Cristina B. Gibson's research while affiliated with Pepperdine University and other places

Publications (90)

Article
Human resource (HR) managers play a critical role in supporting workers during organizational crisis recovery, but this support is hampered when employee energy is drained during difficult times. We develop relational theory and practical suggestions to address how employees can generate energy from interpersonal interactions in a post‐crisis conte...
Article
Job crafting refers to the myriad ways employees customize their jobs, such as by altering their tasks and social interaction at work. Numerous scholars over the past 20 years have remarked on the overall need to better understand the role of time in job crafting. However, the literature has not considered how employees think about time, or, relate...
Article
Shared leadership, in which the role of the leader is shared across team members, has great potential, yet little is known about the conditions under which it may be more or less effective across cultures. We examine traditionalism and the extent of virtuality as features which may change the relationship between shared leadership and team effectiv...
Article
Despite the dynamic nature of knowledge-related activities and the availability of a variety of communication technologies, many global teams habitually use technology in the same way across activities. However, as teams move through cycles of accumulating, integrating, and implementing knowledge, the purposes for communication technologies change....
Article
Full-text available
We apply insights from organizational behavior, psychology, and sociology to make the case that the community in which a firm is embedded is a valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable resource that holds potential as a source of sustained competitive advantage. First, we review several key principles of the resource-based view (RBV) and sho...
Article
A key challenge facing global teams lies in overcoming status differences in order to elicit participation and input from all members. This study extends prior research – which has focused largely on individual-level factors such as language, culture, and location that create status differences that fracture teams and reduce participation – by exam...
Article
The sponsorship function of mentoring has vast potential to increase career advancement for African American protégés in cross-race mentoring relationships but is not well understood. We conceptualize the processes, practices, and challenges involved in cross-race sponsorship of African American protégés through an identity perspective. We provide...
Article
Full-text available
In today’s globalized world with significant cross-border migration, societies and organizations are becoming increasingly diverse with a rise in the number of multicultural individuals (Fitzsimmons, 2013). Research on multiculturalism is often impeded by the lack of clarity and consistency in the conceptualization and operationalization of multicu...
Article
As the fabric of modern organizations, teams provide capacity to handle the ongoing adaptation demanded by contexts that characterize the future of work. While scholars have studied how team composition and structural characteristics facilitate team adaptation, both research and practice will benefit from also explicating the process of adapting—ho...
Article
What happens when global workers identify with their culture, organization, work unit profession, and team all at the same time? Workers may experience these identities as compatible, or in conflict, with one another. The purpose of this article is to reveal attributes of global workers that lessen intrapersonal identity conflict, and to show that...
Article
We develop a theory of team adaptation that centers on team knowledge structures and coordination processes. Specifically, we explain that when a team’s task changes, there may be a disruption in the extent to which their team mental model (TMM) fits the current situation. Whether this is the case is likely to depend on team compositional factors,...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations are coalitions of individuals with heterogeneous interests and perceptions (March and Simon, 1958/1993). We examine an important source of heterogeneity, namely the different perceptions individuals hold across hierarchical levels. We introduce the notion of a hierarchical erosion effect whereby individual perceptions about specific p...
Article
Full-text available
Global teams may help to integrate across locations, and yet, with formalized rules and procedures, responsiveness to those locations’ effectiveness, and the team members’ experiences of work as meaningful may suffer. We employ a mixed-methods approach to understand how the level and content of formalization can be managed to resolve these tensions...
Article
Employees often self-initiate changes to their jobs, a process referred to as job crafting, yet we know little about why and how they initiate such changes. In this paper, we introduce and test an extended framework for job crafting, incorporating individuals’ needs and regulatory focus. Our theoretical model posits that individual needs provide em...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the concept of team performance and propose a framework to understand patterns of change over time. Following a literature review on team performance (focusing on empirical articles published between 2007 and 2017) and drawing on Greek and Roman mythology, we identify five team performance trajectories: “Jupiter” (consistently high perfo...
Article
Given the context in which teams work today, many teams are necessarily dynamic and permeable; that is, workers must be able to move quickly and easily in and out of teams, across team boundaries. We develop a model of team boundary permeability that incorporates the features of the team that give rise to boundary permeability, the outcomes experie...
Article
Full-text available
Team innovation requires idea generating and idea implementing. In two studies, we examine how these team activities are affected by the extent to which members value traditionalism – that is, placing importance on preserving old ways of doing things over breaking precedent and forging new approaches. We proposed that higher average levels of team...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this research is to investigate how organizations can best facilitate an empowered workforce that makes autonomous decisions and acts expediently, which the literature on high performing organizations posits will increase the likelihood of sustained performance and retaining competitive advantages. We introduce a novel mechan...
Article
Our 2006 Journal of International Business Studies article, “A Quarter Century of Culture’s Consequences: A Review of the Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede’s Cultural Values Framework,” provided a comprehensive review of 180 empirical journal articles and edited volume chapters published between 1980 and June 2002 that incorporated Hofstede...
Article
This article examines means of enhancing the value of mixed method research for organizational science. Conclusions are based on a comprehensive analysis of 69 mixed method articles published in four empirical journals between 2009 and 2014, detailed case comparison of four illustrative articles, and personal interviews with lead authors for each c...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we advocate the use of growth modeling as an approach that is particularly useful for testing and refining existing theory on team dynamics, as well as integrating different theoretical perspectives. Quantitative studies that test team theories have typically included only one or two time points, between-team research designs, and hie...
Article
We developed a model illuminating team knowledge exchange processes as a key link between organizational diversity climate and the effectiveness of multicultural teams (MCTs). Our analysis is based on 143 in-depth interviews and extensive observations of team interactions that occurred in 48 teams from 11 companies. Our findings revealed that teams...
Article
Full-text available
Although multiple disciplines have been applied to the study of organizations, organizational research is rarely interdisciplinary in the sense of two or more disciplines being linked in the joint analysis of organizational phenomena. The articles in this special issue illustrate the kinds of insights that can be gained by moving from a purely disc...
Article
Full-text available
We review prior research that has examined virtuality in teams (e. g., pertaining to the use of electronic media) or the global nature of teams (e. g., national and cultural differences), demonstrating that very few scholars have examined both simultaneously. Given that the global and virtual elements often coincide in the same team, this is a crit...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations are increasingly making use of communities of practice (CoPs) as a way of leveraging the dispersed knowledge and expertise of their employees. One important way in which CoPs are predicted to benefit organizations is by facilitating the transfer of best practices. In this study, we examined the impact of the introduction of global CoP...
Article
Multicultural collaborations are temporary entities that are not embedded in a single organizational context but yet complete tasks such as building a house or making a film with the involvement of people from multiple cultures. Although they share characteristics of multicultural teams, they lack many of the mechanisms that teams embedded in organ...
Article
We extend research on team external environment by investigating whether lack of permanence, fluid membership, and environmental volatility influence the relationship between team external activities and team effectiveness. Teams engage in external activities with clients, audiences, funding sources, or other stakeholders who may receive the work o...
Article
Full-text available
A key challenge facing global organisations lies in balancing organisationally and culturally derived power dynamics to elicit participation and input from all sites. This paper draws on a mixed-method analysis of field data from a total of 27 conference calls and 48 interviews with nine global teams at a global minerals and mining company based in...
Article
Purpose – To advance narrative and context-based organizational research. Approach – We detail how a research design can dynamically unfold and be adjusted based on feedback from multiple sources, with three components to this process: requisite conceptual openness, methodological adjustment, and acknowledgement of prescient issues. Three examples...
Article
Thriving is defined as the psychological state in which individuals experience both a sense of vitality and learning. We developed and validated a measure of the construct of thriving at work. Additionally, we theoretically refined the construct by linking it to key outcomes, such as job performance, and by examining its contextual embeddedness. In...
Chapter
Over the past decade, we have become particularly enamored with an approach to multinational organizational research—the proximal approach, which is characterized by openness to the unexpected, acceptance of uncertainty, and appreciation of multiplicity. This approach can be contrasted with more distal approaches, which emphasize end states, linear...
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends the job characteristics model (JCM) to address virtual work design. We argue that the effects of critical job characteristics (task significance, autonomy, and feedback) on psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results) differ depending on two important elements of virtuality and their...
Article
This research investigates emergent processes that are required to work effectively when workers rely on information technology, represent different cultures, are geographically dispersed, and lack a shared history of working together; when stakeholder requirements are ambiguous; when internal incentives for work are incongruent; when deadlines are...
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends the job characteristics model (JCM) to address virtual work design. We argue that the effects of critical job characteristics (task significance, autonomy, and feedback) on psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results) differ depending on two important elements of virtuality and their...
Article
Full-text available
Leung, Bhagat, Buchan, Erez, and Gibson provide a review of several advances in research on culture and international business (IB), which is criticized by Gould and Grein as overemphasizing the national culture (NC) approach. This reply clarifies the misinterpretation of Leung et al. by Gould and Grein, and affirms its pluralistic and inclusive po...
Article
In this article, we discuss the importance of a cross-cultural approach to organizational behavior. To do so, we illustrate how cross-cultural research in the past two decades has enabled us to reconceptualize constructs, revise models, and extend boundary conditions in traditional organizational behavior theories. We focus on three domains-teams,...
Article
Previous distance-related theories and concepts (e.g., social distance) have failed to address the sometimes wide disparity in perceptions between leaders and the teams they lead. Drawing from the extensive literature on teams, leadership, and cognitive models of social information processing, the authors develop the concept of leader-team perceptu...
Article
In this study, the authors observed and examined 57 bank branch teams to better understand the consequences of two types of team heterogeneity— surface level (gender and ethnicity) and deep level (collectivism cultural values and tenure)—on internal (group efficacy) and external (team reputation) team outcomes, arguing in general that heterogeneity...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on organizational practices is replete with contradictory evidence regarding their effects. Here, the authors argue that these contradictory findings may have occurred because researchers have often examined complex practice combinations and have failed to investigate a broad variety of firm-level outcomes. Thus, past research may...
Article
Multinational organizations (MNOs), more so than other organizations, are likely to require individuals with different perspectives, experiences, and backgrounds to form teams and collaboratively manage knowledge. We develop a framework that shows why variations in time perspectives among members of teams occur and how such differences can exert si...
Article
Group efficacy has emerged as an important and significant predictor of group effectiveness. However, most conceptual work on group efficacy fails to capture its complexity. In this article we extend extant theory and develop a more in-depth model of how group efficacy develops and operates within existing groups, including complex moderating facto...
Article
Full-text available
To understand why the virtual design strategies that organizations create to foster innovation may in fact hinder it, we unpack four characteristics often associated with the term ‘virtuality’ (geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, structural dynamism, and national diversity) and argue that each hinders innovation through unique mechanisms,...
Article
The authors examined factors that determine whether knowledge gained from computer-assisted (i.e., technology-based) team training in a geographically distributed team (GDT) context transfers to organizational results. They examined the moderating effects of team trust, technology support, and leader experience on the relation between teams' averag...
Article
Full-text available
Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 an...
Article
Traditional multinational team (MNT) research has concentrated on negative phenomena such as in-group/out-group distinctions, social loafing, and pressures for convergence. In contrast, we examine instances where MNT members exhibit cross-national inclusive behavior, cross-national responsiveness, and cross-national divergence of ideas, which in tu...
Article
Despite the widespread involvement of third parties in organizational team decision making, little empirical research has explored the effect of these individuals on team outcomes. Expanding literature on team decision making to include the role of external third parties, this study investigates the effects of the interaction between type of third-...
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of several innovative advances in culture and international business (IB) to stimulate new avenues for future research. We first review the issues surrounding cultural convergence and divergence, and the processes underlying cultural changes. We then examine novel constructs for characterizing cultures,...
Article
Full-text available
For a firm to succeed over the long term it needs to master both adaptability and alignment - an attribute sometimes referred to as ambidexterity. The concept is alluring, but the evidence suggests that most companies have struggled to apply it. The standard approach has been to create separate structures for different types of activities. But sepa...
Article
Full-text available
Incorporating team context into research and practice concerning team effectiveness in multinational organizations is an ongoing challenge. The authors argue that a common measure of team effectiveness with demonstrated equivalence across contexts expands current theoretical developments and addresses team implementation needs. To this end, the art...
Article
Extending previous research investigating factors related to the formation of group efficacy, this research examined predictors across cultures and groups of various types. Based on theories of collective cognition, hypothesized predictors included self-efficacy, group affect, status differential, and collectivism. These were investigated using 2 m...
Article
Consistent with cognitive cross-cultural frameworks, cultural tendencies toward field independence, corresponding team quality orientations, quality improvement focus, and patients’ratings of service quality were examined for 71 U.S. and Indonesian nursing teams, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Results provide partial support for t...
Article
Advances in communications and information technology create new opportunities for organizations to build and manage virtual teams. Such teams are composed of employees with unique skills, located at a distance from each other, who must collaborate to accomplish important organizational tasks. Based on a comprehensive set of interviews with a subse...
Article
Efficacy-effectiveness relationships were examined for individual nurses and nursing teams who were either trained or untrained in goal-setting. At the individual level, positive direct relationships were demonstrated between self-efficacy and effectiveness, between training and subsequent self-efficacy, and between training and effectiveness. Init...
Article
Based on a review of existing literature, we propose that two time-oriented individual differences-time urgency and time perspective-influence team members' perceptions of deadlines. We present propositions describing how time urgency and time perspective affect individuals' deadline perceptions and subsequent deadline-oriented behaviors and how di...
Article
In this chapter, we propose a theory of perceptual distance and its implications for team leadership and team outcomes. Perceptual distance is defined as the variance in the perceptions of the same social stimulus, which in this case, is either a team leader's behavior or the team's behavior. The general research question that we will address is, “...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops a conceptual framework to explain different understandings of the concept of teamwork across national and organizational cultures. Five different metaphors for teamwork (military, sports, community, family, and associates) were derived from the language team members used during interviews in four different geographic locations o...
Article
Drawing from literature on knowledge transfer and cognition, we develop a theoretical model for conducting research that is useful to practitioners. We explore the potential of this model by examining the usefulness of a research project involving ten companies. Perceived usefulness is related to the extent that members' organization self-design ac...
Article
A framework for collective cognition in the workplace is developed to provide guidance to groups, their leaders, and researchers interested in understanding and improving cognitive processes. First, phases of the process and elements essential at each phase are identified based on prior research. Next, a series of catalysts are proposed which help...
Article
Methods of assessing group efficacy were examined using a multiparty role play negotiation. Group efficacy is defined as a group’s perceived capability to perform. Three methods of measuring group efficacy were compared: (a) group potency, (b) an aggregation of group members’ estimates, and (c) group discussion. These methods were used to assess gr...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that feedback concerning a person’s prior performance is an important determinant of self-efficacy and subsequent work activity. In addition, several recent cultural models posit that people use different aspects of their environment in assessing their self-concepts. In this article, the authors explore Triandis’s sampling-probabilit...
Article
This article empirically investigated the invariance and discriminant validity of a six-factor leadership model across two very divergent cultures: the United States and Turkey. In conjunction with the rationalist approach to international management, it was hypothesized that the same range of six leadership styles would appear in both cultures. Ho...
Article
The tension existing between an inherent desire for companionship and personal identity forms the basis for one of the most highly researched cultural and personal dimensions in the field of management. This dichotomy, commonly called individualism-collectivism, is the focus of our review. Although much attention has been drawn toward this construc...