Christian Breyer's research while affiliated with Lappeenranta – Lahti University of Technology LUT and other places

Publications (27)

Article
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Germany currently imports 500 TWh/a of natural gas from the Russian Federation. Most of this gas is used to generate process and space heat. By accelerating the conversion of heat supply to heat pumps powered by renewable electricity, renew-able heat in district heating networks, and the substitution of natural gas in electricity generation with re...
Preprint
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This article is a product of a collaboration between ecosystem scientists and energy system modelers. It is currently in review at Nature Geoscience. The main points are: 1. Climate mitigation goals of 1.5-2°C are not adequate given current understanding of ecosystem sensitivity to climate and the high social costs of carbon emissions. 2. More aggr...
Article
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Copper is required for the transformation of global energy systems, and its production is intensive in water and energy. Several studies have investigated the design of renewable energy systems for copper production, aiming at reducing its environmental footprint. Here, we present the first integrated design for desalinated water and energy supply...
Article
Ammonia is one of the most commonly used feedstock chemicals globally. Therefore, decarbonisation of ammonia production is of high relevance towards achieving a carbon neutral energy system. This study investigates the global potential of green ammonia production from semi-flexible ammonia plants utilising a cost-optimised configuration of hybrid P...
Article
What role have batteries to play in the transition toward terawatt levels of photovoltaics? In this perspective, we attempt to answer this question by looking at technical, economic, and ecological features of PV-battery systems. We argue that the window of opportunity for batteries lies in the capacities of a few kWh/kWP, the exact amount dependin...
Technical Report
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Zusammenfassung Als fairer Beitrag Deutschlands zur Einhaltung der globalen 1,5-Grad-Grenze werden 16 Orientierungspunkte für eine klimaverträgliche Energieversorgung vorgestellt. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass hierfür die deutschen energiebedingten CO2-Emissio-nen in etwa 15 Jahren weitgehend auf Null sinken müssen. Energieeinsparung hilft, den...
Article
Thanks to fast learning and sustained growth, solar photovoltaics (PV) is today a highly cost-competitive technology, ready to contribute substantially to CO 2 emissions mitigation. However, many scenarios assessing global decarbonization pathways, either based on integrated assessment models or partial-equilibrium models, fail to identify the key...
Article
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Berlin, October 2, 2020 | Scientists for Future (S4F) confirm that the demands of Fridays for Future (FFF) on EU politics are factually necessary and scientifically justified. According to IPCC calculations , the EU27 will have a residual budget for emissions of 20 Gt CO from 2021 to limit global warming to a maximum of 1.5 degrees. An 80% reductio...
Article
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The forthcoming global energy transition requires a shift to new and renewable technologies, which increase the demand for related materials. This study investigates the long-term availability of lithium (Li) in the event of significant demand growth of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for supplying the power and transport sectors with very-high...
Article
We assess the requirements for neodymium, dysprosium, lithium, and cobalt in power generation, storage and transport technologies until 2050 under six global energy scenarios. We consider plausible developments in the subtechnology markets for lithium-ion batteries, wind power, and electric motors for road transport. Moreover, we include the uncert...
Article
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While we increasingly turn to desalination as a secure water supply, it is still perceived as an expensive and environmentally damaging solution, affordable only for affluent societies. In this contribution, we recast desalination from one of a last resort to a far-reaching, climate change mitigating, water security solution. First, we argue that t...
Chapter
This overview on the future global energy system is based on the fundamental requirements of the Paris Agreement, the Sustainable Development Goals of United Nations, and the concept of sustainability guardrails. Scenarios of major international institutions are presented and compared to the introduced constraints concluding that higher levels of a...
Article
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The reliable supplies of electricity and hydrogen required for 100% renewable energy systems have been found to be achievable by utilisation of a mix of different resources and storage technologies. In this paper, more demanding parameter conditions than hitherto considered are used in measurement of the reliability of variable renewable energy res...
Article
By 2050, it is estimated that the annual cereal production would need to increase by about 140% and total global food production increase by 70%. Meanwhile, total water withdrawals for irrigation is projected to increase by 11%. In contrast, poor management of existing water resources, pollution and climate change has resulted in limited freshwater...
Article
Solar energy has the potential to play a central role in the future global energy system because of the scale of the solar resource, its predictability, and its ubiquitous nature. Global installed solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity exceeded 500 GW at the end of 2018, and an estimated additional 500 GW of PV capacity is projected to be installed by 20...
Article
This article shows that research in the design of 100% renewable energy systems in scientific articles is fairly new but has gained increasing attention in recent years. In total, 180 articles published since 2004 have been identified and analysed. Many of these articles have a predominant focus on the electricity sector. However, an increasing num...
Article
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While a rapid decommissioning of fossil fuel technologies deserves priority, most climate stabilization scenarios suggest that negative emission technologies (NETs) are required to keep global warming well below 2°C. Yet, current discussions on NETs are lacking a distinct energy perspective. Prominent NETs, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and...
Article
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In March 2019, German-speaking scientists and scholars calling themselves Scientists for Future, published a statement in support of the youth protesters in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (Fridays for Future, Klimastreik/Climate Strike), verifying the scientific evidence that the youth protestors refer to. In this article, they provide the full...
Article
Ambitious actions focused on rapid defossilisation of today's energy systems require greater urgency, in order to avert unmanageable impacts of climate change. Transitioning to a cost-effective and carbon-neutral energy system in Nigeria and across the globe by the second half of this century is vital. This study explores a paradigmatic pathway to...
Article
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Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is the most widespread and mature utility-scale storage technology currently available and it is likely to remain a competitive solution for modern energy systems based on high penetration of solar PV and wind energy. This study estimates the technical potential of PHES in Iran through automatised GIS-based models...
Article
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The nexus between growing shares of renewables (penetration), storage requirements, and curtailment was studied using a linear optimisation model. The study was performed using a dataset of Israel’s electricity system. Five scenarios are designed to assess the techno-economic impact of curtailment under various policy-based frameworks. The results...
Article
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Artificial water reservoirs have been created over history for a variety of purposes such as flood control, seasonal water storage for irrigation, fishing, hydropower generation, energy storage, etc. Globally, hydropower represents still the largest share of renewable electricity generation, with over 1170 GW of capacity installed, thereof 328 GW i...
Article
Full-text available
As the transition to a 100% renewable energy (RE) system is meant to enhance sustainability, energy security should be taken into consideration. Energy security is an important situation in which the system can function optimally and sustainably, free from risks and threat. Part of the energy security consideration is the discussion about different...

Citations

... Furthermore, burning coal for power plants also produces dangerous and toxic dendroves [5]. Thus, by enhancing renewable energy use, long-term energy supply costs will be lower and affordable [6]. Unlike fossil-energy generation that tend to rise year after year because of fuel prices, the impact of exchange rate and inflation and rising awareness. ...
... Currently, the best choice for a desalination plant system is to use Reverse Osmosis technology (RO), rather than electrodialysis, microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) technologies. The development of innovations in the use of the RO system has intensified with the proven integration success using a SWRO membrane with low pressure, a two-stage high recovery SWRO system with low pressure, and the SWRO-PRO hybrid system [3,4]. A large amount of research has been conducted to investigate the feasibility of applying Reverse Osmosis technology using brackish water, river water, drinking water, and groundwater sources. ...
... Very high shares of solar PV electricity in energy system transition scenarios are found increasingly by highly resolved energy system models (Bogdanov et al., 2021b;Victoria et al., 2021). In addition, the hybrid PV-battery electricity supply characteristic is also increasingly described (Oyewo et al., 2021;Peters et al., 2021). These findings of highly resolved energy system modeling research are in contrast with those of climate energy research, as documented by Jaxa-Rozen and Trutnevyte (2021) and . ...
... In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest and investment where many new technology pathways are competing to produce affordable green hydrogen [25]. As a result, the concept of green ammonia production has progressively accelerated to challenge the traditional fossilbased ammonia synthesis [26,27]. However, the pathway for urea synthesis to track the green pathway of ammonia is not straightforward. ...
... the public debate at that time especially regarding the costs of transformation and the economic effects. It was not until new political pressure, including from the Fridays for Future movement, supported by Scientists for Future [157], [158], that the consequence of the signed Paris Agreement was more explicitly addressed in the public and placed at the forefront of the political agenda. Since then, there has been a long series of new studies concretely dealing with the design of a 100% RE scenario for Germany such as [97], [159]- [164], linking to earlier studies preparing the ground [71], [155], [165], [166]. ...
... Photovoltaic (PV) technology plays an important role in achieving solar energy conservation and decreasing fossil fuels consumption due to its clean and sustainabledevelopment advantages [1][2][3]. Compared to the traditional inorganic solar energy materials with poor flexibility [4][5][6], polymeric semiconducting materials possess the super mechanical flexibility due to the entanglement and relaxation of such long-chain molecules with conjugated backbones equipped with solubilizing side-chains [7][8][9]. For constructing the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs), transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) with good flexibility are equally essential. ...
... LIB is the most promising and preferred technology among the different traction battery types (Zhang et al., 2021). Greim et al. (2020) show based on a comprehensive scenario analysis that Li is critical for the sustainable energy transition. Due to its potential role in the development of electromobility in the coming decades, Li is considered a critical element by reputed surveys, such as the British Geological Survey (2015) and the Resnick Institute (2011). ...
... The ''mineral and metal resources'' indicator used here is a highly aggregated indicator which does not allow to draw conclusions e.g. on possible resource bottlenecks. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze the demand for specific resources at the level of individual technologies, which has been done e.g. in Junne et al. (2020a). Here, too, it can be seen that the transport sector is the driving force in the demand for resources such as neodymium, dysprosium for electric motors of electric vehicles as well as lithium and cobalt for batteries. ...
... Desalination is clearly not free of adverse effects (Elsaid et al., 2020a), but technological improvements together with a proper management of its environmental impacts can meet these goals (Elimelech and Phillip, 2011;Gude, 2017;Pistocchi et al., 2020b). If appropriately managed, desalination may become a win-win enabler of adaptation to climate change (Pistocchi et al., 2020a). ...
... Here we fill this gap by studying the implications of CDR inaction, focusing on BECCS and DACCS deployment in the European Union (EU) as key engineered CDR strategies strongly linked to the energy sector 52,53 . The EU is expected to play a vital role in future CDR actions [54][55][56] and has proposed a legally binding climate-neutrality target by 2050 57-59 that will require CDR measures yet to be defined 56 . ...