Claude Iguma Wakenge's research while affiliated with Claremont Graduate University and other places

Publications (6)

Article
For the last two decades, the Congolese Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been undergoing reforms of its governing structures. A recurrent argument supporting the reforms — predominantly in the 3T ASM sector (i.e. tin, tantalum and tungsten) — is that artisanal mining feeds violence (including sexual violence), conflicts, underdevel...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the smuggling of coltan into and out of artisanal mining areas in northern Katanga where the ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi), a policy on conflict minerals, tries to improve transparency in trading tin, tantalum (coltan) and tungsten. The article approaches smuggling from a sociology of economic life perspective, clos...
Article
This article offers ethnographic insights into how reforms of artisanal mining have triggered conflicts regarding property rights and access to minerals (coltan),. ¹ 1In eastern DRC, coltan is an abbreviation of columbite-tantalite, a mixture of two mineral ores, namely niobium and tantalum, used for industrial applications in high-tech industries....

Citations

... Additionally, it is typically the poorer countries of the world that are most vulnerable to the corporate quest for profits. Furthermore, the setting for research on violence and natural resource extraction is nearly always rural, no matter the country of reference, because that is where the first step in the extraction process largely takes place, from diamonds to cobalt to oil and gas (e.g., see Flynn et al., 2022;Jones, 2016;Kuo, 2020;Maclin et al., 2017;Ruddell, 2017;Rustad et al., 2016;Sharma, 2010;Stretesky et al., 2018;Wakenge et al., 2021;Warren and McAuliffe, 2021). Nonetheless, more prosperous countries such as Australia, Canada, the UK and the US are not immune to large resource companies seeking to mine iron ore, coal, and other natural resources in their rural and remote regions (Bardi, 2014;Freudenburg and Gramling, 1994;Ruddell, 2017). ...
... Within due diligence concepts for raw material supply chains the traceability of a shipment is one of the issues that have to be taken into account [6]. The usual "bag and tag" traceability systems depend on document-based, therefore artificial, information on the origin of a shipment [7,8] and thus are highly susceptible to fraud attempts. However, the credibility of those traceability systems is enhanced significantly if an independent tool based on the analysis of intrinsic properties of the minerals would verify the declared origin and therefore strengthen the plausibility of the documentation of the respective shipment. ...
... This expansion, in turn, may have a significant impact on ASM productivity and profitability (Geenen and Cuvelier, 2019;Geenen and Radley, 2014). In the case of the DRC, several recent studies have focused on the political economy of the ASGM mechanisation in the context of tensions between ASGM and industrial exploitation (Geenen and Verweijen, 2017;Kamundala et al., 2014;Kilosho et al., 2017;Mulonda et al., 2019;Radley and Geenen, 2021;Radley, 2019;Rwabashi, 2016;Stoop et al., 2019;Wakenge, 2018). While these studies have in common the analysis of the viability of ASGM in the face of the industrial sector, they are less focused on the profound changes that artisanal and small-scale production is undergoing in itself. ...
... Premièrement, l'inefficacité du regroupement des exploitants miniers artisanaux en coopératives ne facilite ni les prélèvements fiscaux et non fiscaux ni le suivi des activités de ces exploitants par les services étatiques. Les élites accaparent ces coopératives (Wakenge & Hilhorst 2017 ;Bahati 2016 ;De Haan & Geenen 2016), de sorte qu'elles peuvent être considérées comme des structures privatisées. ...