Christopher Hensley's research while affiliated with University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and other places

Publications (62)

Article
Research on the topic of childhood animal cruelty methods and their link to interpersonal violence is sparse. Most of the studies that do exist focus only on the frequencies of different methods of childhood animal cruelty. Only two studies to date have examined the predictive nature of these methods for later violence toward humans. One of these p...
Article
In the early 1960s, researchers began to examine the potential link between childhood animal cruelty and future interpersonal violence. Findings since then have been inconsistent in establishing a relationship between the two. This may be due to researchers failing to measure the recurrency of childhood animal abuse and the recurrency of later viol...
Article
Those who commit acts of animal cruelty may do so differently based upon how they individually experience such acts. These experiences may impact the link that exists between childhood animal abuse and later interpersonal violence. Limited research exists that examines how social and emotional factors such as being upset after committing animal cru...
Article
The goal of the current study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and childhood experiences on the respondents’ age of committing childhood animal cruelty and its recurrency. Using data collected from 257 male inmates at a Southern medium-security state prison, the current study seeks to replicate a study by Hensley,...
Article
Prison sex research has generally followed an essentialist theoretical approach. Only Alarid used a social constructionist approach to understand sexuality behind bars. Using data collected from 142 male inmates in a Southern maximum-security correctional facility, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether engaging in sexual behavior...
Article
The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast attitudes of Mississippi inmates who participate in a conjugal visitation program with inmates who do not participate in such a program. Logistic regression analyses reveal no differences between participant and nonparticipant attitudes toward the conjugal visitation program. However, differences...
Article
Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives...
Article
Despite the recent surge in research linking animal and human acts of violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining animal cruelty itself. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents hav...
Article
Recent research has begun to establish a relationship between childhood acts of animal cruelty and later violence against humans. However, few studies have focused on the influence of animal cruelty methods on later interpersonal violence. In a replication of a study by Hensley and Tallichet (2009) and based on a sample of 180 inmates at medium- an...
Article
Despite recent research, few studies have examined the specific social contexts in which animal cruelty may be learned. Using data collected from 180 inmates at a medium- and maximum-security prison in a southern state, the authors seek to replicate findings from the Hensley and Tallichet study that examined the potential for the onset and recurren...
Article
The present study seeks to replicate Tallichet, Hensley, and Singer's research on childhood animal cruelty methods by using a sample of 180 male inmates surveyed at both medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state. The purpose of the current study was to first reexamine the relationship between demographic and situational factors and s...
Article
Because of the limited number of studies that have examined the motives for childhood animal cruelty, researchers continue to suggest that further systematic study is needed. In a replication of the Hensley and Tallichet study and based on survey data from 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a southern U.S. state, the pres...
Article
Although bestiality is an infrequent form of animal cruelty, the possibility of identifying a potential link between these acts and later interpersonal violence is an area of research that deserves further exploration. In a replication of the Hensley, Tallichet, and Singer study and based on survey data from male inmates at a medium- and maximum-se...
Article
Recent studies have begun to establish an association between childhood acts of animal cruelty and later violence against humans. Even so, research has failed to establish a strong correlation between the two, perhaps because previous studies have failed to examine the commission of violence against animals and humans in terms of their frequencies....
Article
The link between early animal abuse and later violence toward humans may depend on how acts of animal cruelty are experienced by those whose behavior demonstrates this graduation. Unfortunately, the research investigating the social and emotional context for the youthful commission of animal cruelty as it escalates to adult interpersonal violence i...
Article
Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of motives for childhood and adolescent animal cruelty as it is associated with interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectivel...
Article
Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods as they are associated with subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several re...
Article
Within the last decade, state departments of correction have been eliminating or reducing the number of programs, services, and amenities for inmates. Current research has shown that the majority of society favor keeping many of these inmate programs. However, studies of criminology majors' and non-majors' attitudes toward inmate programs, services...
Article
Bestiality is a serious although less frequently occurring form of animal cruelty that may be linked to subsequent aggression against humans. This investigation examines whether a perpetrator's race, childhood residence, education, commission of a personal crime, and the number of personal crimes committed affects acts of bestiality committed durin...
Article
Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban...
Article
Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons ina southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the i...
Article
Studies investigating the specific methods for committing nonhu-man animal cruelty have only begun to expose the complexities of this particular form of violence. This study used a sample of 261 male inmates surveyed at both medium-and maximum-secu-rity prisons. The study examined the influence of demographic attributes (race, education, and reside...
Article
Using data gathered from anonymous questionnaires of 226 male and female wardens from state-operated institutions, the research assesses whether, and to what degree, individual demographic variables and institutional characteristic variables are related to wardens' perceptions of the prevalence of sexual assault in their institu-tions, the prevalen...
Article
Studies concerning inmate-on-inmate sexual assaults within male correctional facilities are sparse in the sociological and correctional literatures. Only a few studies have specifically examined the characteristics of male inmate sexual assault targets. The current research sought to address this gap by providing an examination of factors related t...
Article
Research on inmate fear of sexual assault is sparse in sociological and correctional journals. Studies that examine wardens’ perceptions of inmate fear of sexual assault are nonexistent in the literature. Therefore, using data gathered from 226 wardens of state correctional institutions, this study examines which demographic and institutional facto...
Article
Few studies have examined how animal cruelty is learned within a specific social context among incarcerated individuals. Using data from 261 inmates, this study specifically addressed how demographic characteristics and childhood experiences with animal abuse may have affected the recurrence and onset of childhood and adolescent cruelty as a learne...
Article
Renewed interest in animal cruelty as a precursor to human violence has sparked recent investigations into the specific complexities of animal abuse itself. This article assesses the impact of demographic characteristics (race, education and childhood residence) and situational factors (if they hurt or killed the animal alone, if they tried to conc...
Article
Studies demonstrating the potential link between childhood and adolescent acts of animal cruelty and later interpersonal violence toward humans remain ambiguous. Unfortunately, most of the research examining this possible link has failed to investigate repeated acts of animal cruelty or recurrent acts of violence toward humans. Using a sample of 26...
Article
Despite the fact that serial murder has existed for centuries, it has been given little academic attention in the social science literature. Existing studies have primarily examined the motivational factors involved in the commission of serial murder. However, research examining the childhood and adolescent backgrounds of serial murderers is scant....
Article
This research addresses the perceptions and degree of accuracy in information that university students have regarding some basic criminal justice issues that are often misrepresented by entertainment media. The media often distorts information regarding criminal justice issues leading to over‐exaggerated beliefs of crime and justice. It is our beli...
Article
Not only has research on prison sexual assault been rather scarce the past four decades, but few of these studies have ascertained the number of officially reported inmate-on-inmate sexual assaults. In addiition, no study exists which has rigorously examined which, if any, institutional factors impact the number of officially reported inmate-on-inm...
Article
Inmate-to-inmate sexual coercion remains a relatively unex-plored topic within correctional literature, especially concerning female in-mates. Using data gathered in March 2000 via questionnaires with 245 inmates in a southern female correctional facility, the authors examine vari-ous demographic characteristics of victim and perpetrator inmate-to-...
Article
Full-text available
Prison argot and sexual hierarchies have consistently been found to be present in U.S. correctional facilities. However, recent years have seen very few studies that focus specifically on argot labels and sexual hierarchies that exist in prisons. Using data collected from 174 face-to-face structured interviews with male inmates in multisecurity-lev...
Article
Full-text available
Research on male inmate sexual assault has been quite limited in correctional literature. Even fewer of these studies have focused specifically on the characteristics of sexual assault targets. Therefore, data gathered from August 1998 to May 1999 via face-to-face interviews with 174 inmates in three male Oklahoma correctional facilities were drawn...
Article
Although corrections researchers have examined criminal justice students’ attitudes toward offender punishment and the death penalty, they have overlooked the important area of inmate privileges. Using data collected from 570 students enrolled at four different Southern universities, this study examines attitudinal differences between criminal just...
Article
Mentoring academics is an integral step in aiding their professional development. This commitment to mentoring is discussed by three criminal justice professors, each in a distinct phase of his career. Three distinct mentoring models are discussed: (1) continuing a mentoring relationship with a dissertation advisor or other mentor from graduate sch...
Article
Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social lear...
Article
Full-text available
Most sociologists and penologists tend to shy away from studying inmate attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexuals. Researchers within the corrections field who focus on prison sexuality typically conduct their research on consensual samesex sexual behavior and sexual coercion. The focus of the present study, however, was to ascertain female in...
Article
Of the two available studies that have been conducted on wardens' attitudes toward conjugal visitation programs in the United States, the information regarding this important and controversial topic is outdated. Using data gathered from anonymous questionnaires completed by 226 male and female wardens from state-operated institutions, this study ex...
Article
Full-text available
Inmate sexual assault has long been a problem within the American correctional system. Prison sex researchers have prescribed various remedies and solutions for dealing with this issue. However, few of these studies have examined wardens’ beliefs regarding possible remedies for inmate sexual assault. Using data collected from 226 wardens in 2001, t...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanato...
Article
For the past 90 years, sociologists, psychologists, and penologists have been studying inmate-to-inmate prison sexuality. These researchers have made great strides in advancing the study of prison sexuality. Although many may consider the issue to be deviant, prison sex researchers have made positive contributions to the study of one of the most co...
Article
Research on the topic of consensual same-sex sexual activities within female prisons has been sparse in sociological and correctional literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics and motivations which affect a female inmate's decision to engage in same-sex sexual activity. The most significant and salient variable...
Article
Few studies have examined the relationship between participation in conjugal visitation programs and threats of or actual violent behavior facilities. In the present study, 256 men and women incarcered in two Mississippi prisons completed an anonymous questionnaire concerning institutional violence and participation in the conjugal visitation progr...
Article
For the past decade, researchers have examined the differences between criminal justice and non-criminal justice students' attitudes toward various criminal justice issues and problems. However, these same researchers have overlooked one important aspect of the criminal justice system, corrections. Therefore, using data collected from 570 students...
Article
Although the notion of providing specialized treatment to sex offenders has been widely, and at times enthusiastically, embraced by lawmakers and criminal justice professionals, the larger criminal justice system often maintains and fosters policies and mandates that act as disincentives for offenders to seek out or participate meaningfully in spec...
Article
The topic of male and female masturbation both in free society and in prison has received very little academic attention. In fact, no study has been conducted on female masturbatory practices in correctional facilities. The present study examined the amount and frequency of masturbation in a Southern female prison. In addition, the authors uncovere...
Article
Research on the topic of masturbation and same-sex sexual activities within male prisons has been sparse in sociological and correctional literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence, amount, and frequency of masturbation and consensual homosexual activity among male inmates. Surveys were administered to 142 inmates in...
Article
Research concerning variables which impact inmate participation in same-sex sexual behavior within female correctional facilities is sparse. Data were collected via anonymous questionnaires from 245 inmates at a southern female correctional facility. Variables associated with same-sex sexual behavior among female inmates were prior homosexual behav...
Article
Sexual victimization has become one of the most publicized and researched social problems in society. However, potential linkages between the intended and unintended effects of sex offender management legislation have gone largely unaddressed in social science literature. This article addresses these linkages by applying a social-systems model to h...
Article
It has been argued that differences exist between male and female inmates' attitudes toward homosexuality. Unfortunately, this statement has never been fully addressed in correctional literature. To test this hypothesis, anonymous surveys were administered to 256 male and female inmates in Mississippi. The study revealed that not only gender but al...
Article
The study of prison sexuality began in the early 1900s with a few scant articles discussing the unnatural relationship between women behind bars. Today, the number of manuscripts on all aspects of sex in prison has increased. However, relatively few studies have focused on these “pains of imprisonment.” This article describes the history of prison...
Article
Rape is one of the most heinous and underreported crimes against women. However, if women knew about recent technological advances in the war on rape, maybe they would report the crime more often. For example, biting incidents in connection with violent rapes are not rare. Consequently, bite mark evidence should be carefully searched for and uncove...

Citations

... President Obama has penned similar legislation, with a strong emphasis on encouraging responsible fatherhood among Americans as well as healthy marital relationships (Geva, 2011). Additionally, the idea that marriage strengthens social bonds has formed the basis for long-standing correctional programs in criminal justice such as conjugal visitation (Hensley, Rutland, & Gray-Ray, 2002). Policies built on the belief that marriage encourages successful offender reintegration must tailor approaches so that marriage-inhibiting factors are addressed. ...
... The prominence of sexual victimization in US prisons has framed the formation of a sexual hierarchy (Castle et al., 2002). The sexual behaviour prisoners engage in dictates their status within the hierarchy (Dumond, 1992). ...
... Instead, men develop sexual relationships with fellow inmates through informal agreements for the sake of sexual gratification. It is the dearth of women that pushes men into same-sex encounters (Koscheski, Hensley, Wright, & Tewksbury, 2002), and sex is the key to the relationship (Fleisher & Krienert, 2009). This is not to say that men never develop meaningful relationships in prison. ...
... Although research on sex in prison began in the early 1900s, relatively few studies on women have focused on female inmates' attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual activity (Blackburn, Shannon, Fowler, Mullings, & Marquart, 2011), the deprivation of heterosexual relationships felt by female inmates, and the complex variety of ties that female inmates form in prison (Chesney-Lind, 1986;Faith, 1993;Giallombardo, 1966;Girshick, 1999;Heffernan, 1972;Hensley, 2000;Hopper, 1980;Maeve, 1999;Morash, Haarr, & Rucker, 1994;Owen, 1998;Pollock-Byrne, 1998;Potter, 2009;Propper, 1976Propper, , 1982Ward & Kassebaum, 1965). Furthermore, close examination of the research on same-sex sexual relationships among female inmates reveals that all of the studies have been conducted solely in the USA. ...
... (2) CAC as Predictive of Future Violent Behavior: Sixteen studies investigated whether CAC was predictive of future violent behavior, especially delinquency and violent offending. The most frequent finding was that recurrent CAC was predictive of violent interpersonal offences Hensley & Ketron, 2018;Overton et al., 2012;Trentham et al., 2018). Studies also found a link between CAC and earlier offending (Bright et al., 2018) and various forms of delinquency (Walters, 2018), especially violent acts based on anger (Lucia & Killis, 2011). ...
... Studies have strongly tied increases in animal cruelty perpetration in adolescence to the perceived acceptability of animal cruelty (Connor et al. 2021). Repeated acts of animal cruelty in youth warrants great concern and have been identified as a predictor for repeated acts of interpersonal violence when the child enters adulthood (Trentham et al. 2018). ...
... Desde esta perspectiva, después de una serie de actos agresivos hacia los animales, los asesinos seriales habrían aumentado gradualmente su nivel de agresividad, lo que finalmente resulta en actos de violencia perpetrados contra los humanos. Esto llevó a varios investigadores a enfocar su atención en la población con características más violentas, mayormente en las cárceles (e.g., Hensley, Tallichet, & Dutkiewicz, 2010;Hensley, Browne, & Trentham, 2017;Haden, McDonald, Booth, Ascione, & Blakelock, 2018;O'Grady, Kinlock, & Hanlon, 2007;Overton, Hensley, & Tallichet, 2011). Así, se han estudiado los antecedentes de crueldad animal entre los asesinos en serie y en masa en los casos de Eric Harris y Dylan Klebold, Kip Kinkel, Mitchell Johnson y Andrew Golden, Michael Carneal, Luke Woodham, Brenda Spencer, Lee Boyd Malvo, Jeffrey Lionel Damher, Arthur Shawcross, Ted Bundy, Edmund Emil Kemper III, Carroll Edward Cole, Albert de Salvo, Peter Kurten, Richard Trenton Chase, David Berkowitz, Patrick Sherrill, etcétera. ...
... In some contexts, the effects of inter-racial hatred and perceived weakness combine and produce an extra high risk for members of certain ethnicities and races. This has most often been studied in U.S. prisons, where inter-racial sexual abuse is common for offense constellations involving white non-Hispanic victims and African American or Hispanic offenders (Beck, Berzofsky, Caspar, & Krebs, 2013;Davis, 1971;Hensley, Tewksbury, & Castle, 2003;Human Rights Watch, 2001 ...
Reference: Victim selection
... (1) Environmental Predictors of CAC: Studies investigated various risk factors increasing the likelihood of children engaging in animal cruelty. The most investigated risk factors were forms of child adversity (Vaughn et al., 2011), including as measured by Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs; Bright et al., 2018), exposure to violence (Knight et al., 2014), presence of domestic violence (Fielding et al., 2011), and child maltreatment or abuse, including sexual abuse (Boat et al., 2011;Browne et al., 2017;McEwan et al., 2014;Satapathy et al., 2016). Yamazaki et al. (2010) compared a group of maltreated children with control children; although the maltreated children were more likely to abuse animals, they were also more likely to use animals as a source of support. ...
... Estudos documentam que atos entre pessoas do mesmo sexo na prisão podem ser voluntários e involuntários ainda que a sua frequência seja difícil de estimar (GIBSON & HENSLEY, 2013). As estatísticas que dizem respeito a assédio sexual e violação são baixas, mas é necessário introduzir fatores como a coação e a estigmatização que justificam que algumas situações não sejam reportadas. ...