regular nationwide serosurveys. We aimed to estimate in near real time the proportion of adults who have been infected by SARS-CoV-2. Methods In this mode...
Preprint
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Facing B.1.1.7 variant, social distancing was strengthened in France in January 2021. Using a 2-strain mathematical model calibrated on genomic surveillance, we estimated that social distancing allowed hospitalizations to plateau, by decreasing transmission of the historical strain while B.1.1.7 continued to grow. Variant dominance is expected by t...
Article
Background and objectives. The role of schools in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the community is still controversial. The objective of our study was to describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infections in different pediatric age groups during the first 2 months of the fall back-to-school period, in the context of increasing viral transmis...
Article
Objectives This study aimed at estimating the SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalization (IHR) and infection fatality ratios (IFR) in France. Patients and methods A serosurvey was conducted in 9782 subjects from the two French regions with the highest incidence of COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic and coupled with surveillance data. Result...
Preprint
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Background Regional monitoring of the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 is important to guide local management of the epidemic, but is difficult in the absence of regular nationwide serosurveys. Methods We developed a method to reconstruct in real-time the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 and the proportion of infections being detected from the jo...
Article
Le titre de la version publiée est : "Effect of change in vaccine schedule on pertussis epidemiology in France: a modelling and serological study".
Preprint
Seroprevalence results coupled with surveillance data were used to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalization (IHR) and infection fatality ratios (IFR) in France. IHR and IFR were dramatically high in the very elderly (80-90 years: IHR: 30%, IFR: 11%), but also substantial in middle-aged adults (40-50 years: IHR: 1.2%, IFR: 0.05%).
Preprint
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Background Assessment of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and the extent of the epidemic. As asymptomatic or mild cases were typically not captured by surveillance data in France, we implemented nationwide serological surveillance. We present estimates for prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies i...
Article
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Background: In December 2016, three cases of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease, including two children from the same middle school (11 to 15 years old pupils), occurred in the department (administrative district) Côtes-d'Armor (Brittany, France). They were infected by a rare strain (B:P1.7-2,4:F5-9:cc162), covered by the 4CMenB vaccine (B...
Article
Introduction Mayotte et La Réunion bénéficient d’une campagne de vaccination antigrippale correspondant à celle de l’hémisphère Sud. En effet, se basant sur les données de La Réunion décrivant une activité grippale durant l’hiver austral, le HCSP avait recommandé dès 2011, l’adaptation du calendrier et l’utilisation du vaccin de l’hémisphère Sud po...
Article
Introduction Fin mai 2019, des cas groupés de coqueluche en école maternelle étaient signalés à l’Agence régionale de santé (ARS) par le médecin de l’Éducation nationale. Malgré la mise en œuvre des mesures de gestion, deux nouveaux cas étaient signalés fin juin 2019 à l’ARS. La cellule régionale de Santé Publique France a mis en place une enquête...
Article
Introduction Les vaccinations contre la grippe, la rougeole, la coqueluche et la varicelle sont recommandées pour les soignants. Cette étude vise à estimer les couvertures vaccinales (CV) nationales et régionales des professionnels de santé en établissements de santé (ES) et d’étudier la position des professionnels vis-à-vis de l’obligation vaccina...
Article
Objectives and method: We conducted a prospective study in 2013 to compare the whole-cell versus acellular pertussis vaccines effectiveness and duration of protection, following the occurrence of pertussis clusters. Results: During seven school outbreaks, we identified 102 clinical pertussis cases, including 10 cases biologically confirmed by Borde...
Article
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End of April 2020, French clinicians observed an increase in cases presenting with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). Nationwide surveillance was set up and demonstrated temporospatial association with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic for 156 reported cases as at 17 May: 108 were classified as confirmed (n = 79), probab...
Article
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COVID-19 pandemic in France Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exacted a heavy toll in France during March and April 2020. Quarantine measures were effective in reducing transmission by 84%, and some relaxation of social isolation was expected in May. Salje et al. fit transmission models for the epidemic in France to hospital admissions. The autho...
Article
Objectives We aimed to estimate vaccine effectiveness against severe measles based on the number of vaccine doses administered and the time since last vaccination. Patients and methods We included measles cases aged at least 2 years and born since 1980 who were notified in France between 2006 and mid-2019. We considered two severity levels (modera...
Article
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Background: The number of homeless families has increased considerably since the 1990s in France. We aimed to estimate the homeless children vaccination coverage (VC) for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles–mumps–rubella and hepatitis B and identify factors associated with insufficient VC according to birthplace. Methods: A cross-sectional survey w...
Article
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Background: On 07/02/2020, French Health authorities were informed of a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in an Englishman infected in Singapore who had recently stayed in a chalet in the French Alps. We conducted an investigation to identify secondary cases and interrupt transmission. Methods: We defined as a confirmed case a person link...
Article
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Several French regions where coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported currently show a renewed increase in ILI cases in the general practice-based Sentinelles network. We computed the number of excess cases by region from 24 February to 8 March 2020 and found a correlation with the number of reported COVID-19 cases so far. The data suggest...
Article
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In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of th...
Article
Introduction En 2019, l’Agence régionale de santé (ARS) Grand Est a été désignée par l’arrêté du 14 juin 2019 pour mener une expérimentation visant à améliorer la couverture vaccinale contre les papillomavirus humains (HPV). Afin de cibler les territoires prioritaires et évaluer les actions mises en place dans le cadre de cette expérimentation, la...
Article
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A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) causing a cluster of respiratory infections (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was identified on 7 January 2020. The epidemic quickly disseminated from Wuhan and as at 12 February 2020, 45,179 cases have been confirmed in 25 countries, including 1,1...
Article
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Background Surveillance of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome, for which reporting has been mandatory in France since 2007, is a key component of TB control.AimWe aimed to present surveillance data for non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) cases reported between 2008 and 2014, and identify factors associated with potentially unfavourable treatment outcome...
Article
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Introduction In France, pneumococcal vaccination in adults is recommended for risk groups (chronic conditions/immunosuppression). We conducted a study on IPD in adults to identify factors associated with disease severity and death. Methods We included IPD cases, excluding meningitis, from 25 acute-care hospitals in six regions. We defined severe c...
Article
Pneumococcal vaccine serotypes and host factors may increase the risk of severe invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). In France, pneumococcal vaccination in adults is recommended for at-risk groups (immunosuppression or at-risk conditions/diseases). In 2014-2017, we conducted a study of IPD in adults to identify factors/serotypes associated with dis...
Article
Introduction: In France, the expansion of an hypervirulent strain causing serogroup W invasive meningococcal disease (MenW) has been observed since 2015/16. We describe a cluster of three MenW cases, causing two deaths, at the end of 2016 in a university campus, and the vaccination campaign which was consequently organized. Methods: Epidemiologi...
Article
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One year after the extension of the childhood vaccination mandates to the 11 routine vaccinations for children under 2 years old, we estimated vaccination coverage through vaccine reimbursement data. Coverage for children born in 2018 has notably increased. Moreover, vaccine coverage for children and for vaccines not concerned by the law have also...
Article
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Background: In non-endemic countries, malaria risk is addressed by selectively testing or deferring at-risk donors. These policy decisions were made using a variety of decision-making frameworks prior to the development of the Alliance of Blood Operators Risk Based Decision-Making Framework. It is unclear whether the range of items assessed in the...
Article
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae —including invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs)—remain a significant public health concern worldwide. The marked winter seasonality of IPDs is a striking, but still enigmatic aspect of pneumococcal epidemiology in nontropical climates. Here we confronted age-structured dynamic models of carriage transm...
Article
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As part of the evaluation of the French plan for the elimination of measles and rubella, we conducted a seroprevalence survey in 2013, aimed at updating seroprevalence data for people 18–32 years old. A secondary objective was to estimate measles incidence in this population during the 2009–2011 outbreak, and thus estimate the exhaustiveness of mea...
Article
Background and aimsSeasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) uptake (SIVU) rates in France are below target. We (i) describe trends in French SIVU over 10 consecutive seasons among different target groups and (ii) examine the effects of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic and the publication of new SIV recommendations in 2011 and 2013.Methods Our study...
Article
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Background Epidemiological analysis of past influenza epidemics remains essential to understand the evolution of the disease and optimize control and prevention strategies. Here, we aimed to use data collected by a primary care surveillance system over the last three decades to study trends in influenza epidemics and describe epidemic profiles acco...
Article
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Background Maps of influenza activity are important tools to monitor influenza epidemics and inform policymakers. In France, the availability of a high‐quality dataset from the Oscour® surveillance network, covering 92% of hospital emergency department (ED) visits, offers new opportunities for disease mapping. Traditional geostatistical mapping met...
Article
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Introduction Participatory surveillance systems provide rich crowdsourced data, profiling individuals and their health status at a given time. We explored the usefulness of data from GrippeNet.fr, a participatory surveillance system, to estimate influenza-related illness incidence in France. Methods: GrippeNet.fr is an online cohort since 2012 aver...
Article
Introduction Les infections invasives à pneumocoque (IIP) surviennent plus fréquemment sur certains terrains (âge, immunodépression, dysfonction chronique d’organe), et peuvent être prévenues par la vaccination, dont les modalités ont été actualisées en 2017 (généralisation du schéma « conjugué 13-v puis non-conjugué 23-v » chez l’adulte à risque)....
Article
Introduction L’obligation vaccinale BCG a été remplacée en juillet 2007 par une recommandation forte de vaccination des enfants à risque de tuberculose. Santé publique France (SpFrance) a été chargée de suivre l’impact de cette mesure sur la couverture vaccinale BCG et l’épidémiologie de la tuberculose. La pénurie de vaccin BCG survenue depuis nove...
Article
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On 4 December 2017, French parliamentarians passed a law extending the vaccination mandates for children up to 2 years of age from three vaccinations (against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis) to 11 by adding vaccinations against pertussis, Haemophilus influenza b (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal diseases, meningococcal C diseases, measles, mu...
Poster
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While respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are a known major cause of hospitalization for bronchiolitis among young children (<2 years), its incidence and severity in elderly (>65 years) is poorly documented. Anticipating the introduction of RSV vaccines, we evaluated whether RSV infections among young children and elderly could be estimate...
Article
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Background: Neisseria meningitidis group W (NmW) belonging to the clonal complex ST-11 (NmW/cc11) spread in Europe and in France in 2000 and declined thereafter. In France, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to NmW increased again in 2012 and thereafter since 2015. Several sub-lineages of NmW/cc11 are circulating worldwide with successive ep...
Article
The seasonalities of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) remain incompletely understood. Experimental evidence indicates that influenza-virus infection predisposes to pneumococcal disease, so that a correspondence in the seasonal patterns of ILIs and IPDs might exist at the population level. We developed a meth...
Article
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The 2014/15 influenza epidemic caused a work overload for healthcare facilities in France. The French national public health agency announced the start of the epidemic - based on indicators aggregated at the national level - too late for many hospitals to prepare. It was therefore decided to improve the influenza alert procedure through (i) the int...