Christophe Moreau's research while affiliated with Université Paris-Saclay and other places

Publications (43)

Article
Full-text available
Estuaries and deltas are crucial zones to better understand the interactions between continents and oceans, and to characterize the mineralization and burial of different sources of organic matter (OM) and their effect on the carbon cycle. In the present study, we focus on the continental shelf of the northwest Mediterranean Sea near the Rhône rive...
Article
Spermaceti is a waxy substance found in the head cavities of sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus and P. catodon ). This substance had a variety of commercial applications from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th century, such as candles, soap, cosmetics and other compounds. Spermaceti was also occasionally used as wax for modeling sc...
Article
Spermaceti is a waxy substance found in the head cavities of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus and P. catodon). This substance had a variety of commercial applications from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th century, such as candles, soap, cosmetics and other compounds. Spermaceti was also occasionally used as wax for modeling scul...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the topographic evolution and erosion dynamics of the Himalayan range have been extensively documented, it is not known how the very high Himalayan peaks erode. Some conceptual models assume that intense periglacial processes involve regressive erosion of high peak headwall at rates dictated by valley-floor downcutting of glaciers. However...
Article
We report on the capacity of AMS radiocarbon dating to play a decisive role in fighting against the illicit trade in art. In the framework of a current police investigation, where previously unseen paintings were discovered in a restorer’s workshop by the French Central Office for the Fight against Illicit Trafficking in Cultural Property (OCBC), w...
Article
Full-text available
Quality control procedures have been developed at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14) national laboratory throughout the years of operation. Routine procedures are applied to sample preparation depending on their composition and their size. The tuning of the ARTEMIS AMS facility, hosted by the LMC14 laboratory, uses an accurate procedur...
Article
Full-text available
Lead carbonate is one of the major compounds of art and archeology used as an ingredient in paint and cosmetics since Antiquity. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating is usually applied to organic remains. Here we extend radiocarbon dating to lead carbonate, an inorganic material. We demonstrate that lead carbonates can be dated. We also...
Article
Full-text available
the absolute dating of paintings is crucial for tackling the problem of fake art. investigations to authenticate paintings rely on an advanced knowledge of art history and a collection of scientific techniques. Radiocarbon dating is the only technique that gives access to an absolute time scale, but its application is limited to organic materials s...
Article
The direct dating of rock paintings is not always possible due to the lack of organic carbon compounds in pigments, or because sampling from a heritage site is often restricted. To overcome these limitations, dating laboratories have to develop new approaches. In this study, we consider sampling calcium oxalate crusts covering the painted artworks...
Article
Quality control procedures have been developed at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14) national laboratory throughout the years of operation. Routine procedures are applied to sample preparation depending on their composition and their size. The tuning of the ARTEMIS AMS facility, hosted by the LMC14 laboratory, uses an accurate procedur...
Article
Full-text available
The absolute dating of paintings is crucial for tackling the problem of fake art. Investigations to authenticate paintings rely on an advanced knowledge of art history and a collection of scientific techniques. Radiocarbon dating is the only technique that gives access to an absolute time scale, but its application is limited to organic materials s...
Article
Lead carbonates were used as cosmetic and pigment since Antiquity. The pigment, known as lead white, was generally composed of cerussite and hydrocerussite. Unlike most ancient pigments, lead white was obtained by a synthetic route involving metallic lead, vinegar and organic matter. Fermentation of organic matter produces heat and CO 2 emission, l...
Article
A better understanding of the dynamics of different particulate organic matter (OM) pools in the coastal carbon budget is a key issue for quantifying the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle. To elucidate the benthic component of this carbon cycle at the land-sea interface, we investigated the carbon isotope signatures (δ ¹³ C and ∆...
Article
Full-text available
Lead carbonate is one of the major compounds of art and archeology used as an ingredient in paint and cosmetics since Antiquity. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating is usually applied to organic remains. Here we extend radiocarbon dating to lead carbonate, an inorganic material. We demonstrate that lead carbonates can be dated. We also...
Article
In this paper, first results comparing modified Longin and ninhydrin collagen extraction methodologies are presented. The goal of this study is to investigate the bones of several species with different ages, preservation conditions, and collagen contents to determine the most suitable preparation method. Different types of samples are used such as...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this report is to present the dating process routinely applied to different types of samples at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14). All the results and protocols refer to our procedures over the last 5 years. A description of the sorting and chemical pretreatments of the samples as well as the extraction and graph...
Article
The Grotte Cosquer (southeastern France) is a Paleolithic painted cave only accessible by a deep-water dive. The cave has yielded numerous Paleolithic engravings and drawings, which were produced from wood charcoal. This article presents new radiocarbon dates obtained on samples collected in 2012 directly on 17 parietal representations and at the s...
Article
The main objective of this report is to present the dating process routinely applied to different types of samples at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14). All the results and protocols refer to our procedures over the last 5 years. A description of the sorting and chemical pretreatments of the samples as well as the extraction and graph...
Article
Full-text available
Dans le cadre du Projet Datation Grottes Ornées, de nouvelles dates 14C AMS ont été réalisées sur des échantillons d’os et de charbon provenant des dépôts archéologiques de trois grottes ornées paléolithiques présentes le long des gorges de l’Ardèche (Oulen, Chabot, Tête-du-Lion). Les résultats obtenus se placent tous durant le Solutréen, soit entr...
Article
Full-text available
(For english summary: See below). Située à la sortie des gorges de l’Ardèche, la Grotte des Deux-Ouvertures (St-Martin-d’Ardèche) présente à la fois une ornementation pariétale paléolithique, des traces importantes de fréquentation par les ours des cavernes, ainsi que des stigmates d’activités humaines dans l’argile (extraction ?). Au moment de la...
Article
À partir de 1970, les laboratoires de radiocarbone ont commencé à publier les valeurs d13C du rapport d’abondance des isotopes stables du carbone (12C et 13C) avec le résultat de la datation carbone-14. Pourquoi cette nouvelle donnée est-elle venue s’ajouter et, de quelle information supplémentaire est-elle porteuse ? Dans un article récent de la r...
Article
The ARTEMIS facility in Saclay France measures, on average, 4500 samples a year for French organizations working in an array of fields, including environmental sciences, archeology and hydrology. In response to an increasing demand for the isolation of specific soil compounds and organic water fractions, we were motivated to evaluate our ability to...
Article
We present here the new line installed at the LMC14 laboratory (Saclay, France) for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) extraction from marine and freshwater samples. The operating system and extraction process are described. The efficiency of the line design was checked, and the background (0.42 +/- 0.11 pMC) and the reproducibility on artificial sam...
Article
Full-text available
The Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) research program on prehistoric art conducts chronological studies of parietal representations with their associated archaeological context. This multidisciplinary approach provides chronological arguments about the creation period of parietal representations. This article presents...
Article
Full-text available
The Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) research program on prehistoric art conducts chronological studies of parietal representations with their associated archaeological context. This multidisciplinary approach provides chronological arguments about the creation period of parietal representations. This article presents...
Article
The Artemis accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility, installed in 2003 in Saclay, France, is devoted to radiocarbon measurements. Samples are submitted by scientists in the fields of Quaternary geology, environmental sciences, and archaeology. The entire preparation process, originally optimized for samples with about 1 mg of carbon, has been...
Article
The Artemis accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility, installed in 2003 in Saclay, France, is devoted to radiocarbon measurements. Samples are submitted by scientists in the fields of Quaternary geology, environmental sciences, and archaeology. The entire preparation process, originally optimized for samples with about 1 mg of carbon, has been...
Article
The Artemis accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements. It routinely measures over 4500 samples a year for French laboratories. This paper is a status report, showing the measurements of standard, blank, and FIRI intercomparison samples. Since 2008, research and development programs have bee...
Article
Full-text available
Radiocarbon (14C) dating of archaeological coastal sites in arid areas is challenging because of the relative rarity of datable terrestrial artefacts. Marine artefacts provide an abundant source of carbon, which is technically easy to date but radiocarbon dates need to be corrected for local variations from the global average marine 14C reservoir a...
Article
Near Boulmane city, in the limestone formation of El Minchare, the Ifri Oussaïd cave open over the Middle Atlas plateau at 2075 m high. From 2005 to 2007 excavations provided charcoal associated to bone remains mainly belonging to Ursus arctos, at last 156 identified bones from five bears. Paleontological studies describe bear of small size (Ouchao...
Article
Full-text available
Early Neolithic sedentary villagers started cultivating wild cereals in the Near East 11,500 y ago [Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)]. Recent discoveries indicated that Cyprus was frequented by Late PPNA people, but the earliest evidence until now for both the use of cereals and Neolithic villages on the island dates to 10,400 y ago. Here we present...
Article
Only a few astrophysical points and synchronisms listed in texts provide anchor points for the absolute chronology of Ancient Egypt. At first we will show how we can re-calculate some of these anchor points by using Sothic dating based on the arcus visionis method, and modelling lunar dates using a Bayesian approach. Then, we will discuss two radio...
Article
Full-text available
The new facility Artemis was installed in 2003 in Saclay, France. This 3MV NEC Pelletron is dedicated to high-precision radiocarbon measurements for French 14C laboratories. We will present information on Artemis along with our sample preparation methods. Results from measurements on some intercalibration samples will be given along with the values...

Citations

... For example, radiocarbon dating is exquisitely sensitive to modern (post 1950) natural organic materials that show elevated 14 C levels resulting from above-ground thermonuclear weapon tests in the 1960s. This "bomb pulse" carbon presents a twentieth century marker allowing accurate dating of contemporary art [22][23][24] but also particularly fruitful in unmasking modern forgeries or modern alterations to an otherwise historic artifact [21,[25][26][27][28]. ...
... In both Germany and France, sugar of lead was added to wine to preserve and sweeten it, even though it was recognized by the 17th century that leaded wine had deleterious health consequences and should be banned [68]. For millennia, lead compounds were also used for cosmetics and for paint [68], as well as the active ingredient in antibacterial ointments [69]:496, [70][71][72]. ...
... Once collected, CO 2 was graphitized at 600 • C with H 2 on an iron catalyst (Vogel et al., 1984) and then the graphite powder was pressed in a cathode. The 14 C/ 12 C ratio was measured by AMS using the LMC14/ARTEMIS facility, a 3MV NEC Pelletron (Moreau et al. 2020). Oxalic acid II was used for normalization and the international intercomparison samples FIRI H and FIRI I for validation. ...
... As for the closely related papers by Messager et al. (2020) and Beck et al. (2020), the former determined the temperature at which lead white samples to be subjected to radiocarbon dating should be heated for C extraction (= 400°C), while the latter applied the protocol previously established to perform radiocarbon dating on lead white samples taken from two medieval contexts: the 1388-1390 courtly decoration of Margaret of Bavaria's dressing room at the Château de Germolles in Burgundy (France) and the decorations of the destroyed rood screen of the church of the Cordeliers in Fribourg (Switzerland). Among the latter, two groups of paintings were stylistically dated to 1500-1510, while another decoration was tentatively dated between 1340 and 1700. ...
... Radiocarbon dating of oxalate accretions has provided minimum (5,6,8) and, in some cases, bracketing (21) ages for associated rock art, although concerns have been raised about the source of the dated carbon, the possibility of open-system behavior in the accretions, and possibilities of sample contamination by either older or younger organic constituents (22). Chemical pretreatment procedures (5,23) have been used with apparent success in dating studies to isolate pure oxalates from other organic materials present, suggesting that some of these risks can be avoided or controlled by improved analytical protocols and a better understanding of the dated materials. However, identifying the source of the dated carbon in such oxalate minerals requires an understanding of their formation mechanism and is essential in relating radiocarbon dates to the time of mineral formation, which may, in turn, be related to associated rock art. ...
... In the past few years, the quality of lead white was investigated by crystallography (Sanchez-Navas et al., 2013), and photoluminescence (Gonzalez et al., 2017) and, more recently, analytical developments in the field of 14 C have made it possible to date lead white in cosmetics and paintings (Beck et al., 2018(Beck et al., , 2019Hendriks et al., 2019;Quarta et al., 2020, Messager et al., 2021. ...
... The Δ 14 C signatures provide information about the age of the different OM but can also be used as a tracer for the freshly produced OM of the river (Aller et al. 2008;Aller and Blair 2004). The anthropogenic activities and the presence of nuclear plants on the Rhône river can lead to enriched Δ 14 C-OM signatures (Eyrolle et al. 2015) which can be used to follow the fate of the OM in the different pools of the system originating from the river, delta, or ocean Dumoulin et al. 2018). ...
... In the past few years, the quality of lead white was investigated by crystallography (Sanchez-Navas et al., 2013), and photoluminescence (Gonzalez et al., 2017) and, more recently, analytical developments in the field of 14 C have made it possible to date lead white in cosmetics and paintings (Beck et al., 2018(Beck et al., , 2019Hendriks et al., 2019;Quarta et al., 2020, Messager et al., 2021. ...
... Lastly, the specific chemical reaction of ninhydrin with the α-carboxyl group of free amino acids (hence not interacting with humates [26]) produces CO 2 that has been used for isotopic fractionation [135] and bone 14 C dating [136][137][138]. This 14 C pretreatment also uses collagen hydrolysed to amino acids in 1 M HCl and is simpler and cheaper than HPLC, but has been criticized for requiring abundant glassware and a minimum bone mass of approximately 1 g per sample and remains open for improvement [139]. Any new developments should of course gauge the extent by which novel reagents might add carbonaceous contaminants. ...