Chris M. Law's research while affiliated with RMIT University and other places

Publications (12)

Article
Studies have revealed usability problems with universal design resources (UDRs). In this paper, four UDR development cases are reviewed (Section508 standards, Web accessibility guidelines, the British Standard on managing inclusive design, and Irish guidelines on public access terminals). Evidence of a user-centered design approach was found in onl...
Article
In this paper, the development process of four Universal Design Resources (UDRs) was analyzed. The results of a heuristic evaluation (HE) of UDRs (Part 1) were used in this (Part 2) study to create an online survey. Thirty-one individuals involved in the creation of the four UDRs responded, 15 of whom were also interviewed. For three resources, the...
Article
This paper presents the evaluation of eight published Universal Design Resources (UDRs) to measure how effectively they support typical design processes and design psychology. New heuristics and principles to evaluate the UDRs from the point of view of designers who were universal design novices were created. Established methodologies for heuristi...
Conference Paper
Traditionally, evaluations for accessibility have been user-centered, based on guidelines and standards that are also user-centered. An argument is made for putting the needs of developers and programmers at the center of any accessibility evaluation process. Current practice in industry is briefly considered, including the roles of accessibility c...
Article
FEATURE AT A GLANCE: There are numerous standards, design guidelines, and other resources that relate to the use of technology by people with disabilities. We examined whether such resources met the needs of designers based on typical design processes and design psychology. We conducted a heuristic evaluation of eight resources and then surveyed an...
Conference Paper
Universal design (UD) is an approach to design that incorporates things which can be used by all people to the greatest extent possible. UD in information and communication technologies (ICTs) is of growing importance because standard ICTs have great potential to be usable by all people, including people with disabilities (PWDs). Currently, PWDs wh...
Article
This paper presents an abridged history of technologies used in cellular phones with respect to disability, and outlines the history of the concept of universal design. The fact that so many of the technologies in modern cell phones have their roots in solving disability access problems is then discussed in light of the fact that mainstream cell ph...
Article
Inclusive/Universal Design (UD) standards and guidelines are widely promoted to aid in the design of electronic devices for use by people with disabilities. For the success of such UD Resources (UDRs), the needs of designers (the target readers) have to be met. To determine this, a systematic analysis using heuristic evaluation methods was conducte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss the implications of recent research studies on disability-related design guidelines. We have investigated the quality of guidelines with respect to designers as their end-users, and we have conducted field studies of the use design resources in practice. We now look at gaps in the current knowledge regarding the conceptuali...
Conference Paper
Suggested methods for conducting website accessibility evaluations have typically focused on the needs of end-users who have disabilities. However, programmers, not people with disabilities, are the end-users of evaluations reports generated by accessibility specialists. Programmers' capacity and resource needs are seldom met by the voluminous repo...
Conference Paper
In times of ageing populations and shrinking care resources, electronic assistive technology (EAT) has the potential of contributing to guaranteeing frail older people a continued high quality of life. This paper provides users and designers of EAT with ...

Citations

... In particular, Law et al. (2006) proposed heuristics for designing inclusive design documents to meet designers' needs. However, these were based on current advice on design resources, from fields such as design psychology, instructional design and technical writing, rather than on design practice. ...
... This situation illustrates the integration with adaptation approach of inclusive participation, which in this case has been influenced by legislative regulation. The development of the "zero exclusion" approach still faces many challenges, including the high costs and ambiguity involved when applying universal design (Law, Soo YI, Choi, & Jacko, 2007;Vandenbulcke, Steenberghen, & Thomas, 2009). ...
... Often, what started as AT became ICT. In the late 1800s, Alexander Graham Bell worked as an educator for people with hearing impairments, his inspiration coming from his wife and mother (both hearing impaired) [17]. After many years of work with the hearing impaired, Bell developed a communication device that became the basis for the modern telephone [17]. ...
... The contribution of this study lies mainly on the application of the UCD methodology for eliciting the requirements of the SAS for VIIs in cultural outdoor environments and for designing the smart glasses to best fit the needs of VIIs. The design of this system is investigated by following a human/user-centered approach, where the user needs linked with specific user requirements are elicited [33,34]. Such a user-centered design (UCD) methodology is among the most commonly adopted and efficient approaches in software engineering for developing intelligent environments and mobile applications [35][36][37] for graphical and web interfaces [38,39], even in case of using smart technology for people with special needs [40][41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
... P1 (Urban, India) said accessible design is not done because his company's userbase does not include disabled people. There are issues with this view for several reasons: 1 billion people worldwide have a disability [107], planning for accessibility early in the design process will be cheaper than fxing inaccessible systems after release [44], and many nondisabled people can beneft from accessible design when experiencing situational impairments (e.g., bumpy, bright, noisy environments) [109]. We hope our other recommendations seeking to increase connection with disabled people and disability organizations will also shift perceptions to the many benefts of accessible design. ...
... While having the focus on providing support for users with reduced functionality (i.e., provide assistive technology), we strive for a solution which is more of a mainstream product with universal usability (as according to Shneiderman, 2000) by broadening the context to a wider range of users. The lack of practical applications of universally designed IS applications as well as a discussion of assistive technology versus universal design can be found in Law et al (2005). We applied this approach by viewing technology as a source of inspiration (as according to Rogers et al (2002) is called innovation through technology inspiration). ...
... Looking ahead, more tools facilitating collecting the insights of situated, embodied, individual experiences could be beneficial, to fit different situations and individual design preferences. It is also argued that more diversity guidelines are needed in the design of the design tools themselves, to fit the diversity of users and designers to be involved [50]. Further, including marginalized users and being sensitive to their needs means the design process and methods must also be inclusive. ...
... As with all efforts to enable participation of disadvantaged or disparate user groups, including the actual endusers or recipients of a design solution [15] in the design process continues to be a key challenge. The problem of ignoring user needs during the creation of design solutions is particularly problematic when designing for accessibility, with designers considering themselves the end-users, not the actual users [22]. ...
... Using this method, one will often be able to uncover several local problems and many problems in total [22], but it may be difficult to determine the severity of the problems [23]. Also, the choice of heuristic is important and it seems that current accessibility heuristics have a number of shortcomings [24,25]. ...
... Universal design (UD) is the design of products and environments to be usable to all, to the greatest extent possible [1]. National and international legislation have continuously strengthened UD regulations over the last decades, aiming to ensure citizens receive opportunities to access and use digitalized services [2]. ...