D H Baker's research while affiliated with University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and other places

Publications (142)

Article
Two experiments with finishing pigs were conducted to evaluate the effects of fluctuating dietary CP levels and ractopamine on performance and carcass traits. In Exp. 1, a total of 408 finishing pigs (mixed sex) were assigned to 1 of 4 protein regimens. Average initial and final BW were 89 and 123 kg, respectively. Pigs on treatments 1 to 4 were fe...
Article
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This study was conducted to compare the concentration of standardized digestible (SDD) Lys and relative bioavailable Lys in 7 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A second objective was to evaluate 2 in vitro methods, reactive Lys and color score, to predict the concentration of SDD Lys and bioavailable Lys in DDGS. Seven s...
Article
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Five 9- or 12-d chick growth bioassays were done in batteries using 2 Met-deficient diets: a purified AA-based diet containing (by analysis, as-fed) 20.3% CP, 0.12% Met, and 0.05% cyst(e)ine; and an AA-fortified corn-peanut meal diet containing (by analysis, as-fed) 19.0% CP, 0.22% Met, and 0.23% cyst(e) ine. Feed-grade DL-Met (dl-M; 99%) was compa...
Article
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Three bioassays were conducted to elucidate the effects of dietary cystine on the efficacy of l-Met and dl-Met fed to chicks. In assay 1, a purified diet markedly deficient in Met (0.12%) and cyst(e)ine (0.05%) was used to compare the relative effectiveness of l-Met and dl-Met in the presence of graded levels of dietary cystine. Addition of 0.05% M...
Article
Feeding high leucine levels (2.0 and 3.0% total dietary leucine) to finishing pigs (73 to 127 kg liveweight) increased the intramuscular fat content of the longissimus muscle in pigs fed diets with low lysine levels (0.5% total dietary lysine) but not in animals fed high lysine levels (0.7 %).
Article
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Relative bioavailability and toxicity of N-acetyl-l-Cys (NAC) were evaluated in 9-d chick growth assays. The bioavailability of NAC relative to Cys was determined by feeding young chicks a highly purified crystalline AA diet singly deficient in Cys. Bio-availability estimates were obtained using standard slope-ratio methodology. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine...
Article
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Two experiments determined the efficacy of an Escherichia coli phytase (ECP) added to P-deficient, corn-soybean meal diets fed to finishing pigs and second-cycle laying hens. Sixty finishing pigs (49 +/- 0.9 kg) were formed into blocks within sex based on weight and ancestry and allotted to a P-deficient diet unsupplemented or supplemented with 0.1...
Article
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Catabolism of Trp and Lys produces alpha-ketoadipic acid as an intermediary metabolite. An alternate pathway of Trp turnover leads to NAD synthesis. We hypothesized that excess Lys might improve the conversion of Trp to niacin by causing a buildup of alpha-ketoadipic acid, thereby endproduct inhibiting the main Trp catabolic pathway and resulting i...
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Four experiments (Exp.) were conducted with Cobb 500 chicks to evaluate variations in the estimated digestible sulfur amino acid (DSAA) requirement of broilers due to rearing environment, sex, or growth performance during the starter period (7 to 19 d), and live performance response and carcass yield characteristics during the grower period (21 to...
Article
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Three experiments (Exp) were conducted to study the effect of reciprocating (i.e., back-and-forth) fluctuations in dietary Lys concentration on growth performance of male broiler chicks. The Lys, CP, and ME concentrations were fluctuated in Exp 1 by varying corn and soybean meal concentrations. Corn-peanut meal diets in Exp 2 and 3 contained a cons...
Article
To compare the effectiveness of 2 phytase enzymes (Phyzyme and Natuphos), growth performance, fibula ash, and Ca and P digestibilities were evaluated in 4 studies. The first 3 studies used 832 pigs (i.e., 288 in the nursery phase, initial BW 8.1 kg; 288 in the grower phase, initial BW 24.2 kg; and 256 in the finisher phase, initial BW 57.8 kg) and...
Conference Paper
W Animal studies have shown that several methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) analogs or precursors have L-Met- and L-CYS-Sparing activity. Relative oral bioavailability (RBV) values, with the L-isomer of Met and Cys set at 100% (isosulfurous basis), are near 100% for D-Met for animals but only about 30% for humans. Both the OH and keto analogs of M...
Article
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Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of OptiPhos phytase and citric acid for releasing the P that is not bioavailable in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The effect of OptiPhos phytate on AME(n) and amino acid digestibility was also determined. New Hampshire x Columbian chicks were fed experimental diets from...
Article
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Four experiments were conducted to evaluate variations in the digestible lysine (DLYS) requirement estimates of broilers due to rearing environment, sex, or growth performance during the starter period (7 to 21 d) and due to sex, growth, and carcass yield characteristics during the grower period (21 to 38 d). In the first 3 experiments, chicks were...
Article
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Previous research in our laboratory has shown that citric acid (CA) improves phytate P utilization in New Hampshire x Columbian (NHC) crossbred chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if CA is also effective in commercial broiler chicks (Ross x Ross). In 3 experiments, 4 replicate groups of 5 ma...
Conference Paper
There is no good evidence for establishing branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) tolerance levels for humans. With pigs, chicks, and rats, data are available concerning excessive intake levels of BCAA, but most of the information is for growing animals instead of for adults. Estimates of maintenance requirements for (high-quality) protein and BCAA in pi...
Article
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Forty-eight barrows and forty-eight gilts (PIC 337 sires x PIC C22 dams) were evaluated to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) and different cereal grains on the carcass and fat quality in late finishing pigs. The study was carried out using four replicates with 24 animals in each replicate (four pigs per pen, six pens...
Article
(1) Four chick experiments were conducted to determine toxicity estimates for basic zinc chloride (BZC) and basic copper chloride (BCC), now being used as sources for these minerals. (2) In experiment 1, New Hampshire x Columbian crossbred chicks were fed 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 3000 and 5000 mg Zn/kg from BZC (Zn5Cl2(OH)8). Broken-line regression anal...
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The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding a vitamin E-rich diet would benefit nursery pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Sixty-four pigs were subjected to one of four treatment combinations (2 x 2 factorial) of dietary vitamin E (adequate or excess) and PRRSV (medium or inoculation wit...
Article
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Previous research from our laboratory has shown that phytase, citric acid, and 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol [1alpha-(OH) D3] individually improve phytate P use in young chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet. The current study was conducted to evaluate combinations of these additives on phytate P utilization. In 3 chick experiment...
Article
Three pig trials were done to estimate an objective requirement of young (10 to 20 kg) pigs for leucine (Leu). Within each trial, four or five replicates of five pigs were given ad libitum access to their experimental diet for a period of 21 (trial 1) or 19 days (trials 2 and 3). A Leu-deficient diet (177 g crude protein per kg) based on maize, pea...
Article
Three pig trials were carried out to determine the true digestible Ile requirement for maximal weight gain and minimal plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) of late-finishing (87 to 105 kg) pigs. In Exp. 1, an Ile-deficient basal diet was developed and confirmed to be markedly deficient in Ile, yet fully efficacious when fortified with surfeit Ile. This diet...
Article
A pig trial and a chick trial were done to determine the effect of high levels of Zn and Cu on the P-releasing efficacy of phytase. Ninety-nine individually fed pigs (7.2 kg) were given ad libitum access to one of 11 experimental diets for a period of 21 d. Fibula ash (mg) was regressed against supplemental inorganic P (iP) intake (g) to establish...
Conference Paper
The principal differences between experimental animals and humans with regard to amino acid responses are 1) growing animals partition most of their amino acid intake to protein accretion, whereas growing children partition most of their intake to maintenance; 2) invasive assessment procedures are common in animals but very limited in humans; and 3...
Article
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Four trials investigated the effect of high levels of three phytase enzymes on P and protein utilization in chicks. The three phytases were derived from Aspergillus (Fungal Phytase 1), Peniophora (Fungal Phytase 2), and E. coli. Within each assay, 8-d-old male chicks were given ad libitum access to their experimental diet for 10 to 14 d. For Trials...
Article
Four trials investigated the effect of high levels of three phytase enzymes on P and protein utilization in chicks. The three phytases were derived from Aspergillus (Fungal Phytase 1), Peniophora (Fungal Phytase 2), and E. coli. Within each assay, 8-d-old male chicks were given ad libitum access to their experimental diet for 10 to 14 d. For Trials...
Article
Full-text available
Two trials with growing-finishing pigs were conducted to evaluate the effects of fluctuating dietary CP levels and/or space allocation on performance and carcass traits. In Trial 1, three CP regimens were used with 216 growing-finishing pigs (mixed sex). Average initial and final weights of pigs were 31 and 103 kg, respectively. The CP regimens con...
Article
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Previous research in our laboratory demonstrated marked increases in phytate P utilization when P-deficient corn-soybean meal diets were supplemented with 1a-hydroxycholecalciferol [1alpha-(OH) D3] and fed to chicks. Our objective was to determine if 1alpha-(OH) D3 would improve phytate P utilization when supplemented to vitamin D-adequate laying h...
Article
The effect of feeding corn-soybean meal-based diets with two levels of supplemental leucine (0 vs. 2%) on growth, carcass, and pork quality characteristics was evaluated in 40 individually fed finishing pigs over a 39-d feeding period (78.4 ± 3.46 to 114.8 ± 7.30 kg liveweight). Supplemental dietary leucine reduced weight gain (8.7%; P < 0.05), but...
Article
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Three pig bioassays and two digestibility trials were conducted to determine the true digestible Ile requirement for maximal weight gain and minimal plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) of growing (25 to 45 kg) pigs. In Exp. 1, an Ile-deficient basal diet was developed and confirmed to be markedly deficient in Ile, yet fully efficacious when fortified with s...
Article
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Six experiments (EXP) were conducted to evaluate growth performance of different breed crosses of broiler chicks fed diets containing soybean meal, soy protein isolate (SPI), soy protein concentrate (SPC), or rice and casein. Cornish x Plymouth Rock (C x PR; EXP 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6) or New Hampshire x Columbian (NH x C; EXP 2 and 4) cross chicks were...
Article
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Four chick trials and one pig trial were conducted to investigate the phosphorus-releasing efficacy oftwo commercial phytase enzymes (Natuphos and Ronozyme) and an experimental E. coli phytase enzyme (ECP) when added to corn-soybean meal diets containing no supplemental inorganic P (iP). In the 13- or 14-d chick trials, three or four graded levels...
Article
Widespread use of soyabean meal in pig diets brings forth issues dealing with soyabean antinutritional compounds, especially those that are heat-stable following processing into soyabean meals. Microbial enzyme supplements have been used in an attempt to eliminate these antinutritional compounds, which include phytate and flatulence-producing carbo...
Article
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Six bioassays were conducted to determine the ideal ratios of several amino acids relative to Lys. Young male crossbred chicks were fed diets based on corn gluten meal and synthetic amino acids that could be made singly deficient in Lys, Trp, Thr, Ile, or Val. Diets for all assays contained 3,400 kcal ME/kg, and L-glutamic acid was used to make all...
Article
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) is the primary infectious pathogen responsible for enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Although Mh is thought to impair growth performance, whole-body composition, and fat and protein accretion in pigs with pneumonia have not been reported and the mechanism through which Mh reduces growth is unknown. The objectives of this stu...
Article
Late-finishing pigs (n=408) with an average initial weight of 84kg were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing microbial phytase to maize–soyabean meal diets in which sources of supplemental phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) were removed. The four dietary treatments employed were: (1) positive-control which included...
Article
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Data previously reported in several studies have suggested that phytase improves amino acid digestibility in chicks. It was the objective of the current study to determine if phytase would increase the protein efficiency ratio (PER) values (g weight gain per g protein intake) for several feed ingredients fed to chicks. Six experiments were conducte...
Article
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The limiting amino acids for lactating sows were determined using 28 primiparous sows that were intentionally underfed both energy and protein during a 21-d lactation. Groups of four sows were allotted to litter-size treatments of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 by cross-fostering as needed within 48 h postpartum. Sows were killed on d 21 of lactation. T...
Article
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Data previously reported from our laboratory indicated that supplementation of a corn-soybean meal diet with citric acid improves P utilization in chicks. The four experiments reported herein were conducted to further evaluate the effects of citric acid on Ca and P utilization for chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Diets in all experiments were f...
Article
Six experiments were conducted to determine the true digestible valine requirement of 5- to 20-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a valine-deficient diet for 5- to 10-kg pigs was developed and validated in terms of growth performance in response to supplemental L-valine. A different basal diet was validated for 10- to 20-kg pigs in Exp. 2. Both diets were demonst...
Article
The digestibility of amino acids in sow's milk consumed by young pigs is currently unknown because of difficulties associated with collecting an adequate quantity of milk, and also problems in cannulating suckling pigs. A total of 14 kg of sow's milk was collected, two soluble indigestible markers (Co-EDTA and YbC13) were added, and the milk was fe...
Article
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Three chick assays were conducted to determine a bioavailable Zn requirement and to establish a Zn relative bioavailability (RBV) value for tetrabasic Zn chloride [TBZC, i.e., Zn5Cl2(OH)8]. In Assay 1, 8-d-old chicks were fed a Zn-deficient soy concentrate diet (8.8 mg/kg bioavailable Zn) supplemented with 0, 5.81, 10.81, 15.10, and 20.25 mg Zn/kg...
Article
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Three chick experiments and two cecectomized rooster experiments were conducted to determine P bioavailability and amino acid (AA) digestibility in two low phytate corns (LP), a high protein corn (HP), and a corn containing both low phytate and high protein content (HP/LP) compared with conventional corn (CONV). From 8 to 20 or 21 d of age, 1-wk-ol...
Article
Commercial sources of zinc oxide (ZnO) differ widely in Zn relative bioavailability (RBV), but it is unknown whether growth-promoting efficacy in young pigs is influenced by RBV of the ZnO sources used. We compared a low-RBV (39%) ZnO manufactured by the Waelz process (W) to a high-RBV (93%) ZnO manufactured by the hydrosulfide process (HS). Antiba...
Article
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Data previously obtained from our laboratory have indicated that citric acid was very effective at improving phytate-P utilization in chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet. The objective of the current study was to determine if citric acid would have similar effects in a commercial strain of Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens (n...
Article
An amino acid deletion assay, a protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay, and a slope-ratio growth assay were used to establish the limiting order of AA, and to determine the effects of microbial phytase on protein utilization in corn gluten meal (CGM) fed to chicks during the period of 8 to 21 d posthatching. In Assay 1, a 12% CP CGM diet was fortifie...
Article
1. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of relative deficiencies of methionine and threonine on the growth performance of 8- to 21-d-old chicks fed on isoenergetic diets containing a wide range of crude protein (CP) concentrations from dehulled soyabean meal (SBM). 2. Chicks fed on graded levels of SBM containing supplemental methioni...
Article
A phytate-containing soy protein concentrate (SPC) diet (13.5 mg Zn/kg) and a phytate-free egg white diet (.3 mg Zn/kg) were used to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Zn in dehulled soybean meal (SBM) based on Zn depletion-repletion growth bioassays in young chicks. After a 4-d Zn depletion period, chick weight gain responded linearly...
Article
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A conventional and two genetically modified soybean samples were processed to dehulled soybean meal (SBM) at a pilot plant and were compared with SBM from a commercial processing plant. Crude protein levels (%) of the experimental SBM samples were M700, 52.5; M702, 53.4; and M703, 62.7. The commercial SBM sample (UI) contained 47.5% protein. Amino...
Article
Several bioassays were conducted with young chicks and pigs fed phosphorus (P)-deficient corn-soybean meal diets. With diets for chicks containing .62% Ca and .42% P (.10% available P), graded doses of a citric acid + sodium citrate (1:1, wt:wt) mixture (0, 1, 2, 4, or 6% of diet) resulted in linear (P < .01) increases in both weight gain and tibia...
Article
The effects of pelleting and storage of a complex nursery pig diet (28% lactose and 1.4% lysine) on lysine bioavailability were assessed in a chick bioassay. The nursery diet was steam-conditioned at 60 degrees C for 45 s and then pelleted through a 5-mm die with a depth of 38 mm. Samples of meal and pelleted diet were placed in metallic feeders in...
Article
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Two bioassays were conducted to determine the maintenance requirement and efficiency of utilization of dietary Lys in young chicks. New Hampshire x Columbian males were used in Assay 1 and Avian x Avian males were used in Assay 2. In each assay, chicks were given free access for 10 d to crystalline amino acid (AA) diets containing graded levels of...
Article
Three zinc depletion-repletion assays were carried out with chicks to determine Zn bioavailability in five sources of ZnO, three sources of ZnSO4.H2O, and two sources of Zn metal. A standard 23% CP corn-soybean meal diet was fed during the first 3 d posthatching, after which it was replaced with a Zn-deficient soy concentrate diet (13.5 mg Zn/kg) u...
Article
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Two experiments were conducted to assess the bioavailability of lysine from a liquid lysine product (LLP; 60% lysine) relative to crystalline L-lysine.HCl. In the first experiment, four groups of five chicks were fed a lysine-deficient basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and feather meal or the basal diet supplemented with 0.1 or 0.2% lysine...
Article
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The effects of repeated injections of 400 microg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on chick performance from 11 to 22 d posthatching were examined in chicks fed casein-based diets containing graded levels of arginine. Administration of LPS reduced (P < 0.05) weight gain, feed intake, and protein accretion, and there was a tendency (P=0.07)...
Article
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Three trials were carried out with pigs between 5 and 8 wk of age to determine the limiting order of amino acids in a 13.5% CP corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 8% dried whey. The positive-control diet was a 19.2% CP corn-soybean meal-based diet (1.15% lysine), also with 8% dried whey. Amino acid additions to the low-protein, negative-control...
Article
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Two Zn depletion/repletion assays were conducted with chicks to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Zn from two new by-products of the galvanizing industry. Using a soy concentrate-dextrose diet, slope-ratio methodology was employed to evaluate two different products: Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O with 20.2% Fe and 13.0% Zn, and Zn-FeSO4 x H2O with 14...
Article
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Iron depletion-repletion assays were carried out with young chicks to establish Fe bioavailability values for Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O (22.7% Fe), Fe-ZnSO4.H2O (20.2% Fe, 13.0% Zn), Zn-FeSO4.H2O (20.2% Zn, 14.2% Fe), and cottonseed meal (200 mg Fe/kg). Standard hemoglobin response curves were established using feed-grade FeSO4.H2O (28.8% Fe) or reagent-grade...
Article
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One hundred and sixteen crossbred male chicks were used in two battery trials to establish the biological efficacy and toxicity of D-allothreonine (D-allo-Thr) relative to L-Thr. In the efficacy trial, graded doses of D-allo-Thr or L-Thr were added to a Thr-deficient (0.24% L-Thr) chemically defined diet and fed to chicks during the period 10 to 21...
Article
1. Young chicks were used to evaluate the efficacy of 2 new vitamin D3 analogs relative to 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1 alpha-OH D3) for their ability to improve the bioavailability of phytate-bound phosphorus (P) when added to P-deficient maize-soyabean meal diets that were superadequate in cholecalciferol. 2. Both 20-epi-19-nor-1,25-(OH)2 D3...
Article
1. Three battery experiments were conducted with broiler chicks during the 2nd and 3rd week of life. Graded amounts of cholecalciferol (D3) were added to maize-soyabean meal diets that were designed to be (a) severely deficient in available phosphorus (P), (b) marginally deficient in calcium (Ca) or (c) adequate in both available P and Ca. 2. With...
Article
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In Exp. 1, young pigs were fed a basal diet containing .17% methionine (Met) (.14% digestible Met), and .48% cystine (.38% digestible cystine) for 14 d (34 to 48 d of age). Treatment additions were .25% DL-Met, .34% betaine, .30% choline, or .25% DL-Met and .34% betaine. Methionine, but not betaine or choline supplementation, increased (P < .05) we...
Article
Commercial and laboratory-strain crossbred chicks responded (P < .01) markedly to 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1alpha-OH D3) during the 2nd and 3rd wk of life. Bone-ash responses exceeded 50% when this compound was added at 20 microg/kg to phosphorus (P)-deficient corn-soybean meal diets containing surfeit levels (25 microg/kg) of cholecalciferol...
Article
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An Fe depletion-repletion chick bioassay was conducted to determine whether supplemental microbial phytase or 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1 alpha-OH D3) would improve the bioavailability of Fe in soybean meal (SBM). Weight gain, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were markedly improved when increasing levels (0, 10, 20, and 80 mg/kg) of Fe from analyti...
Article
The emerging view is that reduced feed intake, lean muscle accretion, and growth in immunologically challenged pigs is the result of increased cytokine activity, but this has not been directly tested. To begin addressing this issue, 72 crossbred barrows and gilts (11.55 +/- .19 kg BW) were not fed for 12 h and then injected i.p. with 0, .5, or 5 mi...
Article
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Studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of supplemental microbial phytase to improve performance of young chicks fed phytate-containing, amino acid-deficient diets. Diets based on corn and peanut meal or soybean meal (SBM) and dextrose were fed to young chicks housed in battery cages for 10- and 13-d experimental periods. Assays were designe...
Article
Young chicks were fed isocalonc or constant calorie:protein diets containing increasing doses of unfortified or amino acid (AA) fortified (Met, Thr, Val) dehulled soybean meal (SBM). In all cases, SBM was provided to meet the (ideal) digestible Lys requirement of 5.2% of crude protein (CP), and diets containing 10, 14, 18, 22 or 26 g/100g CP were f...
Article
Choline plays an important role in human health via its relationship to homocysteine metabolism, and it is an essential nutrient for young chicks. Our objective was to evaluate choline bioavailability in soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) and peanut meal (PM), using a severely choline-deficient diet containing soy protein isolate and 2-amino-2-me...
Article
The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of amino acid-deficient diets and high dietary leucine levels offered for intervals of either 21 or 35 days pre-slaughter on the intramuscular fat content of pig muscle. Twenty-four hybrid gilts were offered individually ad libitum one of four diets that comprised combinations of amino aci...
Article
Young pigs (5 wk of age and 8 kg) were used to test the efficacy of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1 alpha-OH D3) and microbial phytase for improving the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) and amino acids present in corn-soybean meal (SBM) diets. Phytase supplementation (1,200 units/kg) to a vitamin D3-adequate, P-deficient corn-SBM diet elicit...
Article
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Attempts to determine choline bioavailability have encountered criticism of experimental diets and protocol. Our objectives were to develop a choline-deficient soy isolate diet to quantify bioavailable choline concentration of soybean lecithin and to compare results to those obtained with a purified diet. In Assay 1, weight gain of chicks fed a cho...
Article
There is much interest in the metabolism of homocysteine, because elevated plasma homocysteine [hyperhomocyst(e)inemia] is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Four chick assays were conducted to determine the effects of varying dietary sulfur amino acids, choline and betaine on the activity of hepatic betaine-h...
Article
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The effects of an acute bout of prolonged exercise on the activities of several hepatic lipogenic enzymes and the abundance of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA were evaluated using a food deprivation-refeeding protocol in which diets contained 50% of the energy from either fructose or cornstarch. Food was withheld from male rats for 48 h and refed fo...
Article
Experiments were conducted with chicks during the period 10-20 d posthatching to assess valine accretion and protein accretion as a function of incremental valine intakes between 5 and 95% of its ideal level (requirement for maximal growth). Chemically defined crystalline amino acid diets were fed, and amino acids other than valine were maintained...
Article
Two chick experiments were conducted to compare the growth-promoting efficacy as well as the toxicity of a new source of L-tryptophan and L-lysine, Tryptosine (16.1% tryptophan, 56.3% lysine). A corn-feather meal-soybean meal basal diet was made singly deficient in either lysine or tryptophan, and graded doses of lysine or tryptophan from either Tr...
Article
The nutritive value of high-fat yeast (HFY; Cryptococcus curvatus) was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, chicks were used to compare effects of supplemental fat from HFY or tallow on growth performance and fatty acid composition of breast and thigh muscles. In Experiment 2, adult cockerels were used to determine the true metabolizable...