D. Dickins's scientific contributions

Publications (11)

Article
To produce quantitatively useful GPR models it is necessary to first build realistic electric property models. Sea ice is a complex mixture of brine and ice crystals and the electrical properties depend on temperature, salinity, and ice crystal orientation. We developed a frequency dependent electric property algorithm based on existing empirical m...
Article
This paper summarizes the different Oil in Ice Joint Industry Program (JIP) remote sensing activities carried out from 2007 to 2009, including: technology review and selection, airborne systems, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite imagery, trained dogs, and airborne Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). A key finding is that flexible combinations of...
Article
The knowledge regarding weathering processes in Arctic oil spills and especially with the presence of ice is limited. Experimental studies have been performed in laboratories, but only to a limited degree in the field. This presentation summarized and compared results from field experiments performed in Norway in 1989, 1993 and 2003–2006. Two full-...
Article
Marine oil spills can occur in the Arctic due to pipeline breaks or leaks and spills from storage or production facilities. Depending on the time of year and scenario, a portion or all of the spill may become trapped under and/or encapsulated within the sea ice sheet. The current methods for locating spilled oil include visually inspecting drilled...
Article
Full-text available
There is a worldwide need to develop practical remote sensing systems to detect and map oil in and under ice. Such systems would facilitate leak detection and greatly improve spill response capabilities in ice-covered waters. Results from November 2004 tests with oil spilled under an ice sheet grown from urea-doped water at the Cold Regions Researc...
Article
An overview of the nearshore ice conditions in the shallow waters off the Colville River delta and within the southern portion of Harrison Bay in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea is presented. The nearshore ice environment in the region downriver of the recent and ongoing Alpine oil field developments in the Colville Delta area is characterized. Based on t...
Article
Interest was expressed early in 2001 in extending the capabilities of Ohmsett to include testing of spill response equipment in realistic ice conditions. In particular, there was a desire to quantitatively test the oil recovery performance of the prototype Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice (MORICE) skimmer in representative sea ice in January 2002. A...

Citations

... Three major joint industry programmes regarding the behaviour and fate of oil in sea ice have taken place -the first was a 4-year SINTEF-led (Stiftelsen for industriell og teknisk forskning) project looking at "Oil Spill Contingency for Arctic and Ice-covered Waters" (Sørstrøm et al., 2010). The second was a 3-year International Association of Oil & Gas Producers-led project looking at "Arctic Oil Spill Response Technology" (Dickins, 2017). ...
... Strudel scour concerns have resulted in the burial of the three existing subsea pipelines in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea (BPXA's Northstar, Pioneer's Oooguruk, and ENI's Nikaitchuq). An additional concern is that strudel drainage provides a mechanism to transport spilled oil below the ice sheet (Dickins and Owens, 2002). ...
... The ability to remotely detect and characterize oil and oil products in the Arctic marine environment has significant importance for local inhabitants, industry, and government. Presently, satellite remote sensing has been limited to the detection of oil in snow or at the snow-ice interface only [2] or in open water [3]. There is no direct method for satellite detection of oil within the ice volume or under the ice. ...
... Dickins et al. applied GPR to a test oil spill off Svalbard and noted that anomalies were observed where the oil was under the ice [40][41][42][43]. There are some differences between the two outputs over oil and no oil; these may be due to phase change. ...
... The general test procedure was to put 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 20 cm (4' x 4' x 8") slabs of freshwater ice supplied by CRREL into a 32-foot diameter boom circle with the desired ice piece size distribution (55% 4'x4'+ 30% 2"x2" + 15% small fragments - Buist et al. 2002), then move it to the upwind end/side of the tank. Next, the boom was released and allowed to accelerate to its terminal drift speed. ...
... Whether that can penetrate all the way through the sea ice is dependent on ice thickness, the temperature of the ice, and the distribution of brine within the ice. Studies have shown that GPR can detect oil layers of about 1-3 cm thickness, on ice but buried beneath snow, and trapped in or under relatively smooth ice (Bradford et al. 2008. The capacity to detect oil trapped within or underneath ice depends on the properties of the ice and overlying snow. ...