Dale M. Willows's research while affiliated with University of Toronto and other places

Publications (29)

Article
To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in fa...
Article
The potential role of visual processing deficits in reading difficulty was brought to public attention by claims that a large proportion of children with dyslexia suffer from a perceptual dysfunction currently referred to as Meares-Irlen syndrome (MISViS). A previous study showing that visual perceptual measures involving visual memory and discrimi...
Article
Full-text available
Letter orientation confusions (reversals) in the reading and writing of 10-year-old children with and without reading disability were investigated to determine whether reading disability is associated with letter orientation errors and to identify the nature of the errors. In a variety of tasks measuring letter orientation confusions in reception (...
Article
Full-text available
A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of phonemic awareness (PA) instruction on learning to read and spell was conducted by the National Reading Panel. There were 52 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, and these contributed 96 cases comparing the outcomes of treatment and control groups. Analysis of effect sizes revealed that...
Article
A discrimination task involving backward pattern masking was designed to investigate differences between disabled and normal readers in text perception. Masking was observed for both groups with unfamiliar Japanese materials, but disabled readers were less sensitive in discriminating than were normal readers. The same result was obtained with Roman...
Article
The word recognition processes of proficient bilinguals were examined in their mother tongue (Greek) and in English in relation to the linguistic and syntactic characteristics along which the two languages differ. Their processes were then compared with those of monolingual readers.The following issues were addressed: the nature of bilingual functi...
Article
This research investigated specific processing strengths and weaknesses among three groups of readers who ranged in age from 6 through 10 years. The first-grade unsuccessful and the older unsuccessful readers had similar information-processing patterns, whereas collectively they differed significantly from the first-grade successful readers on shor...
Chapter
In the preface Berninger suggests five factors as explanations of why the role of orthography has not received as much attention as has the role of phonology in reading and writing acquisition. These include the following: (1) that the research is widely scattered throughout diverse literatures; (2) that there has not been a clear distinction betwe...
Article
Word recognition processes of monolingual readers of English and of Greek were examined with respect to the orthographic and syntactic characteristics of each language. Because of Greek's direct letter-to-sound correspondence, which is unlike the indirect representation of English, the possibility was raised of a greater influence of the phonologic...
Chapter
Why are we studying orthographic knowledge? Over the last 15 years, a majority of investigations of reading have been concerned with word recognition processes. In particular, they have focused on the role of cognitive and phonological processes in reading acquisition and reading disabilities. These studies have led most researchers and theoreticia...
Article
6-, 7-, and 8-year old [reading disabled and normal] children . . . were tested on a large battery of standardized and experimental tasks designed to assess individual differences in perceptual, cognitive and linguistic processing / purpose was to relate performance on these various measures to accuracy and speed of performance on tasks assessing p...
Article
This chapter discusses the role of visual processing in good and poor readers' utilization of orthographic information (OI) in letter strings. The chapter presents the results of the multiple regression analysis. The results show that for the younger, less experienced reader in Grade 2, both verbal and visual processing factors made significant con...
Article
This chapter presents an analysis of visual processes in dyslexic readers. There is a great deal of evidence to show that normal and disabled readers differ in their visual processing abilities, in a variety of contexts involving abstract patterns and textual information. Studies of basic visual processes, involving psychophysical methods, have pro...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this volume is to bring together a broad range of evidence that concerns the role of visual information in normal reading processes and in reading disabilities. Because reading processes are of concern to a diverse multidisciplinary group that includes cognitive scientists, speech and language pathologists, optometrists, neuropsychol...
Chapter
The present chapter addresses L2 word recognition in relation to both the writing scripts' characteristics and learners' reading proficiency. In addition to a literature review, it presents two studies that examined these issues. The first study on the reading of English-Greek bilinguals indicated that word recognition differs between languages dep...
Article
describes the visual perception and visual memory abilities of individuals who have difficulties in processing written language / theme is that it is premature to dismiss the potential role of visual processing problems in reading disabilities / presents . . . data on early visual information processing where younger nondisabled and disabled reader...
Article
A study investigated the development of information processing as it relates to the development of reading skills by studying how good readers and poor readers utilized orthographic information. Subjects, 90 good and poor readers from grades 2, 4, and 6, participated in four 30-minute sessions in which they were required to make a same/different ju...
Article
Contents: Introduction. Part I: Principles and Theories. I.Y. Liberman, D. Shankweiler, Phonology and Beginning Reading: A Tutorial. K.E. Stanovich, Changing Models of Reading and Reading Acquisition. C.A. Perfetti, Representations and Awareness in the Acquisition of Reading Competence. Part II: Starting to Learn to Read. P.B. Gough, C. Juel, The F...
Chapter
The visible world provides a rich and wondrous tapestry for observation and speculation. Where it cannot be directly experienced, it can be pictured in varying degrees of fidelity or abstractness. On the simplest of intuitive grounds, illustrations should thus serve as valuable teaching tools, bringing to the eye what otherwise can only be imagined...
Article
This research traced the development of grammatical sensitivity (both semantic and syntactic) across Grades 1, 2, and 3 on a variety of oral-language tasks and related this development to the acquisition of skill in reading, as reflected by a range of reading measures. The results provide clear evidence for the development of grammatical sensitivit...
Article
The current phase in the history of reading research was founded on the belief that basic research and theory development would eventually lead to better reading instruction. This chapter is a progress report.
Article
Assessed the influence of reading ability and difficulty of material on the types of oral reading errors made by 81 second-grade children. The results show that, overall, the proportion of graphically similar errors increased as material became more difficult, while the proportions of grammatically acceptable and semantically appropriate errors dec...
Chapter
The fostering of literacy in society is undoubtedly the most basic and valued objective of formal education. Because of the centrality of learning to read in the educational process, the topic of reading instruction has been much debated. There is almost universal agreement among educators and reading researchers that reading can be taught, and tha...
Article
Administered to 270 4th–6th graders the Culture Fair Intelligence Test and the Comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests. Matched pairs of skilled and less skilled readers then read aloud a variety of material in cloze procedure format and printed in geometric transformations. The extent to which the syntactic and semantic constra...
Article
Employing a cognitive-motivational analysis, the present investigation sought to determine some specific self-perceptions that might contribute to motivational and performance deficits observed in children with reading difficulties. 72 5th-grade boys of relatively good, average, and poor reading ability were assessed on tasks in which success and f...
Article
by reviewing the large literature on subtypes of learning/reading disabilities, [the authors] address the question of whether there may be a visual-processing-deficit subtype among the reading disabled / [argue that] the subtyping literature has produced considerable evidence that disabled readers differ among themselves with respect to their visua...

Citations

... Many researchers have examined students while they read continuous text. Some studies (Blaxall & Willows, 1984;Clay & Imlach, 1971;Kaye, 2002;Pumfrey & Fletcher, 1989;Williams & Clay, 1982) described different ways of problem solving students demonstrated when they read, but these studies did not examine Reading ...
... If possible, designers should provide instructional contents in multiple formats. Evans, Watson and Willows (1987) discussed the use of visuals in Canadian textbooks. They analysed 11,236 textbook pages. ...
... Since several paradigms have been used to demonstrate a transient system deficit in dyslexia, it is surprising that the internal validity of these tests has not been investigated by applying more than one of these procedures to the same subjects. Some experiments have failed to detect firm evidence of a transient system deficit in dyslexia (Muller & Groner, 1991;Kruk & Willows, 1991). ...
... L2 readers who come from alphabetic L1s show stronger relationships between phonological skills and literacy outcomes than those from non-alphabetic L1s (Koda, 1998;McBride-Chang et al., 2005;Wade-Woolley, 1999). Although much of this research has targeted L2 English, similar results have been found for learners of Chinese and Japanese, as well (Chikamatsu, 1996;Chitiri, Sun, Willows, & Taylor, 1992;Koda, 1989;Perfetti et al., 2007). Overall, this work demonstrates that although phonological awareness supports literacy acquisition cross-linguistically, the characteristics of the L1 writing system (and the corresponding structure of the L1 morphophonology, see Frost, 2012) also reciprocally impact phonological awareness and the degree to which both L1 and L2 readers rely on phonological information. ...
... In the other report, a word homophone was paired with a non-word pseudohomophone (e.g., RAIN, RANE;Olson, Kliegl, Davidson, & Folz, 1985). Individuals with dyslexia perform poorly on both these tasks compared to nondyslexics (Curtin, Manis, & Seidenberg, 2001;Gayan & Olson, 2003;Geva & Willows, 1994;Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Petersen, 1996;Olson, Wise, Conners, Rack, & Fulker, 1989). ...
... En cambio, si dicha percepción hace referencia a la forma oral, lo cual la propia autora pone en duda, se incurriría en una doble contradicción, ya que, por una parte, sería ilógico que los conocimientos ortográficos estuviesen tan estrechamente relacionados con la forma escrita, y por otra, las competencias ortoépica y ortográfica perseguirían el mismo objetivo, por lo que la existencia de la primera no tendría ninguna razón de ser. Además, es necesario considerar que los cinco puntos del MCERL que mencionan las condiciones necesarias para el dominio de la ortografía se refieren a conceptos grafémicos y no fonéticos.La propia definición de la competencia ortoépica como la correcta pronunciación de la forma oral partiendo de la forma escrita ya establece de por sí una conexión entre los conocimientos fonológicos y los ortográficos(Perfetti, 2013). Sin embargo, no aparece recogida en el MCERL una escala de descriptores para evaluar dicha competencia más allá de la que hace referencia al dominio de la ortografía, lo cual demuestra que el MCERL establece una evidente conexión entre la competencia ortográfica y la ortoépica(Fernández Martín, 2009).La competencia fonológica ocupa un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de las habilidades de lectoescritura, la cual constituye la base sobre la que se sustenta la adquisición de las competencias ortográfica y ortoépica, encargadas a su vez de relacionar las demás competencias con la escritura(Fernández Martín, 2016).Estas competencias escritas mencionadas con anterioridad, particularmente la competencia ortoépica, realizan una labor de intermediarias entre la competencia fonológica y las restantes competencias escritas cuando se lleva a cabo el aprendizaje de la escritura de una lengua extranjera, por lo que se podría inferir que las competencias ...
... Our study opens several new avenues for future crosslinguistic investigation of syntactic awareness and reading comprehension in bilingual students. Mimeau, Laroche, and Deacon (2019) suggested that indirect effects via word reading emerge in younger readers, with primarily direct effects of syntactic awareness on reading comprehension emerging in older readers (see also Willows & Ryan, 1986). In line with these ideas, there might be substantial differences in students' syntactic skills at different ages (e.g., Scott, 2004). ...
... The panel justified this action, because the report could turn into mandates for schools and the relationships between method and result needed to be very clear. The report was used as the basis for the Reading Excellence act instituted by George W. Bush and Secretary of Education Rod Paige in 2001 (Shanahan, 2002). ...
... 2) The prevalence rates of dyslexia range from 5 to 10% in school-age children, 3) and 30-50% have a family history of dyslexia. 4,5) Despite their knowledge of orthographical and gram-matical rules, 6) most individuals with dyslexia experience reading problems because they have difficulty learning the regularity of correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. 7,8) Reading is an automatic process that enables people to rapidly and implicitly shift their attention across a sentence before a saccade is made. ...
... Okuma güçlüğü olan çocuklarda yapılan görsel motor kontrol ile ilgili çalışmanın sonuçları, bulgularımızla tutarlı olarak benzerdir. 31 Uyanık ve ark., ilkokul öğrencilerinin yazı yazma performanslarına etki eden faktörleri araştırmak amacıyla yaptıkları çalışmada; uzayda pozisyon, desen kopya etme ve el fonksiyon testlerini kullanarak; görsel algılama, kinestetik algılama, görsel-motor performans ve motor planlama becerilerinin yazı yazmayı etkilediğini bulmuşlardır. 32 Görüldüğü gibi, literatür de çalışmamız gibi görsel motor beceriler ile yazı yazmanın okunabilirliğinin ilişkili olduğunu göstermektedir. ...