Cyril W C Kendall's research while affiliated with University of Toronto and other places

Publications (282)

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BACKGROUND Adverse associations of low- and no-calorie sweetened beverages (LNCSB) with cardiometabolic outcomes in observational studies may be explained by reverse causality and residual confounding. PURPOSE To address these limitations we used change analyses of repeated measures of intake and substitution analyses to synthesize the association...
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Background: Fructose providing excess calories in the form of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) increases markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether this effect holds for other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars is unclear. To investigate the role of food source and energy, we conducted a systematic review and m...
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Background: Postprandial hypotension (PPH) has been reported to be associated with syncope, falls, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased all-cause mortality. It has been reported to have an incidence as high as 30% in the elderly and persons with diabetes. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to determine the relationship of PPH with car...
Article
Importance: There are concerns that low- and no-calorie sweetened beverages (LNCSBs) do not have established benefits, with major dietary guidelines recommending the use of water and not LNCSBs to replace sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Whether LNCSB as a substitute can yield similar improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors vs water in their...
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The Portfolio Diet has demonstrated its cardiovascular benefit from interventions, but the association between Portfolio Diet adherence and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality has not been examined in Chinese population. The present study has collected Portfolio Diet adherence (assessed by food frequency questionnaire), lifestyle fac...
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The glycaemic index (GI) is a food metric that ranks the acute impact of available (digestible) carbohydrates on blood glucose. At present, few countries regulate the inclusion of GI on food labels even though the information may assist consumers to manage blood glucose levels. Australia and New Zealand regulate GI claims as nutrition content claim...
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Nuts are recommended for cardiovascular health, yet concerns remain that nuts may contribute to weight gain due to their high energy density. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to update the evidence, provide a dose–response analysis, and assess differences in nut type,...
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The Portfolio Diet, a plant-based portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other cardiovascular risk factors, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is not known if these beneficial effects translate to a lower incidence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To support exami...
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Objective To inform the update of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library searched up to 13 May 2021. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomis...
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Background The plant‐based Dietary Portfolio combines established cholesterol‐lowering foods (plant protein, nuts, viscous fiber, and phytosterols), plus monounsaturated fat, and has been shown to improve low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. No studies have evaluated the relation of the Dietary Po...
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Context: Rare sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides (found in small quantities in nature) that have slight differences in their chemical structure compared with traditional sugars. Little is known about their unique physiological and cardiometabolic effects in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic revi...
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Objective To investigate the energy and macronutrient bioaccessibility of almonds in individuals with hyperlipidemia. Methods In a previously reported randomized crossover trial, men and postmenopausal women with hyperlipidemia incorporated 3 isoenergetic supplements into a National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diet for 1 month each betwee...
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Background & Aims The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome...
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This is an update of the previous 2018 systematic review and meta-analysis of vitamin and mineral supplementation on cardiovascular disease outcomes and all-cause mortality. New randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses were identified by searching the Cochrane library, Medline, and Embase, and data were analyzed using random effects models an...
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Background Previous meta-analyses, with some methodological controversies, have assessed the relation between nut consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and pointed to contradictory results, making desirable the performance of an updated meta-analysis. Objectives We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze all the published studies inve...
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Background Public health policies reflect concerns that certain fruit sources may not have the intended benefits and that vegetables should be preferred to fruit. We assessed the relation of fruit and vegetable sources with cardiovascular outcomes using a systematic review and meta‐analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods and Results MEDLIN...
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Background Antioxidants have been promoted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction and for the prevention of cancer. Our preliminary analysis suggested that only when selenium was present were antioxidant mixtures associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control...
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Dietary fibre is a generic term describing non-absorbed plant carbohydrates and small amounts of associated non-carbohydrate components. The main contributors of fibre to the diet are the cell walls of plant tissues, which are supramolecular polymer networks containing variable proportions of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, and non-ca...
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Importance Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the role of other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars in the development of MetS remains unclear. Objective To examine the association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS. Data S...
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Aims: When young, can we predict who will be the great innovators? For example, in medicine who will change clinical practice? We have therefore assessed whether the current academic excellence approach to medical school entrance would have captured previous great innovators in medicine, assuming that they should all have well fulfilled current en...
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Dietary carbohydrates are components of healthy foods, but many carbohydrate foods have recently been stigmatized as primary causes of diet-related risk factors for chronic disease. There is an opportunity to enhance efforts within the food landscape to encourage the consumption of higher quality carbohydrate foods. The use of labelling is one stra...
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Objectives Sugars have been implicated in the epidemic of obesity. It is unclear whether food sources of fructose-containing sugars other than sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of obesity. To assess the evidence of the relation of food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident overweight or obesity, we un...
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Objectives Concerns exist that NSBs do not have established benefits, with major dietary guidelines recommending that water and not NSBs replace sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Whether NSBs improve cardiometabolic risk factors similar to water in their intended substitution for SSBs is unclear. To inform the update of the European Association for...
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Objectives Nordic dietary patterns may have a role in diabetes management. To inform the update of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) clinical practice guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of Nordic dietary patterns and cardiometabolic outcomes. Methods We searched Cochrane, MEDLINE, and EMBASE thro...
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Objectives Low calorie sweetened beverages (LCSBs) are associated with increased cardiometabolic diseases using prevalent exposure of LCSBs. Although this association is at high risk of reverse causality, it has led to concerns that LCSBs may not have the intended benefits, with recommendations to replace sugar-sweetened beverage (SSBs) with water...
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Background Sugar‐sweetened beverages are associated with hypertension. We assessed the relation of important food sources of fructose‐containing sugars with incident hypertension using a systematic review and meta‐analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods and Results We searched MEDLINE , EMBASE, and Cochrane (through December week 2, 2018)...
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Objective: To determine the association of total and added fructose-containing sugars on cardiovascular (CVD) incidence and mortality. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2018. Prospective cohort studies assessing the association of reported intakes of total, sucrose, fructose and added sug...
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To update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy, we conducted an umbrella review and updated systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) of prospective cohort studies of the association between dietary pulses with or without other legumes and cardiometabolic disease outcomes. We searche...
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Background Soy protein foods have attracted attention as useful plant protein foods with mild cholesterol‐lowering effects that are suitable for inclusion in therapeutic diets. But on the basis of the lack of consistency in significant cholesterol reduction by soy in 46 randomized controlled trials, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reas...
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While dietary factors are important modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the causal role of carbohydrate quality in nutrition remains controversial. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been examined in relation to the risk of T2D in multiple prospective cohort studies. Previous meta-analyses indicate significant re...
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Background: Vegetarian dietary patterns are recommended for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and management due to their favorable effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, however, the role of vegetarian dietary patterns in CVD incidence and mortality remains unclear.Objective: To update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EA...
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Published meta-analyses indicate significant but inconsistent incident type-2 diabetes(T2D)-dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) risk ratios or risk relations (RR). It is nowover a decade ago that a published meta-analysis used a predefined standard to identify validstudies. Considering valid studies only, and using random effects dos...
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Objective: The evidence for liquid meal replacements in diabetes has not been summarized. Our objective was to synthesize the evidence of the effect of liquid meal replacements on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane...
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In contrast to statements made in the above paper, measurements of waist and hip circumference were in fact available.
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To update the clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in...
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Background/Objectives To investigate the effect of dried fruit in modifying postprandial glycemia, we assessed the ability of 4 dried fruits (dates, apricots, raisins, sultanas) to decrease postprandial glycemia through three mechanisms: a glycemic index (GI) effect, displacement effect, or ‘catalytic’ fructose effect. Subjects/Methods We conducte...
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Objective To assess the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control at different levels of energy control. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. Data sources Medine, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to 25 April 2018. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Con...
Data
Table S1. Effect of small doses (5 g, 10 g) of fructose on secondary and exploratory outcome measures Table S2. Effect of small doses (5 g, 10 g) of Allulose on secondary and exploratory outcome measures Figure S1. CONSORT flow of participants diagram Figure S2. A, Effect of small doses of fructose on absolute plasma glucose following consumptio...
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Aims/hypothesis: In line with current advice, we assessed the effect of replacing carbohydrate consumption with mixed nut consumption, as a source of unsaturated fat, on cardiovascular risk factors and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The data presented here are from a paper that was retracted at the authors' request ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-rt02 )...
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The authors identified individual randomized controlled trials from previous meta-analyses and additional searches, and then performed meta-analyses on cardiovascular disease outcomes and all-cause mortality. The authors assessed publications from 2012, both before and including the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force review. Their systematic review...
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Background: The evidence for the Portfolio dietary pattern, a plant-based dietary pattern that combines recognized cholesterol-lowering foods (nuts, plant protein, viscous fibre, plant sterols), has not been summarized. Objective: To update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy, we...
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Objective Carbohydrate staples such as pasta have been implicated in the obesity epidemic. It is unclear whether pasta contributes to weight gain or like other low-glycaemic index (GI) foods contributes to weight loss. We synthesised the evidence of the effect of pasta on measures of adiposity. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis using the...
Chapter
Diets that have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk focus on increasing intake of foods naturally high in fiber with minimal processing including fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. Despite evidence for reduced disease burden from both epidemiological and clinical trials, current intake levels of such foods are well below dietary r...
Data
Table S1. Search Strategy Table S2. Full Table of Characteristics Table S3. Bootstrap Analyses Table S4. Post‐Hoc Dose Response Table S5. GRADE Assessment Figure S1. Cochrane risk of bias. Risk of bias assessment using Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Figure S2. LDL‐C forest plot, random‐effects model. Figure S3. LDL‐C forest plot, fixed‐effects...
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Background There is a heightened interest in plant‐based diets for cardiovascular disease prevention. Although plant protein is thought to mediate such prevention through modifying blood lipids, the effect of plant protein in specific substitution for animal protein on blood lipids remains unclear. To assess the effect of this substitution on estab...
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Background: Markers of subclinical cardiac injury are elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to healthy individuals. Low glycemic index (LGI) diets may improve both diabetes and cardiovascular risk but their effects on cardiac injury and fibrosis have not been previously studied. To test the effect of a LGI diet on m...
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BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with type 2 diabetes. To assess whether this association holds for the fructose-containing sugars they contain, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through June 2016). We included...
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Objective To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same w...
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Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) present important unmet prevention and treatment challenges. Dietary pulses are sustainable, affordable, and nutrient-dense foods that have shown a wide range of health benefits in the prevention and management of these conditions. Despite these findings, recommendations for pulse intake continue...
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Background Mechanisms influencing breast cancer (BC) development and recurrence include hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, high insulin-like growth factor-1, high circulating estrogen, inflammation and impaired cellular differentiation/apoptosis. A lifestyle program that targets all the above mechanisms may be warranted. Low glycemic index (GI) foods...
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Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout has increased in recent decades. The role of dietary fructose in the development of these conditions remains unclear. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association fructose consumption with incident gout and hyperuricemia....
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Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) produces macrovascular and microvascular damage, significantly increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), renal failure and blindness. As rates of T2DM rise, the need for effective dietary and other lifestyle changes to improve diabetes management become more urgent. Low-glycaemic index (GI) diets may i...
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Background: Obesity is a risk factor for developing several diseases, and although dietary pulses (nonoil seeds of legumes such as beans, lentils, chickpeas, and dry peas) are well positioned to aid in weight control, the effects of dietary pulses on weight loss are unclear. Objective: We summarized and quantified the effects of dietary pulse consu...
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Certain dietary patterns, in which fruits and nuts are featured prominently, reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, estimated fruit consumption historically in the U.S. has been lower than recommendations. Dried fruit intake is even lower with only about 6.9 % of the adult population reporting any consumption. The 2015 Dietary...