D. Giardini's research while affiliated with ETH Zurich and other places

Publications (609)

Preprint
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The InSight mission has measured Mars' seismicity since February 2018 and has allowed to investigate tectonics on another planet. Seismic data shows that most of the widely distributed surface faults are not seismically active, and that seismicity is mostly originating from a single graben structure, the Cerberus Fossae. We show that both major fam...
Article
We take advantage of the new large AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN) as part of the AlpArray research initiative (www.alparray.ethz.ch), to establish a consistent seismicity catalogue for the greater Alpine region (GAR) for the time-period January 1st, 2016–December 31st, 2019. We use data from 1103 stations including the AASN backbone composed of 35...
Preprint
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Solid body tides provide key information on the interior structure, evolution, and origin of the planetary bodies. Our Solar system harbours a very diverse population of planetary bodies, including those composed of rock, ice, gas, or a mixture of all. While a rich arsenal of geophysical methods has been developed over several years to infer knowle...
Article
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Since early 2019, the InSight mission has proven that Mars is seismically active, with more than 900 seismic events recorded. Among them, several events have characteristics close to terrestrial tectonic earthquakes. Most of these events are located on the major graben system of Cerberus Fossae and, a little further north, on the secondary system o...
Article
National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) mission on Mars continues to record seismic data over 3 yr after landing, and over a thousand marsquakes have been identified, to date. With only a single seismic station, the determination of the epicentral locat...
Article
Carbon capture and storage in geological reservoirs is essential to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions, but is only effective if long-term storage is ensured and no leakage occurs, for example through unknown faults in the caprock that seals the reservoir. To test how the integrity of a caprock can be monitored non-invasively, we conducted an inject...
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Analyses of seismic data from the InSight mission have provided the first in situ constraints on the thickness of the crust of Mars. These crustal thickness constraints are currently limited to beneath the lander that is located in the northern lowlands, and we use gravity and topography data to construct global crustal thickness models that satisf...
Preprint
NASA's InSight mission on Mars continues to record seismic data over 3 years after landing, and to date, over a thousand marsquakes have been identified. With only a single seismic station, the determination of the epicentral location is far more challenging than on Earth. The Marsquake Service (MQS) produces seismicity catalogues from data collect...
Preprint
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The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), which is currently under construction, is designed to measure gravitational wave signals in the milli-Hertz frequency band. It is expected that tens of millions of Galactic binaries will be the dominant sources of observed gravitational waves. The Galactic binaries producing signals at mHz frequency ra...
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For over three Earth years the Marsquake Service has been analyzing the data sent back from the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure—the seismometer placed on the surface of Mars by NASA’s InSight lander. Although by October 2021, the Mars seismic catalog included 951 events, until recently all these events have been assessed as lying within a...
Article
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The increased interest in subsurface development (e.g., unconventional hydrocarbon, engineered geothermal systems (EGSs), waste disposal) and the associated (trig-gered or induced) seismicity calls for a better understanding of the hydro-seismo-mechanical coupling in fractured rock masses. Being able to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory a...
Article
The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission has been collecting high-quality seismic data on Mars since early 2019 that provide the first direct observations of its interior structure. Here we report on a complete analysis of the part of the marsquakes known as the low-frequency seismic events...
Article
Recycling of chemically stratified oceanic lithosphere at subduction zones and mantle mixing is the main source for the production and long-term maintenance of heterogeneities as evidenced through mantle samples and the presence of seismic scatterers. The mantle transition zone (MTZ), which is bound by seismic discontinuities around 410 and 660 km...
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Constraints on the composition of Mars principally derive from chemical analyses of a set of Martian meteorites that rely either on determinations of their refractory element abundances or isotopic compositions. Both approaches, however, lead to models of Mars that are unable to self-consistently explain major element chemistry and match its observ...
Article
The existence of subsurface oceans on the satellites of the giant planets and Trans-Neptunian objects has been predicted for some time. Liquid oceans on icy worlds, if present, exert a considerable influence on the dynamics of the ice-ocean system and, because of the astrobiological potential, represent an important objective for future missions to...
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Full-text available
NASA’s InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission has operated a sophisticated suite of seismology and geophysics instruments on the surface of Mars since its arrival in 2018. On 18 February 2021, we attempted to detect the seismic and acoustic waves produced by the entry, descent and landing of...
Preprint
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The NASA InSight Lander on Mars includes the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package HP$^3$ to measure the surface heat flow of the planet. The package uses temperature sensors that would have been brought to the target depth of 3--5 m by a small penetrator, nicknamed the mole. The mole requiring friction on its hull to balance remaining recoil f...
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We introduce a new approach to the computation of gravito-elastic free oscillations or normal modes of spherically symmetric bodies based on a spectral element discretization of the radial ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Our method avoids numerical instabilities often encountered in the classical method of radial integration and root findin...
Article
The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structures (SEIS) was deployed on Mars in November 2018 and began science operations in March 2019. SEIS is the primary instrument of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission, which was launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)....
Article
The rate of occurrence of High Frequency (HF) marsquakes, as recorded by InSight at Homestead Hollow, Elysium Planitia, increased after about LS=33∘, and ceased almost completely by LS=187∘, following an apparently seasonal variation with a peak rate near aphelion. We define seismic rate models based on the declination of the Sun, annual solar tide...
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Orbital and surface observations can shed light on the internal structure of Mars. NASA's InSight mission allows mapping the shallow subsurface of Elysium Planitia using seismic data. In this work, we apply a classical seismological technique of inverting Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves extracted from ambient seismic vibrations to resolve, for the...
Data
Hobiger, M., Hallo, M., Schmelzbach, C. et al. (2021): The shallow structure of Mars at the InSight landing site from inversion of ambient vibrations. Nat. Commun. 12, 6756, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26957-7.
Article
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Since its deployment at the surface of Mars, the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument of the InSight mission has detected hundreds of small-magnitude seismic events. In this work, we highlight some features of two specific families: high-frequency (HF) and very-high-frequency (VF) events. We characterize the shape of the ener...
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The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) seismometer was deployed to the surface of Mars in December 2018–February 2019. The specific deployment conditions, which are very different from those of a standard broadband instrument on the Earth, result in resonances caused by different parts of the sen...
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Seismological constraints obtained from receiver function (RF) analysis provide important information about the crust and mantle structure. Here, we explore the utility of the free-surface multiple of the P-wave (PP) and the corresponding conversions in RF analysis. Using earthquake records, we demonstrate the efficacy of PPs-RFs before illustratin...
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We investigate the scattering attenuation characteristics of the Martian crust and uppermost mantle to understand the structure of the Martian interior. We examine the energy decay of the spectral envelopes for 21 high-quality Martian seismic events from sols 128 to 500 of InSight operations. We use the model of Dainty, Toksöz, et al. (1974) to app...
Article
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASAs) Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) lander successfully touched down on Mars in November 2018, and, for the first time, a seismometer was deployed on the surface of the planet. The seismic recordings reveal diurnal and seasonal changes of...
Article
The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) of the InSight mission to Mars has been providing direct information on Martian interior structure and dynamics of that planet since it landed. Compared with seismic recordings on the Earth, ground-motion measurements acquired by SEIS on Mars are not only made under dramatically different ambient...
Preprint
Full-text available
Existence of subsurface oceans on the satellites of the giant planets and Trans-Neptunian objects has been predicted for some time. Oceans on icy worlds exert a considerable influence on the dynamics of the ice-ocean system and, because of the astrobiological potential, represent an important objective for future missions. The Pluto-Charon system i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The increased interest in subsurface development (e.g., unconventional hydrocarbon, deep geothermal, waste disposal) and the associated (triggered or induced) seismicity calls for a better understanding of the hydro-seismo-mechanical coupling in fractured rock masses. Being able to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and reservoir scales, c...
Article
Seismic wave propagation is intrinsically a process in time and space. Although seismometers make point measurements only, dense, large‐aperture seismic networks allow the full observation and analysis of wave propagation. We present a new visual representation of teleseismic phases by combining time‐dependent ground‐motion visualizations with arra...
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In December 2018, the NASA InSight lander successfully placed a seismometer on the surface of Mars. Alongside, a hammering device was deployed at the landing site that penetrated into the ground to attempt the first measurements of the planetary heat flow of Mars. The hammering of the heat probe generated repeated seismic signals that were register...
Article
Clues to a planet’s geologic history are contained in its interior structure, particularly its core. We detected reflections of seismic waves from the core-mantle boundary of Mars using InSight seismic data and inverted these together with geodetic data to constrain the radius of the liquid metal core to 1830 ± 40 kilometers. The large core implies...
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A planet’s crust bears witness to the history of planetary formation and evolution, but for Mars, no absolute measurement of crustal thickness has been available. Here, we determine the structure of the crust beneath the InSight landing site on Mars using both marsquake recordings and the ambient wavefield. By analyzing seismic phases that are refl...
Article
For 2 years, the InSight lander has been recording seismic data on Mars that are vital to constrain the structure and thermochemical state of the planet. We used observations of direct ( P and S ) and surface-reflected ( PP , PPP , SS , and SSS ) body-wave phases from eight low-frequency marsquakes to constrain the interior structure to a depth of...
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In preparation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) Discovery Program mission, Böse et al. (2018) calibrated magnitude scales for marsquakes that incorporated prelaunch knowledge of Mars’ interior structure and the expected ambient and instrumen...
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The origin of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, remains elusive. While the morphology and their cratered surfaces suggest an asteroidal origin1,2,3, capture has been questioned because of potential dynamical difficulties in achieving the current near-circular, near-equatorial orbits4,5. To circumvent this, in situ formation models have been pro...
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We report on the first subpicometer interferometer flown in space. It was part of ESA’s Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission and performed the fundamental measurement of the positional and angular motion of two free-falling test masses. The interferometer worked immediately, stably, and reliably from switch on until the end...
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The entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence of NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover will act as a seismic source of known temporal and spatial localization. We evaluate whether the signals produced by this event will be detectable by the InSight lander (3,452 km away), comparing expected signal amplitudes to noise levels at the instrument. Modeli...
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Seismic observations involve signals that can be easily masked by noise injection. For the NASA Mars lander InSight, the atmosphere is a significant noise contributor, impeding the identification of seismic events for two‐thirds of a Martian day. While the noise is below that seen at even the quietest sites on Earth, the amplitude of seismic signal...
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Since February 2019, NASA's InSight lander is recording seismic signals on the planet Mars, which, for the first time, allows to observe ongoing tectonic processes with geophysical methods. A number of Marsquakes have been located in the Cerberus Fossae graben system in Elysium Planitia and further west, in the Orcus Patera depression. We present a...
Article
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The InSight Mission began acquiring the first seismic data on Mars in early 2019 and has detected hundreds of events. The largest events recorded to date originate at Cerberus Fossae, a young volcanic region characterized by high volume, low viscosity lava flows. A handful of Low Frequency (LF) quakes that share key attributes of Long Period quakes...
Article
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High-pressure fluid injections cause transient pore pressure changes over large distances, which may induce seismicity. The zone of influence for such an injection was studied at high spatial resolutions in six decameter-scaled fluid injection experiments in crystalline rock. Pore pressure time series revealed two distinct responses based on the la...
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The transport of chemically reactive fluids through fractured clay-rich rocks is fundamental to many subsurface engineering technologies. Here, we present results of direct-shear laboratory experiments with simultaneous imaging by X-ray Computed Tomography in Opalinus claystone with subsequent fluid injection to unravel the interplay between mechan...
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Strong ground motion records and free open access to strong-motion data repositories are fundamental inputs to seismology, engineering seismology, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering science and practice. This article presents the current status and outlook of the Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology (ORFEUS) coordina...
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We investigated the induced seismicity, source mechanisms and mechanical responses of a decameter-scale hydraulic stimulation of a pre-existing shear zone in crystalline rock, at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. The analysis reveals the meter-scale complexity of hydraulic stimulation, which remains hidden at the reservoir-scale. High earthquake...
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The success of geological carbon storage depends on the assurance of permanent containment for injected carbon dioxide (CO2) in the storage formation at depth. One of the critical elements of the safekeeping of CO2 is the sealing capacity of the caprock overlying the storage formation despite faults and/or fractures, which may occur in it. In this...
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We present a new class of seismic signals that are recorded by the seismometer placed on the surface of Mars as part of the NASA InSight mission. The signals, termed super high frequency (SF) events, are of short duration (∼20 s), are often similar in amplitude, and feature high‐frequency energy between ∼5 and 30 Hz that is dominant on the horizont...
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Abstract One of the goals of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission is to constrain the interior structure of Mars. We present a hierarchical transdimensional Bayesian approach to extract phase velocity dispersion and interior shear‐wave velocity (VS) models from a single seismogram. This...
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The seismometer deployed on the surface of Mars as part of the InSight mission (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) has recorded several hundreds of marsquakes in the first 478 sols after landing. The majority of these are classified as high-frequency (HF) events in the frequency range from approximately 1...
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We image the thermo‐chemical structure of crust and mantle underneath the North American continent by inverting recordings of P‐to‐s (Ps) and S‐to‐p (Sp) converted seismic body waves (receiver functions; RF). Through careful data selection and processing, we construct a multi‐frequency Ps (5, 8, 10 s) and Sp (10, 15 s) RF data set from USArray reco...
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Seismic noise recorded at the surface of Mars has been monitored since February 2019, using the InSight seismometers. This noise can reach −200 dB. It is 500 times lower than on Earth at night and it increases of 30 dB during the day. We analyze its polarization as a function of time and frequency in the band 0.03–1 Hz. We use the degree of polariz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Statistische Analyse der zeitlichen Verteilung von High Frequency Marsquakes, nachweis einer zeitlich variablen eventrate und quantitatives ranking möglicher physikalischer mechanismen.