Christopher Gillberg's research while affiliated with Kochi University and other places

Publications (622)

Article
Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) may present with similar social problems, despite differing aetiologies, resulting in diagnostic conundrums. Methods: Thirty children: 10 with ASD, no maltreatment history, 10 with DSED and 10 typically developing children we...
Article
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The prevalence of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in the general child population is still largely unknown and validated screening instruments are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of children screening positive for ARFID in a Japanese birth cohort using a newly developed parent-reported screening...
Article
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Due to lack of previous studies, we aimed at evaluating the use of the Five to Fifteen (FTF) questionnaire in adults with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) and in controls without NDD. The NDD group consisted of adults with autism spectrum disorder ASD (n = 183) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 174) without intellectual disa...
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This study examines the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in preschool children in an immigrant population. Possible risk factors for ASD and individual needs for the children and their families are described, as well as implications for health care. The estimated minimum prevalence for ASD in the area was 3.66% for children aged 2–5 yea...
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A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to answer the question: What epigenetic, telomeric and associated biological changes are associated with exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the under 12s? Using PRISMA guidelines, appropriate databases were searched. 190 papers were returned with 38 articles fully review...
Article
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Background: Barriers inherent in service systems for autism can hinder parents from getting help for their children, and this is probably especially true for immigrant parents. In order to provide accessible assessment and interventions for preschool children with autism, a multidisciplinary team was established in one district of a Swedish city,...
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Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of chronic pain and its association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a group of women, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Patients and methods: Prospective longitudinal 16-19 years follow-up study of 100 Swedish fema...
Article
Purpose: To provide data on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and parent reported behaviour difficulties in young children with epilepsy, and to compare results with children with neurodisability (neurodevelopmental/neurological difficulties) without epilepsy. Method: Children with...
Article
Aim To describe motor function and associated impairments, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in school‐aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Population‐based study of all children with CP born 1999‐2006 from the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden; 264 children (141 males, 123...
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Gastrointestinal (GI) problems constitute an important comorbidity in many patients with autism. Multiple mutations in the neuroligin family of synaptic adhesion molecules are implicated in autism, however whether they are expressed and impact GI function via changes in the enteric nervous system is unknown. We report the GI symptoms of two brother...
Article
This paper will focus on the concept of ESSENCE (which includes autism, ADHD, and several other named “disorders”, see below), to a considerable extent, the work of “my” clinical and basic science research groups (in various parts of the world) and so will include more references from “our” groups than would otherwise be considered reasonable. Our...
Article
Background: Paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a newly defined symptom-based condition that mainly occurs in children and adolescents. Few studies have described the clinical characteristics of the syndrome. Methods: We clinically assessed and reviewed the medical histories of children and adolescents (aged 4-14 years) wi...
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With increasing numbers of children being diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) attention has been drawn to these children’s physical health. We aimed to identify the prevalence of defined physical problems (epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cancer, diabetes, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, diarrhea, constipation, daytime enu...
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig. 2 part labels, the label “d” was incorrectly labelled as “c” and the subsequent labels should be corrected as d, e, and f. The corrected Fig. 2 is given below.
Article
The aim of the study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the experiences and needs of parents of young children with epilepsy from a total population sample. The parents (mothers (n = 38), fathers (n = 9)) of 40/53 (75% of total population) young children (1–7 years; 23 males, 17 females) with ‘active’ epilepsy (had a seizure in the last y...
Article
The aim was to provide data on parenting stress and perceived stigma in mothers (n = 47) of young children with epilepsy, and to compare findings with those of mothers (n = 48) of developmental, age- and gender-matched children with nonepilepsy-related neurodisability (neurological and/or neurodevelopmental concerns). The mothers of young children...
Preprint
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Jaswal and Akhtar identify the necessary social nature of the human mind, even in autism. We agree with the authors and present significant contributory origins of this autistic isolation in disruption of purposeful movement made social from infancy. Timing differences in expression can be misunderstood in embodied engagement, and social intention...
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Purpose To characterize language disorder and developmental profiles in children who screened positive for language delay but negative for autism at 2.5 years of age. Patients and methods The first 100 children who screened positive for language delay – but negative for autism – in 2016 were assessed in detail by speech language pathologists. Pare...
Preprint
Recent evidence suggests an underlying movement disruption may be a core component of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and a new, accessible early biomarker. Mobile smart technologies such as iPads contain inertial movement and touch-screen sensors capable of recording sub second movement patterns during gameplay. A previous pilot study employed mach...
Article
Background Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a disorder with onset during childhood. Although ADHD occurs in adults as well as children, recent debate has focused on whether adult ADHD represents a continuation of a child‐onset disorder or if ADHD may, in at least some cases, have an adult onset. We therefore a...
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We have developed a False-Belief (FB) understanding task for use on a computer tablet, trying to assess FB understanding in a less social way. It is based on classical FB protocols, and additionally includes a manipulation of language in an attempt to explore the facilitating effect of linguistic support during FB processing. Specifically, the FB t...
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Purpose This study aimed to present speech and language data from a community-representative group of 4- to 6-year-old children with early-diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability (ID). Methods The study group comprised 83 children 4–6 years of age with ASD without ID. They had been diagnosed with ASD before age 4.5...
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In a Swedish sample of persons eligible for disability services and aged 55 years or older in 2012, persons (n = 601) with autism spectrum disorder diagnoses registered in specialist care were identified. Register data concerning diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders, psychiatric care, and psychiatric medication were reviewed. More than 60% had...
Poster
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Poster presenting part of our results from the "physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders" project at the ESSENCE conference 2018
Article
The extent to which affective empathy is impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) remains unclear, as some ‐but not all ‐ previous neuroimaging studies investigating empathy for pain in ASD have shown similar levels to those of neurotypicals individuals. These inconsistent results could be due to the use of different empathy‐eliciting stimuli. Wh...
Article
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Purpose: The Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations – Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q) was developed as a brief screener to identify children with developmental concerns who might have neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). This study aimed to translate the ESSENCE-Q into south Slavic languages, namely, Bosnian, Bulga...
Data
Appendix S4 Scores on the Iowa Fatigue Scale in SEEN study – Mother
Data
Appendix S1 Results of Principal Components Analysis using 6 epilepsy factors.
Data
Appendix S6 (a) Paired‐samples PSQI – Epilepsy group. (b) Paired‐samples PSQI – Epilepsy group.
Data
Appendix S5 P‐values for comparisons between mothers and fathers on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Iowa Fatigue Scale subscales in the SEEN study.
Data
Appendix S3 Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) subscale scores in SEEN study.
Data
Appendix S8 Factors associated with total PSQI score in SEEN study.
Data
Appendix S7 Results of univariable and multivariable analysis of factors associated with CSHQ total score.
Data
Appendix S9 Factors associated with scores on Iowa Fatigue Scale.
Preprint
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The number of genes associated with autism is increasing, but few studies have been performed on epidemiological cohorts and in isolated populations. Here, we investigated 357 individuals from the Faroe Islands including 36 individuals with autism, 136 of their relatives and 185 non-autism controls. Data from SNP array and whole exome sequencing re...
Preprint
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Gamma oscillations facilitate information processing by shaping the excitatory input/output of neuronal populations, and their suppression by strong excitatory drive may stem from inhibitory-based gain control of network excitation. Individual variations in the gamma suppression may therefore reflect efficiency of gain control and subjective sensit...
Article
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Objective To determine the prevalence of parent‐reported sleep problems in young children with epilepsy and their parents and compare findings with those in a non‐epilepsy related neurodisability (neurodevelopmental/neurological difficulties) group. Method Parents of young children (1‐7 years) with epilepsy (n=48 (91% ascertainment)) completed the...
Article
Aim There are limited population‐based data on global development and adaptive behaviour in children with early‐onset epilepsy. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify the prevalence of deficits in global development and adaptive behaviour experienced by children with early‐onset epilepsy; (2) to identify factors associated with such deficits;...
Article
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Gamma-band oscillations arise from the interplay between neural excitation (E) and inhibition (I) and may provide a non-invasive window into the state of cortical circuitry. A bell-shaped modulation of gamma response power by increasing the intensity of sensory input was observed in animals and is thought to reflect neural gain control. Here we sou...
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Background It has been suggested that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might be a “comorbid” condition in selective mutism (SM). Methods In this retrospective study, we examined medical records of children with SM diagnosis (n=97) at a medical center specializing in assessment of ASD. Results Mean age for onset of SM symptoms was 4.5 years and mean...
Article
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Aim This study identified whether children who had screened positive for either developmental language disorder (DLD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the age of 2.5 years had neurodevelopmental assessments five years later. Methods Our study cohort were 288 children born from 1 July 2008‐20 June 2009 who screened positive for DLD and, or, ASD...
Data
Appendix S1: All questionnaires and diagnostic materials used in the neuropsychiatric interview.
Data
Table SI: Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants with questionnaires, participants without questionnaires, and non‐participants Table SII: Behavioural outcomes factor univariable regression results Table SIII: Number of participants scoring above clinical cut‐offs on Strengths and Difficulties; Autism Spectrum Screening; and Swa...
Article
Background: Studies have reported increases in clinically diagnosed and treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the last decade, but it is unclear if this reflects an increase in the underlying ADHD phenotype. We aimed to clarify if there has been an increase in the prevalence of ADHD-like traits in the general population fr...
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We recently showed that constraining eye contact leads to exaggerated increase of amygdala activation in autism. Here, in a proof of concept pilot study, we demonstrate that administration of bumetanide (a NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist that restores GABAergic inhibition) normalizes the level of amygdala activation during constrained eye contac...
Article
Background: The role of general anesthetics as a risk factor for possible neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in humans is unresolved. The investigation of the role of anesthetics in the development of postgeneral anesthesia (anesthesia onward) NDDs has proven to be complicated, partly because of the inherent confounding in clinical cohort studies...
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Objective: As a new screening tool for neuromotor development in children aged two, we developed the Neuromotor 5 min Exam 2-year-old version (N5E2), which can be easily administered by pediatricians or primary care physicians. In this study, as an initial attempt to examine the utility of the N5E2, the inter-rater reliability on scoring for the i...
Article
Background: The prevalence of autism has been reported to have increased worldwide. A decrease over time in the number of autism symptoms required for a clinical autism diagnosis would partly help explain this increase. This study aimed to determine whether the symptom level of clinically diagnosed autism cases below age 13 had changed over time....
Article
The objective was to provide population-based data on depression, anxiety, and stress in parents of young children with epilepsy and to compare findings with those of parents of developmental-, age-, and gender-matched children with nonepilepsy-related neurodisability (neurological and/or neurodevelopmental concerns). The parents (mothers and fathe...
Article
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Background: Reliable and easy to administer screening instruments focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders and associated conditions are scarce. The Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) has previously been validated and reporting good- excellent validity for several disorders. This article aims to expand these findings by i...
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Aim: To describe behavioural and psychiatric outcomes of children within 10 years of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). Method: Children originally identified by the population-based North London Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Childhood Surveillance Study were followed-up between July 2009 and February 2013. They were grouped into epilepsy-...
Article
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Objective: Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are common features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Consequently, atypical sensory reactivity (SR) is now a diagnostic feature of ASD. Quantitative genetic research on ASD has overlooked these symptoms, however. We therefore investigated the association between autistic traits and SR using twin...
Article
Background The prognosis of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE), a common childhood medical neurological emergency, is not well characterised. We aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes in a cohort of participants who previously had CSE. Methods In this prospective study, we followed up a population-based childhood CSE cohort from north London...
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Background Studies on autism have tended to focus either on those with intellectual disability (ie, those with intellectual quotient [IQ] under 70) or on the group that is referred to as “high-functioning”, that is, those with borderline, average or above average IQ. The literature on cognition and daily functioning in autism spectrum disorder comb...
Article
Previous studies that showed decreased brain activation in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewing expressive faces did not control that participants looked in the eyes. This is problematic because ASD is characterized by abnormal attention to the eyes. Here, we collected fMRI data from 48 participants (27 ASD) viewing pictures of neutra...
Article
Organisation of health care for families with young children with autism in a multiethnic community in Gothenburg, Sweden In a project in a multiethnic district in Gothenburg a local collaborative model with a multiprofessional team for families with young children with autism has been running for three years. The model allows assessments and inter...
Article
Background: Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of anxiety and depression. This is important to identify in the clinical assessment to understand its impact. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between parent- and self-reports of anxiety and depr...
Article
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Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) seem to have difficulties looking others in the eyes, but the substrate for this behavior is not well understood. The subcortical pathway, which consists of superior colliculus, pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus, and amygdala, enables rapid and automatic face processing. A specific component of this pa...
Article
Background There is a recently well-documented association between childhood epilepsy and ESSENCE (Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations) including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but the relationship between febrile seizures (FS) and ESSENCE is less clear. Methods The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Swed...
Article
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Background Screening for developmental disorders is an important task for Child Health Care. The concept of ESSENCE (early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations) was created to cover all types of early developmental disorders and the ESSENCE-Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q containing 12 questions with possible total scor...
Article
Based on evidence from the relevant research literature, we present a hypothesis that there may be a link between cholesterol, vitamin D, and steroid hormones which subsequently impacts on the development of at least some of the “autisms” [Coleman & Gillberg]. Our hypothesis, driven by the peer reviewed literature, posits that there may be links be...
Article
Objective: A finding consistent with the transdiagnostic approach to eating disorders is that about half of those with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN) eventually undergo a transition to the binge/purge (BP) subtype or to bulimia nervosa. Given evidence that individuals with bulimic symptoms exhibit elevated weights premorbidly, we tested the hyp...
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Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are persistent and lifelong conditions. Despite this, almost all twin studies focus on childhood. This twin study investigated the stability of autistic traits from childhood to early adulthood and explored the degree to which any stability could be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Methods P...