Craig S. Holt's research while affiliated with University of Iowa and other places

Publications (50)

Article
The present study examined characteristics of autobiographical memories retrieved by individuals with social phobia (n=15) and nonanxious individuals (n=17). Participants were presented with social threat, positive, and neutral cue words and instructed to retrieve the first specific personal memory that came to mind. Memories were coded for retriev...
Article
The Multidimensional Blood/Injury Phobia Inventory (MBPI) was developed from a theoretical framework to characterize a broad range of feared stimuli and phobic reactions associated with this pathology. The MBPI consists of 40 items that cross 4 types of stimulus content (injections, hospitals, blood, injury), 5 types of phobic responses (fear, avoi...
Article
To consider whether the schema content of anxious individuals is normal or maladaptive, procedural knowledge stores for common situations were examined by adopting Schank and Abelson's (1977) script methodology with two different sets of instructions. In Study 1, socially anxious (n = 46) and nonanxious (n = 45) participants generated sequential ev...
Article
The authors examined the suppression of spider-related thoughts in spider-fearful (n = 23) and nonfearful (n = 22) individuals. Participants were primed with vivid pictures of spiders and a story about spiders. Next, they were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) suppression of thoughts associated with the previously presented spider-related...
Article
Socially anxious (n=35) and nonanxious (n=35) individuals completed seven neutral cognitive tasks representing a wide range of information processing stages. Participants were assigned to one of two conditions: a social-evaluative threat condition in which they performed an impromptu speech in front of a peer rater prior to each task, or a non-thre...
Article
The present study examined whether social phobia is an anxiety disorder associated with a memory bias toward threat. Social phobic (N = 16) and non-anxious (N = 17) individuals were compared on their recall of evaluative threat and neutral prose passage content. Participants were presented with two evaluative threat and two neutral prose passages a...
Article
Although cognitive theories of anxiety suggest that anxious individuals are characterized by the biased tendency to recall negative experiences with perceived threat, few empirical studies have confirmed this notion. To investigate personal memories associated with threatening experiences, individuals with socio phobia (n=16) and nonanxious individ...
Article
The present study applied a script methodology from cognitive psychology to investigate schema content for threat in samples of individuals with spider phobia (n = 17), individuals with blood/injury phobia (n = 17), and nonanxious individuals (n = 30). Participants listed prototypical sequences of events, or scripts, that most people experience in...
Article
This study examined the association between social relationship facilitation and affect. Young adults who did not know one another engaged in brief, get-acquainted conversations. Participants rated their positive affect and negative affect before and after conversations. After conversations, participants also rated their self-disclosure, social att...
Article
The present study applied MacLeod, Mathews & Tata's (1986) dot probe attentional deployment methodology to individuals with specific phobias. Attentional deployment towards spider-related, blood-related, positive, negative, and neutral words was examined. Individuals with either spider phobia (N = 13) or blood/injury phobia (N = 14) and non-anxious...
Article
To evaluate the effects of maintenance treatment and durability of gains after treatment discontinuation, responders to either phenelzine (PZ) or cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) from an acute trial comparing these two treatments as well as pill placebo and a psychotherapy control (educational supportive group therapy) were enrolled into m...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents results of the acute treatment phase of a 2-site study comparing cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine sulfate for social phobia. One hundred thirty-three patients from 2 sites received 12 weeks of CBGT, phenelzine therapy, pill placebo administration, or educat...
Article
The performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neuropsychiatric patients was examined using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the WMS-R, utilizing a levels of importance methodology described by Haut et al. (1990). Although patient groups were matched for dementia severity, we found the expected differences between groups in terms of absolute lev...
Article
Although the pharmacologic treatment of somatoform disorders has scarcely been investigated, there is reason to believe that antidepressants might be useful. We examined the response of 29 patients with somatoform disorders from a general medicine clinic to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine. The drug was administered in doses of...
Article
Based on concomitant time-series analyses, the results of this study support distinct social interaction correlates for the mood dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA). Participants (N = 25) completed structured diaries three times daily for 4 weeks assessing their PA, NA, and participation in five types of social interaction....
Article
Socially anxious people often report high negative affect (NA) and low positive affect (PA). This mood state may be associated with elevated or undesired social evaluation, such as interactions with unfamiliar people or poor quality communication. In this study, high and low anxious undergraduates completed structured diaries assessing interaction...
Article
The present study was an exploratory investigation of gender differences in a large sample of persons with social phobia. Potential differences in demographic characteristics, comorbidity, severity of fear, and situations feared were examined. No differences were found on history of social phobia, social phobia subtype, or comorbidity of additional...
Article
To examine the diagnostic validity of hypochondriasis, we undertook a preliminary family study. Nineteen probands with and 24 without DSM-III-R hypochondriasis were identified among outpatients attending a general medicine clinic. Seventy-two first-degree relatives of hypochondriasis probands and 97 relatives of control probands were personally int...
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Full-text available
Clinical evidence suggests that components of perfectionism may have special relevance to social phobia. This study examines this relationship by comparing 61 patients with social phobia and 39 community volunteers with no anxiety disorder on Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate's (1990) Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Social phobia pat...
Article
The present study is a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of a new cognitive-behavioral group treatment protocol for social phobia in adolescents. Five adolescents with social phobia were treated in a 16-session group treatment program, with parental involvement in selected sessions. Treatment involved skills training (social skills, probl...
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Somatization, the somatic expression of psychological distress, occurs in a large proportion of primary care patients. It is associated with substantial distress and impairment and with increased health care utilization. Some somatizing patients have a history of multiple unexplained complaints (somatization disorder), others are excessively worrie...
Article
Social phobics are often fearful that their anxiety symptoms will cause them embarrassment and lead to negative evaluation from others. Thus, it was hypothesized that they might attempt to control the intake of substances such as alcohol and caffeine that may affect their anxiety in social situations. The current investigation sought to determine,...
Article
Though the list of possible indications for monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) continues to expand, many psychiatrists remain hesitant about prescribing MAOIs, citing concerns about dietary prohibitions and hypertensive reactions. Data about psychiatric patients' frequency of consumption of foods, beverages, and medications prohibited during MAOI...
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Full-text available
Individuals with social phobia were compared with normal controls on their memory for socially-related threat words in contrast to positive and neutral words. A memory paradigm used in a previous study of panic disorder patients [Cloitre, M. & Liebowitz, M. R. (1991) Cognitive Therapy and Research, 15, 609-619] was applied to test the generalizabil...
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The purpose of this study was to show that, as a group, patients with social phobia and panic disorder differ with respect to personality traits, further validating the distinction between these anxiety disorders. To show this, we compared the response of 46 subjects with social phobia with the response of 72 subjects with panic disorder with or wi...
Article
This study examined the relationship between alexithymia and specific domains of cognitive function. Fifty-nine neurologically intact combat veterans completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), a number of other symptom measures, and several neuropsychological tests. Modest but consistent correlations were noted between TAS scores and measures o...
Article
Perfectionistic concern over mistakes refers to the tendency to react negatively to mistakes, to interpret mistakes as equivalent to failure, and to believe that one will lose the respect of others following failure (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). In this experiment, the reactions of subjects high and low in perfectionistic concern ove...
Article
Full-text available
lndividuals with social phobia were compared with normal controls on their memory for socially-related threat words in contrast to positive and neutral words. A memory paradigm used in a previous study of panic disorder patients [Cloitre, M. & Liebowitz, M. R. (1991) Cognitive Therapy and Research, 15, 609-619] was applied to test the generalizabil...
Article
Aging-related complications in the elderly are believed to confound the interpretation of depressive symptom report. The frequency of depressive symptoms in geriatric clinic patients (n = 130) was examined, and the covariation of symptom ratings was cluster analyzed Although certain aging-related complications were elevated in this clinic sample (i...
Article
Emotionally distant and controlling child-rearing attitudes have been reported to characterize the parents of American or western European social phobics in previous research. However, the notion that these parental attitudes may be associated with social anxiety only in some cultures has not been investigated. The present study examined social anx...
Article
Because of the uncertainty about the status of hypochondriasis, the disorder is rarely diagnosed. To address this problem we examined the validity of DSM-III-R hypochondriasis as identified by structured interview. Patients in a general medicine clinic were screened for hypochondriacal attitudes and symptoms. Those patients who scored above an esta...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the outcome of naturalistically treated panic disorder. In order to achieve this we followed up 69 patients 7 years after they had presented at a psychiatric clinic. At follow-up, the patients were generally doing well despite persisting symptoms. Patients who were more severely ill at the...
Article
Empirical studies of the behavioral or cognitive—behavioral treatment of social phobia have appeared with increasing frequency over the last decade, and there is reason for cautious optimism in the evaluation of treatment effectiveness. However, few studies have reported systematic followup data, and there is little information available about the...
Article
A number of changes will occur in the criteria for diagnosis of anxiety disorders with the publication of DSM-IV. For social phobia, a central issue has been the specification and definition of subtypes. DSM-III-R specified a generalized subtype, but the DSM-IV subworkgroup on social phobia considered additional subtyping strategies, and struggled...
Article
A sample of 114 geriatric clinic patients over the age of 64 were referred by primary‐care physicians secondary to memory complaints. All patients were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the Mini‐Mental State Exam (MMSE). Hierarchical multiple‐regression analyses using WMS total raw score as the dependent measure and age, education, a...
Article
Previous studies of cognitive specificity in social anxiety and depression have not directly compared data from measures of thought content varying in their relevance to either disorder. The current research compared subjects high in both social anxiety and depression (i.e., mixed) to groups high in only social anxiety or depression, or neither aff...
Article
This study compares two recently developed measures of perfectionism. College students completed the Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate (1990; Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468) Multidimensional Perfectionsim Scale and the Hewitt and Flett (1991; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470) scale of the same name. Their re...
Article
Following its inclusion in the psychiatric nomenclature with the publication of DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), social phobia has been recognized as a significant mental health problem. The 1987 revision of DSM-III (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) defined social phobia as “a persistent fear of one or more situat...
Article
Social phobia has become a focus of increased research since its inclusion in DSM-III. However, assessment of social phobia has remained an underdeveloped area, especially self-report assessment. Clinical researchers have relied on measures that were developed on college populations, and these measures may not provide sufficient coverage of the ran...
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Full-text available
Two studies assessed response time among clinically anxious subjects and normal controls when presented with threat, positive and neutral stimuli under perceptual (lexical decision) and semantic (category decision) task conditions. In Study 1, panic disorder subjects' (n = 14) performance was compared to that of matched normal controls (n = 14) whi...
Article
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) patients were compared with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients and non-patient controls on four separate physiological measures (heart rate, finger-tip temperature, skin resistance level, and forehead EMG) for their physical reactivity to 'laboratory stressors'. It was predicted that the IBS patients would resp...
Article
Social phobia and avoidant personality disorder (APD) may be given as comorbid diagnoses. However, it is not known if the labels provide independent, useful diagnostic information. We classified social phobics by social phobia subtype and presence of APD. Generalized social phobics with and without APD (ns = 10 and 10) and nongeneralized social pho...
Article
Although social phobia is defined as severe anxiety in social situations, little is known about the range or prevalence of social situations that elicit anxiety in social phobic individuals. The present study developed the concept of situational domains, groups of similar situations that may provoke anxiety in subsets of social anxious persons. Fou...

Citations

... For instance, anxious individuals may show memory bias, or preferential memory (i.e., higher memory accuracy), for negative social information (Coles & Heimberg, 2002). However, previous studies on the association between social anxiety and memory bias for negative information have shown inconsistent results (Amir, Bower, Briks, & Freshman, 2003;Amir, Foa, & Coles, 2000;Cloitre, Cancienne, Heimberg, Holt, & Liebowitz, 1995;Foa, Gilboa-Schechtman, Amir, & Freshman, 2000;Perez-Lopez & Woody, 2001;Rapee, McCallum, Melville, Ravenscroft, & Rodney, 1994). For example, a study using a face recognition task with critical and accepting faces found that individuals with SAD recognized more critical faces than accepting faces, whereas controls showed the reverse pattern (Lundh & Ost, 1996). ...
... To illustrate, the priming study by Hermans et al. (2010) used a priming task consisting of bodily symptom primes and catastrophic outcome targets (e.g., palpitations-dying). Results showed that people with PD, compared to anxious controls (e.g., with obsessive-compulsive disorder or social phobia), reacted quicker during those panic trials than during control trials. However, this study seems an exception, since a number of studies did not show the expected priming effects (e.g., Cloitre et al. 1992;McNally et al. 1997;Schniering and Rapee 1997), or only found the expected results when priming effects were calculated for ideographically selected stimuli (Schneider and Schulte 2007). Teachman et al. (2007) employed an IAT and found that people with PD, compared to healthy controls, had stronger associations between concepts relating to the self and panic. ...
... Instead, a trend for higher drop-out in pharmacotherapy was found and indicates less treatment acceptance for these conditions, possibly due to the side effects of psychopharmacological medication. Together with reported higher relapse rates for pharmacotherapy (Liebowitz et al., 1999), this trend should be considered when interpreting the somewhat higher post-treatment effect sizes of the condition. However, power was probably an issue within these analyses. ...
... Note. SCID = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (First et al., 1996); PRCS = Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker (Hook et al., 2008); SSPS = Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SPSS-P and SPSS-N subscales for positive and negative cognitions, respectively; Hofmann & DiBartolo, 2020); STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983); CGI = Clinical Global Impression Scale (National institute of Mental Health, 1985); BAT = behavioral assessment test (Hofmann et al., 2004); SUDS = Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale (Wolpe & Lazaus, 1966); DDS = Drexel Defusion Scale ; PHLMS = Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale ; RTQ = Reaction to Treatment Questionnaire -modified version specific to PSA (Holt & Heimberg, 1990); M.I.N.I. = Mini International Neuropsychiatry Schedule (Sheehan et al., 1998); AAQ-II = Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (Bond et al., 2011); ADIS-IV = Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Brown et al., 1994); SCID-IV Axis I Disorders = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (First et al., 1996); SPS** = Speech Performance Scale ; fNIRS = functional near-infrared spectroscopy; SPS = Social Phobia Scale (Mattick & Clarke, 1998); FNE = Fear of Negative Evaluation (Leary, 1983); FQ = Fear Questionnaire (Marks & Matthews, 1979); Willingness (Block & Wulfert, 2000); ELS = engaged living scale (Trompetter et al., 2013); MAAS = mindfulness attention awareness scale (Brown & Ryan, 2003); CFQ = cognitive fusion questionnaire (Gillanders et al., 2013); QOLI = Quality of Life Inventory (Frisch, 1994); TRS = therapist rating scale; SWBS = Spiritual Well-Being Scale (Ellison, 1983); ACT = Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; CBGT = Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment.; ABE = Acceptance-based exposure; HAB = Habituation-based exposure; ABBT = Acceptance-based behavior treatment; tCBT = traditional cognitive behavioral therapy. ...
... Our findings suggested that positive daily interactions between couples could buffer stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and be protective for individuals' well-being; thus, these findings have several implications. First, past studies showed that positive interactions within couples improve both individual and relational well-being (e.g., Ditzen et al., 2008;Vittengl & Holt, 1998), so we extended this research by providing evidence that feelings of gratitude operates as a mechanism to mediate the relationship between positive interaction and well-being. This result raises the possibility of a successful intervention that further increases a person's gratitude for partner's positive interactions to reduce the person's stress and enhance the person's well-being. ...
... Research on well-being, conversation, and belonging has underscored the importance of social interaction for people's health and happiness (Clark & Watson, 1988;Diener & Seligman, 2002;Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010;Helliwell & Putnam, 2004;Holt-Lunstad, Robles, & Sbarra, 2017;House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988;Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004;Mehl, Vazire, Holleran, & Clark, 2010;Myers, 2000;Pavot, Diener, & Fujita, 1990;Sun, Harris, & Vazire, 2020;Vittengl & Holt, 1998;Watson, Clark, McIntyre, & Hamaker, 1992). Despite the benefits of social interaction, people seldom strike up conversations with people they do not know. ...
... Vitasari, Wahab, Othman and Awang (2010) have shown that most of university students used to feel discomfort and anxious when doing class presentation because of social anxiety. Holt et al. (1992) suggest that the situation that precipitates social anxiety could be classified into four primary categories. In the first category, the highest level of anxiety produces situations involving formal speaking and interactions, such as giving a speech in front of an audience, performing on stage, ...
... As before, there are important theoretical differences between script/schema theorists, but as will become clear, I find the basic concept of a script invaluable. Scripts are considered to be implicit and abstract knowledge of protocols, procedures, emotions, and behaviors in conversation and events that individuals use to guide their own behavior and to interact with and interpret the behavior of others (for examples, see Fehr et al, 1999;Gioia and Poole, 1984;Greenberg et al., 1998;Greenwood et al., 2000;and Wenzel and Holt, 2003). For example, one uses a script when dining at a restaurant: you understand the role of the waitstaff, how to place an order, that one pays for the food at the end of the meal and not halfway through, that one may return an undercooked steak but not launch it at the waitstaff, etc. ...
... Muito se tem estudado os fatores relacionados ao falar em público em populações com transtorno de ansiedade social (Harb, Eng, Zairder, & Heimberg, 2003;Laukka et al., 2008) e com altos níveis de ansiedade social (Kim, Lundh, & Harvey, 2002;Schultz, Alpers, & Hofmann, 2008). Outros estudos investigaram, ainda, as diferenças entre grupos com e sem o transtorno citado (Angélico, Crippa, & Loureiro, 2012;Levitan et al., 2012;Rapee & Abbott, 2007;Voncken & Bögels, 2008) e com diferentes níveis de ansiedade social (Cody & Teachman, 2011;Thompson & Rapee, 2002;Wenzel & Holt, 2003) na referida tarefa. Entretanto, verifica-se na literatura que pouco se tem investigado o medo de falar em público em populações sem o diagnóstico de algum tipo de transtorno psiquiátrico ou condições subclínicas (por exemplo, pessoas com altos níveis de ansiedade social, mas que não satisfazem os critérios diagnósticos do transtorno de ansiedade social). ...
... First, Oddball Personality Questions-in theory-tap into a candidate's personality and preferences, thereby allowing them to disclose unique personal information that would otherwise be concealed during the traditional interview process. Social psychology research also shows that the act of selfdisclosure by responding to personal questions produces positive affect (Vittengl & Holt, 2000) and liking toward the question raiser (Huang et al., 2017). The effect is amplified when responding to uniquely intimate questions (Aron et al., 1997). ...