# D. Marinos-Kouris's research while affiliated with National Technical University of Athens and other places

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## Publications (83)

In recent years, the field of environmental management of industrial activities has been causing a great interest among scientists. This paper discusses the notion of entropy and the relationship of entropy to environmental management of industrial activities. In the paper, two case studies of Eco-Industrial Networks are presented: the case of alum...

Research conducted in recent years shows that the recycling of certain waste products through multilevel EcoIndustrial Networks has potential physical, spatial, economic and environmental conditions and limits that restrict its potential applications. This paper explores these limits on the spatial level. This paper analyses case studies of industr...

The prevailing approach to the environmental management of industrial activities is industrial symbiosis. It is defined as a relationship between two or more firms that exchange their waste (materials - energy - water), as feedstock for the production process. The companies that have such a relationship form an Industrial Ecosystem. Industrial Ecos...

This paper refers generally to the Planned Industrial Estates (PIEs) established under Greek Law 2545/97. A number of key features of PIEs are discussed here, including the prefectures in which the estates are established, the Greek Official Gazettes in which the establishment acts were published, the surface area in acres to be covered by the esta...

In recent years, great emphasis on the environment management of industrial activities has been given by the scientific community. The prevailing approach to this subject is the so-called pollution prevention. According to the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (US EPA) the pollution prevention refers to the use of materials, proc...

The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed rate (2.52–6.84 kg/h), feed moisture content (13–19% wet basis), screw speed (150–250 rpm), and extrusion temperature (150–260°C) on the mechanical properties of corn/legume-based extrudates was studied. White bean and lentil were used in mixtures with corn flour at a ratio of 10:90 up to 90:10 (co...

Density, shrinkage, and porosity are included in the mass- and volume-related properties that constitute one of the main groups of mechanical properties along with rheological, morphological, acoustic, and surface properties (Rahman and McCarthy, 1999). The importance of these properties is illustrated by the following applications:. Process design...

Thermal properties of new extruded products with texturized properties were examined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Corn-texturized protein systems were extrusion-cooked in a twin-screw extruder with varying feed rate (0.7–1.9 g/s), screw speed (150–250 rpm), extrusion temperature (150 to 260°C), and feed moisture content (13 to 19...

Additional types of silicone biopolymers are widely used in maxillofacial prosthetics. Therefore, the knowledge of the solar radiation’s effect on their structural stability is highly important. Four different industrially synthesized biomaterials were examined, called Episil Europe 1, Europe 2, Europe 3 and Africa 3, which were exposed to solar ra...

The water adsorption isotherms of LM and HM pectins and pectin gels (made from HM pectin with the addition of sugar) were determined at 25C, using the standard gravimetric method developed by the European Cooperation Project COST 90. the water-binding properties of these materials were studied through examination of the sorption data. the experimen...

Recently reported heat and mass transfer coefficient data in drying were retrieved from literature and were classified per dryer type and material. Most of the data were available in the form of empirical equations using dimensionless numbers. All available empirical equations were transformed in the form of Heat or Mass Transfer Factors versus Rey...

Moisture loss and oil adsorption kinetics, structural properties (apparent density, true density, specific volume and internal porosity), color changes and viscoelastic behavior (compression tests, crispness) were investigated during deep fat frying of french fries. The effect of frying conditions (oil temperature, sample thickness and oil type), d...

Recently published values of food properties, such as true density, apparent density, and porosity, in various foods were retrieved from the literature, classified, and analyzed. Data for more than 130 food materials classified into 11 food categories are presented. These ranges of data are reported as a function of material moisture content and te...

Published values of food properties, such as true density, bulk density, and porosity in various foods were collected from the literature and classified in a previous work. These values of the true density were processed in order to reveal the influence of material moisture content and temperature. A simple mathematical model, relating true density...

Central food markets are places of daily trading between clients and small and medium enterprises and understandably a field of massive logistics operations chiefly in the area of distribution. Since most enterprises have common characteristics, distribution logistics operations can be substantially aided by developing an Application Service Provid...

The effect of air conditions (air temperature, air humidity and air velocity) and characteristic sample size on drying kinetics of various plant materials (potato, carrot, pepper, garlic, mushroom, onion, leek, pea, corn, celery, pumpkin, tomato) was examined during air drying. A first-order reaction kinetics model was used, in which the drying con...

A mathematical model is proposed to simulate brackish karstic springs. Rainfall data constitutes model input information while output information is the discharge and the chloride concentration of the water versus time. The model was constructed by considering the mass and mechanical energy balance on the hydrodynamic analog, which includes three r...

The rehydration kinetics of various dehydrated fruits and vegetables (apple, potato, carrot, banana, pepper, garlic, mushroom, onion, leek, pea, corn, pumpkin, and tomato) were examined during rehydration at different temperatures. Dehydrated products were produced in an air dryer at 70 °C and 10% air humidity, and subsequently they were rehydrated...

The viscoelastic behaviour of french fries during deep fat frying after two different types of drying pre-treatment (air drying and osmotic dehydration) was examined under uniaxial compression tests. The stress-strain data of the compression test were modelled using a simple mathematical model, containing parameters such as the maximum stress (σmax...

The effect of duration of pre-drying on structural properties (apparent density, true density, specific volume and internal porosity) and color parameters (lightness, a, b) of fried potatoes was also investigated. The results showed that pre-drying pre-treatment had a significant effect on oil uptake and moisture loss, as well as structural propert...

Osmotic dehydration as a pretreatment before frying in order to produce low-fat french fries was examined. A relationship between frying kinetics and the type of solution used for osmotic dehydration before frying of french fries has been developed. The effect of osmotic dehydration on the structural properties (apparent density, true density, spec...

The effect of frying conditions on the colour changes during deep fat frying of french fries has been investigated. The Hunter colour scale parameters redness, yellowness and lightness were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of the main process variables (oil temperature, oil type and sample thickness). A first-order kineti...

The viscoelastic behaviour of french fries during deep fat frying was examined under uniaxial compression tests, as a function of the main process variables (oil temperatures, oil type) for various frying times. The stress–strain data of the compression test were modelled using a simple mathematical model, containing parameters such as the maximum...

The effect of pretreatment on color of convective dried products (namely apple, banana, potato and carrot) was investigated. Five different types of pretreatment were taken into consideration; microwave, osmotic, sulfite, water blanching and steam blanching. Color characteristics were identified by measuring the color parameters (namely, Lightness...

Drying related properties of apple are evaluated for various different drying methods (namely, convective, vacuum, microwave, osmotic and freeze drying), and their corresponding process conditions. The examined properties are drying kinetics, equilibrium material moisture content, density, porosity, color and viscoelastic characteristics. The effec...

Design of conveyor-belt dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of criteria that, together with cost, de...

An online data reconciliation system (DRS) has been developed for the diesel production process of the Hellenic Aspropyrgos Refinery SA, Greece. The new system successfully recognizes and prompts the operator of malfunctions of specific instrumentation. It assesses the operational performance of field instrumentation and creates proper calibration...

The effect of drying conditions, namely, microwave power, vacuum pressure, as well as sample geometry, on the drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics of five microwave vacuum dehydrated fruits (apple, avocado, mushroom, pear and strawberry) was studied. The investigation involved a wide range of microwave power, vacuum pressure and sample s...

The use of computers to perform simulations of chemical engineering processes has lead to the development of software tools that perform most tedious computations in the field of process analysis, mathematical modeling and design. In the case of dryers, these mathematical programming aspects can be dealt in a straightforward way. The mathematical m...

Viscoelastic properties for carrot and potato were experimentally determined by stress relaxation tests using uniaxial compressive tests of cylindrical specimens at various deformation rates (5,10 and 20 cm/min). Stress relaxation tests were performed following conventional drying at 70°C and 15% humidity for various moisture contents ranging from...

Drying kinetics of four Fruits (namely, apple, pear, kiwi and banana) were studied by introducing an one-parameter empirical mass transfer model, involving a characteristic parameter (drying constant), as a function of process variables. The model was tested with data produced in a laboratory dryer, using non-linear regression analysis. The investi...

A mathematical model for the semi-batch operation of industrial dryers with trucks and trays is presented and analysed. Design aspects are discussed concerning problems involving both single dryer and systems of parallel dryers. In both cases, optimum flowsheet configuration and operation conditions are sought and verified by appropriate formulatio...

A design method for reverse osmosis desalination plants has been developed. It incorporates rigorous mathematical models for the prediction of the performance of various process units (reverse osmosis modules, pumps, energy recovery turbines) employed in the flowsheet and taken into account the network structure using an appropriate superstructure,...

Fluidized bed and rotary dryers are two popular types of dryers utilized in almost every area of dryine. In this study, both dryers are analysed regarding their design and operational performance, so that they could be compared in a straightforward way. The mathematical models describing the convective drying process were evaluated for both types o...

Design and study of operational performance of convective industrial dryers are a strong indicator in the last stages of the selection procedure. This problem is addressed in a straightforward way for the three most popular types; conveyor-belt, fluidized bed and rotary dryers. Design was carried out by appropriately optimizing the total annual cos...

A design method for reverse osmosis seawater desalination systems has been developed. It incorporates rigorous mathematical models for the prediction of the performance of the various process units (reverse osmosis modules, pumps, energy recovery turbines) employed in the flowsheet and takes into account the network structure using an appropriate s...

Design and operational performance of convective industrial dryers are an important field of chemical engineering, which is still governed by empiricism. This article addresses the design vs. operation problem for three basic types of continuous convective industrial dryers: conveyor-belt, fluidized bed, and rotary. Design procedures determined the...

The permeate flux, permeate concentration, brine flux, and brine concentration have been experimentally determined. A pilot-scale reverse osmosis configuration consisting of 18 tubular-type cellulose acetate membranes has been used for the desalination of brackish water. The transport parameters (i.e., mass transfer coefficients) as well as the per...

The efficient dryer design and the optimization of existing drying processes require both effective drying models and hygrothermal properties. Following extensive research during the previous decades, today's existing models for the drying process are mostly adequate. Thus.most of the requirements for appropriate process design and operation depend...

A mathematical model of a tunnel dryer for the dehydration of grapes is presented and applied to the determination of optimal operating conditions of the dryer. The dryer is of semi-batch structure, operating with trucks and trays. The cycle period is determined by meeting appropriate quality specifications for the final product. The nominal condit...

A review of the recently reported moisture diffusivity experimental data in food materials is presented in this work. Values are classified and analysed statistically to reveal the influences of temperature and moisture content. Empirical models relating moisture diffusivity with the above variables, along with relevant graphs for various materials...

The use of computers to perform simulation of chemical engineering processes has lead to the development of software tools that Perform most tedious computations in the field of process analysis and design. The most popular Structures regarding process simulation of conventional and specialized processes are analyzed properly by considering the bas...

Heat and mass transfer modeling in the air drying of solids is considered as a two stage procedure. The former aims to discover the dominant heat and mass transfer phenomena (heat versus mass, internal versus external), the latter aims to formulate empirical equations for the calculation of the corresponding heat and mass transport properties (mass...

Drying operations constitute an important field of chemical engineering, which is still governed by empiricism. This paper deals with two important aspects related to the construction and operation of dehydration plants. The design problem involves the determination of process flowsheet structure, when a nominal production level is specified for al...

A model building technique involving the investigation of experimental drying data that comprise responses of material moisture content and temperature is presented. It is based on an iterative procedure in which an initial process mathematical model is tested for inadequacies observed in distributions of residuals produced when predicted state var...

The development of MlMO control systems for individual conveyor-belt drying chambers was studied for the case of industrial units used for the moisture removal from wet raisins. The process was considered to be a 2×2 open-loop system in which material moisture content and temperature at the exit of the drying chamber were to be controlled. Its dyna...

A software package for steady-state simulation of drying processes is described. A brief review of the simulator structure, along with an outline of its operation is presented. User input to the simulator consists of three parts; the flowsheet description-ie, the process units and the streams connecting them; the design problem data-ie, the feed st...

A mathematical model suitable for the design of conveyor belt dryers was developed. The objective of design was the evaluation of optimum flowsheet structure, construction characteristics, and operational conditions. The methodology followed was based on constructing a superstructure which involves a large number of minor structures, and optimizing...

Bulk density, particle density, shrinkage and porosity were experimentally determined at various moisture content during air drying for apple, carrot and potato cubes. A simple mathematical model was used to predict the above properties versus material moisture content. Four parameters were incorporated in the model: enclosed water density, dry sol...

A modular steady-state simulator has been developed in order to model and simulate processes involved in a dehydration plant. A brief review of the simulator simulator structure, along with an outline of its operation is presented. User input to the simulator consists of the flowsheet description, specification of unit design variables and feed str...

A critical presentation of the moisture diffusivity estimation methods in the field of solids drying is attempted. Methods are classified, discussed, and tabulated with corresponding references. Each particular method is briefly described and discussed in terms of its simplicity, accuracy of moisture diffusivity prediction, and applicability to var...

A nonlinear programming (NLP) approach to short- and long-term production planning for a multiproduct dehydration plant involving continuous conveyor belt dryers, utilized for the dehydration of agricultural products over a finite time horizon, is presented in this paper. Limitations imposed by storage capacity and customer orders, as well as const...

The effective moisture diffusivity as a function of temperature and material moisture content can be estimated using a model fitting procedure to drying data. A model is proposed which considers the basic heat and mass transfer mechanism, incorporating the effective moisture diffusivity as a function of temperature and material moisture content. Th...

The dynamic behavior of conveyor-belt dryers involving externally controlled heat and mass transfer phenomena has been studied via digital simulation. The investigation concerned an industrial dryer used for the moisture removal from wet raisins. The dryer consisted of three drying chambers and a cooling section, all involving the same conveyor bel...

PRISMA is a software package for process design and simulation of hydrometallurgical processes.PRISMA features are summarised as follows: a) a user friendly interface for flowsheet construction and data introduction, b) flexibility in constructing and modifying the flowsheet, c) rigorous mathematical modelling of specific hydrometallurgical unit op...

The equilibrium moisture content of potato, carrot, tomato, green pepper and onion was determined within the range of 10 to 90% water activity at three different temperatures (30, 45 and 60°C), using the standard static gravimetric method developed by the European Cooperation Project COST 90. The GAB equation was fitted to the experimental data, us...

The objective of much experimentation in drying is to build or discover a suitable model for a drying system. In this study, an attempt is made to formulate an approach to the problem of iteratively improving models, guided by the inefficiences of an initial tested model. This model involved both moisture diffusion coefficient and external mass tra...

The design problem of a multiproduct dehydration plant involving continuous conveyor-belt dryers utilised for the dehvdration of agricultural products over a fmite tim horizon, is presented. The peculiarities of the problem under demand-varying market patterns and time-variable market prices of raw materials are underlined. Limitations imposed by s...

Measurement of material moisture content is necessary for the control of product quality in batch drying. However, this variable cannot be measured on-line, and state estimation techniques are proposed. A non-linear dynamic model is developed for batch drying of foods. Process disturbances and measurement errors are modeled as stochastic processes...

Vagenas, G.K. and Marinos-Kouris, D., 1992. Use of the Wilson equation for the prediction of the sorptional equilibrium of sugar-based foodstuffs. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 78: 191-207.The concepts of phase equilibrium were applied for the representation of the water activity of five dried fruits characterized by high sugar content (raisins, currants...

The purpose of this investigation is to compare various drying models with respect to (a) the accuracy in calculating the material moisture content and temperature versus time and (b) the computation time required.Mechanistic as well as phenomenological heat and mass transfer models are considered. The mechanistic models are formulated by consideri...

Drying kinetics were examined by introducing one-parameter empirical mass aansfer model, where the characteristic parameter (drying constant), is a function of process variables. The model was tested with data produced in an experimental through dryer, using direct regression analysis. Investigation involved two vegetables (namely, green pepper and...

An externally controlled drying model, involving the heat and mass transfer coefficients as model parameters, is proposed. A non-linear regression procedure was applied to fit the model to experimental data on material moisture content and temperature. The precision and correlation of the estimated coefficients are examined by considering the joint...

The kinetics of drying fruit and vegetable foodstuffs are studied using a three-dimensional finite element model. The heat transfer effect is taken into account using an overall heat balance. The shrinkage of the sample during drying is also included in the system of equations. Two types of elements are used for the representation of the three-dime...

The kinetics of apricot dehydration was examined using a factorial experimental design in order to evalute the effect of air temperature, air velocity and pretreatment of the sample on the drying time and the transport coefficients of apricots. A finite element method was used to solve the differential equations describing the transfer of moisture...

A mathematical model of a tunnel dryer for sultana grapes is presented and applied for the determination of size and optimal operating conditions of the dryer. The optimum condition is given by the minimization of heat consumption, expressed as the ratio of thermal load to production, with some constraints regarding the production rate of the dryer...

The thermal properties of sultana grapes and raisins were investigated in the moisture content range 14–80% (wet basis) near room temperature. The density of the berries increased from 1080 to 1460 kg/m3 as the grapes were dried, following the model of an ideal mixture of dry solids and water. The specific heat and the effective thermal conductivit...

A model is proposed for predicting the permeate flux, permeate concentration, and brine concentration as a function of time in a reverse osmosis apparatus, when crystallization of calcium sulphate occurs. The model combines the classical reverse osmosis equations, appropriately modified, with the kinetics of crystallization. The model is solved by...

Moisture sorption isotherms of dried fruits [Sultana raisins, Corinthian (black) currants, figs, prunes, and apricots] were determined at 15, 30, 45, and 60°C, using the standard static gravimetric method developed by the European Cooperation Project COST 90. Experimental curves showed an inverse effect of temperature at high moisture content due t...

The heats of moisture adsorption and desorption in four dried fruits (sultana raisins, figs, prunes and apricots) were estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in the temperature range 15–60°C. The net isosteric heat of sorption (qst) decreased sharply from about 20 kJ mol−1 water to near zero when the moistur...

A theoretical model for the convective drying of food materials was developed. These materials shrink considerably, as moisture content decreases; for this reason, the proposed model takes shrinkage into account as a fundamental part of the drying operation. This is accomplished by modeling the movement of dry solids and the consequent movement of...

Four mathematical models, describing the moisture transfer during Virginia tobacco curing under varying air-temperature and humidity were tested using experimental data from an industrial dryer.The model, based on the assumption that the major resistance to moisture transfer is at the air boundary layer and that the driving force is the water activ...

The phenomenon of calcium sulphate deposits on reverse osmosis membranes was studied. A mathematical model was proposed and solved, which can predict the permeate flux, as well as the mass of deposits on the membrane as a function of time. The model is based on the following assumptions: (1) The rate of deposition is proportional to the deviations...

The moisture adsorption isotherms for dried raisins, figs, prunes, and apricots were determined at 15, 30, 45 and 60°C, using the gravimetric static equilibrium method. The applicability of the GAB (Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) model to the experimental results was found to depend on the regression method employed. So, using direct non-linear regre...

Linear programming (LP) is useful to optimize gasoline blending problems. The LP mathematically represents the blending problem, taking into account the various blend components and their properties, the availability or inventory of the components, and the economic consequences associated with each particular blend. Use of the LP model allows the r...

Detailed instructions have been compiled to allow refinery process engineers to develop their own linear programs (LP) for gasoline blending optimization. A linear program is a very useful mathematical technique, widely employed by many process industries for production planning and optimization. The first of this two-part series of article details...

In the reported study, the distillation of volatile organic compounds from aqueous solutions in an agitated film evaporator investigated. Assuming mass flow and axial diffusion in the liquid film, a simplified equation is derived, which predicts closely the distillation of volatile compounds from dilute aqueous solutions. It is demonstrated that th...

## Citations

... The literature (Adamczak et al. 2015;Nowak et al. 2016) demonstrates that chemical composition of meat (water, protein, and fat content) is strictly correlated to its density. The density determination can be performed using several methods: pycnometric, hydrostatic, and indirectly with modern method of 3D scanning, thanks to which a precise volume determination is possible, which allows for the calculation of a product density (Marcotte et al. 2008;Michailidis et al. 2009;Kelkar et al. 2011). In the publications on the use of 3D scanning in food examinations, the authors focused their attention primarily on issues of precision of product volume estimation. ...

... Various mathematical models are available for the optimization of drying characteristics and to support dryers design (Kiranoudis et al., 1992). These available models can be used for the estimation of drying parameters and to represent the generalized drying curves (Midilli et al., 2002). ...

... These observed D eff values were consistent with published literature such as ð0:2 -10Þ × 10 −9 m 2 /s in potato, carrot, onion, and green pepper at 60-80°C [32,33] and 10 -12 -10 -8 m 2 /s in peas at 60-80°C [34]. These potassium diffusivity values were slightly lower than those of water and NaCl diffusivities (ð8:2 − 12:3Þ × 10 −9 m 2 /s) obtained during osmotic dehydration of potato at 25-55°C [35] but compare favourably with those of KCl (1:82 × 10 −9 m 2 /s) at 25°C [36]. ...

... The combination of compressing and drying can help reduce costs of potato drying (Obidziński, 2012). Other potential methods include rotary drying, drum drying and solar drying (Mujumdar, 2006). For preliminary cost assessment, it could be reasonable to use dried sugar-beet pulp as a cost analogue, due to the similar water content (Harland et al., 2006), and the fact that it is manufactured in the case study country, the UK. ...

... Furthermore, a lack of established synergies between firms of the sample and independent firms can be identified, as the low DII of 0.30 indicates an overall low level of cooperation for the exchange of waste/energy/byproducts for achieving the goals of industrial ecology. An improvement is expected in this area, as Greece has taken steps towards the establishment of both local eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and national or even global eco-industrial networks, following the example of the most famous EIP in the world located in Kalundborg, Denmark Marinos-Kouris and Mourtsiadis, 2013). Finally, the findings from Table 6 demonstrate that the examined plastics firms have mainly implemented SA related to the closed and slowed loops. ...

... The tapping density of the powder is of industrial importance in storage, processing, packaging, and product distribution (Dhanalakshmi et al., 2011). The tapping density of Kadam powder is Kadam fruit powder is less than that of wheat flour (Michailidis et al., 2009). ...

... It has a good purification effect on harmful substances in the outdoor air and has become a safety barrier for the residential environment. rough the air detection data of the actual case indoor space, combined with the theories of indoor green decoration materials and green art design, comprehensive research and discussion of the environmental problems brought by materials and design in indoor space design are carried out [18]. ...

... During pregnancy, the placenta is responsible for the supply of nutrients from the mother to the fetus. In animal world, placenta is eaten by Females to restore their nutrients, thereby it used to human health [3,4,5]. ...

... The permeation of salts through hydrophilic nonporous membranes occurs through different possible mechanisms [251][252][253], of which the most common mechanism includes the adsorption of salt molecules into membranes, followed by smooth passage through the polymer matrix by diffusion. In fact, the salt permeation was found to be significantly affected by several important membrane-based factors, such as the temperature, the free-volume space within the membrane, the hydrodynamic radius of the dissolved substances, the closeness of solubility parameters between membrane and component, and the possible electrostatic interactions between membrane and substance. ...

... It is assumed that the characteristics of brown beans are similar to that of grapes; hence, same values are adopted for this study and are supposed to be constant throughout the drying period, regardless of the moisture content (Bilanski & Fisher, 1976). Also, it is assumed that thermal properties of grapes such as specific heat (C p ) is depend on temperature and moisture and calculated using the following equation as follows (Vagenas & Marinos-Kouris, 1991) ...