Damaris K. Kinyoki's research while affiliated with University of Washington Seattle and other places

Publications (50)

Article
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Anemia is a globally widespread condition in women and is associated with reduced economic productivity and increased mortality worldwide. Here we map annual 2000–2018 geospatial estimates of anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) across 82 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stratify anemia by severity and aggregate r...
Article
Anemia is a globally widespread condition in women and is associated with reduced economic productivity and increased mortality worldwide. Here we map annual 2000–2018 geospatial estimates of anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) across 82 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stratify anemia by severity and aggregate res...
Article
Full-text available
Anemia is a globally widespread condition in women and is associated with reduced economic productivity and increased mortality worldwide. Here we map annual 2000–2018 geospatial estimates of anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) across 82 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stratify anemia by severity and aggregate res...
Article
Full-text available
Background Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is a simple intervention that can prevent childhood deaths from severe diarrhea and dehydration. In a previous study, we mapped the use of ORS treatment subnationally and found that ORS coverage increased over time, while the use of home-made alternatives or recommended home fluids (RHF) decreased, in many...
Article
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A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant...
Article
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Background Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease that can cause permanent disability through disruption of the lymphatic system. This disease is caused by parasitic filarial worms that are transmitted by mosquitos. Mass drug administration (MDA) of antihelmintics is recommended by WHO to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public hea...
Article
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Background: HIV remains the largest cause of disease burden among men and women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of HIV by 50-60%. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified 14 priority co...
Article
A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant...
Article
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Background To inform actions at the district level under the National Nutrition Mission (NNM), we assessed the prevalence trends of child growth failure (CGF) indicators for all districts in India and inequality between districts within the states. Methods We assessed the trends of CGF indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight) from 2000 to 20...
Article
Full-text available
A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant...
Article
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The profound impacts of childhood malnutrition, including both undernutrition and overweight, affect the economic, social and medical well-being of individuals, families, communities and nations 1,2. Undernutrition has been the most common form of malnutrition in LMICs 3 , but as populations experience economic growth, urbanization and demographic...
Article
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Childhood malnutrition is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally 1 . Undernourished children are more likely to experience cognitive, physical, and metabolic developmental impairments that can lead to later cardiovascular disease, reduced intellectual ability and school attainment, and reduced economic productivity in adulthood 2...
Article
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Educational attainment is an important social determinant of maternal, newborn, and child health1–3. As a tool for promoting gender equity, it has gained increasing traction in popular media, international aid strategies, and global agenda-setting4–6. The global health agenda is increasingly focused on evidence of precision public health, which ill...
Article
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Childhood malnutrition is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally¹. Undernourished children are more likely to experience cognitive, physical, and metabolic developmental impairments that can lead to later cardiovascular disease, reduced intellectual ability and school attainment, and reduced economic productivity in adulthood². Child...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood malnutrition is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally1. Undernourished children are more likely to experience cognitive, physical, and metabolic developmental impairments that can lead to later cardiovascular disease, reduced intellectual ability and school attainment, and reduced economic productivity in adulthood2. Child...
Article
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Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2—to end preventable child deaths by 2030—we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends....
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)—giving infants only breast-milk (and medications, oral rehydration salts and vitamins as needed) with no additional food or drink for their first six months of life—is one of the most effective strategies for preventing child mortality1–4. Despite these advantages, only 37% of infants under 6 months of age in Africa we...
Article
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HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Existing evidence has demonstrated that there is substantial local variation in the prevalence of HIV; however, subnational variation has not been investigated at a high spatial resolution across the continent. Here we explore within-country variation at a 5 × 5-km resolution in s...
Article
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Background Malnutrition and malaria are both significant causes of morbidity and mortality in African children. However, the extent of their spatial comorbidity remains unexplored and an understanding of their spatial correlation structure would inform improvement of integrated interventions. We aimed to determine the spatial correlation between bo...
Article
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Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 provided comprehensive estimates of health loss globally. Decision makers in Kenya can use GBD subnational data to target health interventions and address county-level variation in the burden of disease. Methods We used GBD 2016 estimates of life expectancy at bi...
Data
This file contains Supplementary Figures 1-46, Supplementary Tables 1-19, Supplementary Data, a Supplementary Discussion, Supplementary Methods and Supplementary References – see contents page for details.
Article
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Insufficient growth during childhood is associated with poor health outcomes and an increased risk of death. Between 2000 and 2015, nearly all African countries demonstrated improvements for children under 5 years old for stunting, wasting, and underweight, the core components of child growth failure. Here we show that striking subnational heteroge...
Article
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Introduction In Somalia, protracted conflict and drought have caused population displacement and livelihood destruction. There is also widespread childhood undernutrition. We aimed to determine the independent effects of conflict on wasting and stunting among children aged 6–59 months nationwide in Somalia. Methods Data were from household surveys...
Article
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The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007–2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared c...
Article
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Background: Stunting among children under five years old is associated with long-term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, economic productivity in adulthood and maternal reproductive outcomes. Accurate estimation of stunting and tools to forecast risk are key to planning interventions. We estimated the prevalence and distribution...
Technical Report
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Over the last 15 years the Government and international donors under the Roll Back Malaria Partnership have invested billions of shillings in reducing the burden of malaria in Kenya. In particular, significant funding and technical support has been received from the GFATM, PMI, DFID, WHO and other partners. Across the country, tens of million insec...
Article
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Objective Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correl...
Article
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Objective To determine the sub-national seasonal prevalence and trends in wasting from 2007 to 2010 among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia using remote sensing and household survey data from nutritional surveys. Methods Bayesian hierarchical space–time model was implemented using a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach in in...
Article
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To investigate the predictors of wasting, stunting and low mid-upper arm circumference among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia using data from household cross-sectional surveys from 2007 to 2010 in order to help inform better targeting of nutritional interventions. Cross-sectional nutritional assessment surveys using structured interviews were c...
Article
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Over a decade ago, the Roll Back Malaria Partnership was launched, and since then there has been unprecedented investment in malaria control. We examined the change in malaria transmission intensity during the period 2000-10 in Africa. We assembled a geocoded and community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate standardised to the age group 2-10 years...
Article
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Substantial development assistance has been directed towards reducing the high malaria burden in Malawi over the past decade. We assessed changes in transmission over this period of malaria control scale-up by compiling community Plasmodium falciparum rate (PfPR) data during 2000-2011 and used model-based geostatistical methods to predict mean PfPR...

Citations

... In Africa, hookworm often combines with malaria and schistosomiasis. Both children and women of reproductive age, including those who are pregnant, are especially vulnerable to the combined anemia that results from this polyparasitism [2]. Persistent or recurring diarrhea, especially from bacterial pathogens, may cause even greater levels of protein-energy malnutrition and stunting [1]. ...
... However, despite considerable efforts, no country is currently on track to achieve this goal. In fact, most countries have shown no progress or even worsening anaemia (di Cesare et al., 2021;Hasan et al., 2022;Kinyoki et al., 2021). Widening underlying inequities due to climate change, humanitarian conflicts and changes in health politics contribute to the agravated anaemia situation in vulnerable populations, such as reproductive-age women (African Development Bank et al., 2004;International Food Policy Research Institute, 2010;World Bank, 2019). ...
... In immunization coverage estimation, the use of BHM approaches has mostly focused on producing estimates of coverage at a high resolution (e.g, 1 km or 5 km grid squares covering an area of interest) and for subnational administrative areas (e.g. the district level), where the intermediate levels of the model relate to characterizing the spatial and spatiotemporal variation in the data using geostatistical and conditional autoregressive models (Local Burden of Disease Vaccine Coverage Collaborators, 2021; Utazi et al., 2020bUtazi et al., , 2021. Similar applications also exist in the estimation of other health and development indicators (e.g., Sahu et al., 2006;Burstein et al., 2019;Giorgi et al., 2021). Whilst estimates of immunization coverage produced using these approaches are extremely valuable for uncovering the spatial heterogeneities in coverage that often exist within countries, estimates of national immunization coverage and other indicators still remain the benchmark for policy and decision making, resource allocation and monitoring and evaluating progress at the global level. ...
... Adherence to WHO diarrhea guideline personnel made their clinical judgment not based on clinical evidence. For example, failure to provide ORS was found in this study and the others [11,15,16], even though ORS is the absolute main goal for the treatment of diarrhea [17], We found that the perception about the severity of diarrhea was used as a criterion for giving the ORS. Next, in this study, zero drugstore personnel have dispensed zinc because it was not known as a treatment option. ...
... The disease is caused by three nematode worms: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. Presently 893 million people in 49 countries are living at the risk of LF (Cromwell et al. 2020). The World Health Organisation (WHO) sponsored the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) and recommends Triple Drug Therapy to block the transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis. ...
... Modeling further predicts that achieving 90% VMMC coverage would avert as many HIV infections as attainment of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 HIV treatment goals [62]. However, most of ESA is far behind VMMC targets [101], despite many areas approaching or surpassing the 90-90-90 treatment targets [102]. The totality of this evidence suggests that VMMC remains an underutilized opportunity to accelerate HIV epidemic control. ...
... 4 Considering all these adverse effects of childhood stunting, in the World Summit for Children that was held at New York in 1990, the decision was made to take up the actions to "end the child death and child malnutrition and to provide the basic protection for the normal physical and mental development of all the world's children." 5 This international commitment was quickened in the Millenium Development Goals era, and further accelerated with the adoption of Global Targets 2025 set by WHO, the UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030, and the WHO/ UNICEF 2030 nutrition targets. 6 In accordance with these global targets with the international cooperation, Government of India is working hard to reduce malnutrition in the country by taking up numerous interventions and implementing policies and programs at nationwide. 7 Along with the existing programs such as Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), Reproductive & Child Health (RCH), National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Anganwadi Services, schemes for Adolescent Girls, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) and so on), has launched world's largest nutrition program, POSHAN Abhiyaan with the aim of improving nutrition among children and mothers in 2018. ...
... 17,20 While there is no national target for the prevalence of child overweight in 2022, the projected prevalence in 2022 of nearly 4% is closer to the average among low-and middle-income countries in 2017 (6.0%). [21][22][23] Given that the rise in the proportion of overweight children is expected to offset any reductions in undernutrition, the total prevalence of unhealthy weight among children in India will likely remain unchanged. 24,25 Mirroring the national scenario, in both rural and urban areas, we found that progress in undernutrition slowed, while overweight increased. ...
... A look at health variations within a province at finer geospatial levels is necessary to identify hot spots for targeted interventions. [42][43][44] On the basis of our analysis, we offer several policy recommendations that we believe could have a positive effect on health and health outcomes across provinces. The burden of non-communicable diseases, especially in provinces with high Socio-demographic Index, requires special attention from health authorities and can be achieved through reductions in modifiable dietary, metabolic, and other risk factors. ...
... I n 2020, despite improving trends globally, an estimated 144 million children (~22%) under 5 years of age had stunted growth. The largest burdens were found in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, which together accounted for >85% of global prevalence 1 . Child stunting has negative impacts on physical and cognitive development, future health, income earnings and labour productivity 2,3 . ...