Chris Hayward's research while affiliated with Stanford University and other places

Publications (80)

Article
Children of parents with panic disorder (PD) have high risk for developing anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in transmission of risk are uncertain. Cognitive models of anxiety propose that information-processing biases underlie anxiety vulnerability; in particular, attentional biases for threat. Consequently, this study examined a...
Article
While most of the research on childhood sexual abuse has rightfully focused on negative outcomes, it is worth understanding how some individuals can thrive after experiencing trauma. A conceptual model of post-traumatic growth proposes that individuals can experience positive changes post-trauma through the process of recovery. The model incorporat...
Article
Although considerable evidence demonstrates that adults who report childhood maltreatment are at increased risk of depression in adulthood, little is known about whether gender moderates risk. In a sample of 5,673 adult Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) patients, the authors employed the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) to assess major de...
Article
The objective of the study was to examine catastrophizing, depression and their interactive effects in predicting disability in patients with chronic pain. A battery of questionnaires was mailed to primary care patients in a large integrated health care delivery system. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess major depression, the Copin...
Article
To examine the effectiveness of transdermal selegiline for producing cigarette smoking abstinence. Adult smokers were randomly assigned to receive selegiline transdermal system (STS) or placebo given for 8 weeks. All participants received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Follow-ups were conducted at 25 and 52 weeks. Community smoking cessation cli...
Article
Nine hundred thirty-nine 6th and 7th grade girls participated in the baseline phase of a prospective study designed to examine a set of potential risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Of the 939,839 girls (89%) completed the bulimia nervosa section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R disorders. One girl received the d...
Article
Utilizing a cross-sectional design, the authors examined associations between pubertal status, peer victimization, and their interaction in relation to weight concerns and symptoms of depression in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 261). Multivariate analyses revealed a significant interaction between pubertal status and relational victimizat...
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Full-text available
Although evidence suggests that patients with depression use more medical services than those without depression, few studies have examined whether specific subgroups of patients with depression have higher utilization than others. The study compared costs for general medical care with and without psychiatric care for patients with major depression...
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PRIMARY AIM: Examine the effectiveness of extended cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in promoting longer-term smoking abstinence. Open-label treatment phase followed by extended treatment phase. Randomization conducted prior to entry into open-label treatment phase; analysis based on intention-to-treat to avoid threat of selection bias. Community sm...
Article
Although gender differences in rates of internalizing disorders, particularly depression, are well documented, the causes of these differences are not well understood. One influential hypothesis [Cutler & Nolen-Hoeksema, Sex Roles (1991), 24, 425-438] proposes that higher rates of depression in females compared to males may be partially attributabl...
Article
To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristic...
Article
This study examines direct and interactive effects of puberty and gender on social anxiety symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred-six participants were assessed at ages 9.5 and 11 years. Results suggest that gender and puberty interact to predict social anxiety symptoms. Advanced puberty was associated with increased symptoms for girls only.
Article
Self-reports of grade at first menstrual period for 1,967 fourth-grade through ninth-grade girls were used to categorize girls as early maturers. The categories of early maturer and other (on-time or late maturers) were then examined for stability over a 3-year period using McNemar tests and κ coefficients. Although the results showed significant s...
Article
This article reviews the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of agoraphobia without panic attacks and proposes a key role for anxiety sensitivity in explaining agoraphobic avoidance among those who have never experienced panic. Although rare in clinical samples, agoraphobia without panic is commonly observed in population-based surveys, including...
Article
Comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception with psychiatric disorders and is consequently of great interest to both researchers and clinicians. However, many studies of psychiatric comorbidity have been based on lifetime prevalence with mixed-age samples, a practice that (1) biases the assessment of epidemiologic comorbidity and (2) creates...
Article
The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14 weeks...
Article
Examination of the prospective relation between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and behavioral avoidance is largely absent from the literature. In a longitudinal study of a community sample of 2246 adolescents, participants completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, & McNally (1986). Behaviour Research & Therapy, 24, 1-8), Stat...
Article
The objectives of this study were to provide estimates of the prevalence and strength of association between major depression and chronic pain in a primary care population and to examine the clinical burden associated with the two conditions, singly and together. A random sample of Kaiser Permanente patients who visited a primary care clinic was ma...
Article
In a community sample of high schoolers who experienced their first panic attack, we examined the prospective relationships among pre-panic vulnerabilities, panic attack severity, and post-panic agoraphobia and depression symptoms. Students were evaluated yearly over 4 years to test the following four hypotheses: (1) pre-panic anxiety sensitivity,...
Article
This is the first study to examine the prevalence and effects of major depression (MDD) in a sample of adolescent smokers (N = 211) undergoing treatment for nicotine dependence. We assessed MDD at baseline and end of treatment with the mood disorders portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Di...
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Full-text available
Adolescent smokers (N = 211) were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: (a) nicotine patch plus bupropion SR (sustained release; 150 mg per day) or (b) nicotine patch plus placebo. Group skills training sessions were conducted each week by research staff. Abstinence rates at Weeks 10 and 26 were as follows: (a) patch plus bupropion, 23% and 8%, (b) patch pl...
Article
To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder [SAD], childhood ch...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study we used both quantitative and qualitative methods in a sample of sixth-grade girls in order to investigate the relationship between girls' concerns with weight and their adherence to gender-stereotyped roles as assessed by their scripts for an imagined date. Girls who had previous dating experience did not differ from those who...
Article
This study explored the relationship of both romantic and platonic involvement with boys, as well as pubertal status, to body image and depression symptoms among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls. Participants were 157 early adolescent girls (ages 10–13) who completed self-report measures designed to assess girls' level of involveme...
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Full-text available
The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eatin...
Article
As puberty is the most salient developmental milestone occurring during adolescence, there is speculation about the differential effects of puberty on the emergence of gender differences in internalizing disorders (depressive anxiety and eating disorders) during adolescence. Prior to adolescence the rates of internalizing disorders are slightly hig...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical correlates of agoraphobic fear and avoidance and panic disorder in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. In a sample of 2365 high school students, combined data from a questionnaire and a structured clinical interview were used to classify subjects with agoraphobic fear and avoidance. Panic sym...
Article
We monitored the emergence of major depression (MDD) during treatment for nicotine dependence among 224 smokers. MDD was assessed on three occasions during the course of treatment with the mood disorders portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID), fourth edition (DSM-IV). Out of...
Article
Pubertal maturation is the single most salient developmental change occurring during adolescence (Alsaker, 1996; Hayward, Killen, and Wilson, 1997). Puberty is unique in that it includes biological changes associated with the physical transition from a child's body to that of an adult, however, these changes also occur within a societal context tha...
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Full-text available
This investigation sought to expand existing knowledge of anxiety sensitivity in a sample of high school students (N = 2,365) assessed over 4 years. The stability of anxiety sensitivity levels across assessment periods was examined, and cluster analyses were used to identify different developmental pathways in levels of anxiety sensitivity. Groups...
Article
High medical utilization in adults has been linked to both reported history of childhood abuse and mental health problems. However, few studies have explored relationships between abuse severity and psychological distress to identify subgroups with unique utilization patterns and medical complaints. This study compared two groups of psychologically...
Article
Smokers (N = 224) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: (a) transdermal system (TNS) + placebo; (b) TNS + paroxetine (20 mg); (c) TNS + paroxetine (40 mg). Assignment to treatment was double-blind. Nicotine patch (TNS) treatment was provided for 8 weeks; paroxetine or placebo was provided for 9 weeks. Abstinence rates at Weeks 4, 10, and 26 were as fol...
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Full-text available
This study examined data from a 4-year school-based longitudinal study (n = 1,124), to test whether the increase in major depression that occurs among girls during adolescence may be partially explained by the body-image and eating disturbances that emerge after puberty. Elevated body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms at stud...
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Full-text available
To examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for adolescents (CBGT-A) in females with social phobia and the effect of this treatment on the risk for major depression. Female adolescents with social phobia (N = 35) were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 12) or no treatment (n = 23) groups. Assessments were conducted at baseline, a...
Article
To identify risk factors for onset of panic attacks in adolescents, a prospective cohort design was used to evaluate the following risk factors: negative affectivity, female sex, anxiety sensitivity, and childhood separation anxiety disorder. These risk factors were also evaluated for predicting onset of major depression to test their specificity....
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Full-text available
This study examined the prospective relations of naturalistic weight-reduction efforts to growth in relative weight and onset of obesity with data from a community study of female adolescents (N = 692). Initial self-labeled dieting, appetite suppressant/laxative use, incidental exercise, vomiting for weight-control purposes, and binge eating predic...
Article
To examine the importance of chronologic age versus pubertal status in predicting adolescent girls' depressive symptoms in different ethnic groups. A national probability sample was used to obtain a representative cohort of 3216 adolescents, 5th through 8th grades. Subjects completed a questionnaire, which included a modified version of the Childre...
Article
To determine: (a) what demographic and psychosocial factors are associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms in adolescence; (b) whether girls and boys show different profiles of correlates and probable risk factors for depressive symptoms; and (c) what the implications are of these results for future research directions and policy decisi...
Article
Anxiety disorders such as social phobia (SP) often have their onset during adolescence and frequently precede the onset of major depression. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is well-documented in major depression. Consequently, there is considerable interest in HPA function in anxiety disorders. We examined salivary co...
Article
We examine the relation between acculturation and eating disorder symptoms in a normative sample of 920 adolescent girls of high school age. Results indicate that acculturation is positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls (13.6% vs. 0% prevalence rate in more acculturated vs. less ac...
Article
Behavioral inhibition in children has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for the later development of social phobia. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated in a prospective study. The purpose of the study presented here is to test whether behavioral inhibition in childhood constitutes a risk factor for social phobia during adolescen...
Article
This prospective study examined age of onset for binge eating and purging among girls during late adolescence and tested whether dieting and negative affectivity predicted these outcomes. Of initially asymptomatic adolescents, 5% reported onset of objective binge eating, 4% reported onset of subjective binge eating, and 4% reported onset of purging...
Article
This prospective study examined age of onset for binge eating and purging among girls during late adolescence and tested whether dieting and negative affectivity predicted these outcomes. Of initially asymptomatic adolescents, 5% reported onset of objective binge eating, 4% reported onset of subjective binge eating, and 4% reported onset of purging...
Article
There has been debate as to whether bulimia represents the endpoint of an eating disorder continuum (the continuity hypothesis) or is categorically different from subthreshold bulimia or an absence of eating disorders (the discontinuity hypothesis). The present study tested whether differences among bulimic, subthreshold bulimic, and control women...
Article
Risk factors for the initiation of cigarette smoking were examined in 2 consecutive cohorts of teenagers (N = 1,901). Students in Cohort 1 were followed over 4 years from 9th to 12th grade; those in Cohort 2 were followed over 3 years from 9th to 11th grade. Among girls with no history of smoking at baseline, those with more friends who smoked at b...
Article
Recent reviews of studies concerning panic attacks in adolescents have emphasized research limitations, noting problems of validity, reliability, and lack of normative data. To address some of these limitations we evaluated two methods of panic ascertainment (questionnaire versus interview), reliability of interview-determined panic, and clinical c...
Article
This study prospectively evaluated the relationship between early puberty and the onset of internalizing symptoms and disorders in adolescent girls. The sample was drawn from 1,463 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade girls who participated in a longitudinal school-based study of growth and development. Pubertal stage was determined by self-assessmen...
Article
To compare prevalences and correlates of body dissatisfaction among white, Hispanic, and Asian girls. A total of 939 6th and 7th grade girls (mean age 12.4 years) attending four middle schools in northern California completed self-administered assessments of age, ethnicity, desired body shape, parent education levels, mother's and father's body sha...
Article
Canned syrup strawberries (Fragaria ananassa var. Oso Grande, Tudla and Chandler) after appertization showed significant signs of red pigment decay and the appearance of visible browning reactions. Even after this industrial processing, residual peroxidase activity may be measured in drained (syrup-free) canned strawberries, suggesting that a parti...
Article
The authors examined factors prospectively associated with age of onset of partial syndrome eating disorders over a 4-year interval in a community sample (N = 877) of high school-age adolescent girls. Four percent developed a partial syndrome eating disorder over the interval. A measure of weight concerns was significantly associated with onset in...
Article
The authors examined factors prospectively associated with age of onset of partial syndrome eating disorders over a 4-year interval in a community sample (N = 877) of high school-age adolescent girls. Four percent developed a partial syndrome eating disorder over the interval. A measure of weight concerns was significantly associated with onset in...
Article
We report results of a prospective examination of the influence of outcome expectancy variables and inherited temperaments on the onset of drinking over a 12-month period in a sample of 1,164 high school students. While univariate prospective analysis indicated that drinkers and nondrinkers were different both on measures of outcome expectancy and...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescent girls with panic attacks not selected on the basis of seeking treatment, have the associated symptomatology that characterizes patients with panic symptoms from clinical samples. The sample consisted of 713 sixth- and seventh-grade girls who were administered a structured interview and q...
Article
Studies evaluating the risk of cardiovascular disease in the psychiatrically ill yield mixed results. Phobic anxiety in men is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, particularly sudden coronary death. This finding is in need of replication in women, and hypotheses regarding the potential mechanisms for this association warra...
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Community-based prospective studies are needed to shed light on mechanisms that may influence development of eating disorders and identify variables that could serve as potential targets for prevention efforts. In this paper we examine level of weight preoccupation and other variables prospectively associated with age of onset of eating disorder sy...
Article
To test the hypothesis that the patterns of pubertal progression, early vs late puberty and fast vs slow, are associated with the age at which girls start to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. The study included 1463 female students, 10.7 to 18.2 years of age, who were assessed five times during the 2.7-year study. Data regarding pubertal stage, a...
Article
This is the first long-term, controlled study evaluating the effectiveness of a prevention curriculum designed to modify the eating attitudes and unhealthful weight regulation practices of young adolescent girls. Nine hundred sixty-seven sixth and seventh-grade girls were randomized to experimental healthy weight regulation curriculum or no-treatme...
Article
This is the first long-term, controlled study evaluating the effectiveness of a prevention curriculum designed to modify the eating attitudes and unhealthful weight regulation practices of young adolescent girls. Nine hundred sixty-seven sixth and seventh-grade girls were randomized to experimental healthy weight regulation curriculum or no-treatme...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the relationships between hours of television viewing and adiposity and physical activity among female adolescents, a cohort study with follow-up assessments 7, 14, and 24 months after baseline was conducted. All sixth- and seventh-grade girls (N = 971) attending four northern California middle schools were eligible to participate. Six h...
Article
Although the incidence of first panic attacks appears to peak during adolescence, little is known about which features of adolescence contribute to the risk of a first panic episode. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative importance of age and pubertal stage in explaining the occurrence of panic attacks in adolescents. From a school-...
Article
IGFBP-3 concentrations rise in the second decade of life. To test the hypothesis that the stage of pubertal development, independent of chronological age, was associated with these increases we measured serum IGFBP-3 concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 324 sixth and seventh grade girls (12.3 +/- 0.7 years) at the beginning of a multisite school-b...
Article
To examine the association between stage of sexual maturation and eating disorder symptoms in a community-based sample of adolescent girls. All sixth- and seventh-grade girls (N = 971) enrolled in four northern California middle schools. MAIN VARIABLES EXAMINED: Pubertal development measured using self-reported Tanner stage and body mass index (kg/...
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Large variations in nutritional intake have profound effects on the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis in children and adults, but the effect of normal variations in nutrition on IGF-I concentrations is largely unstudied, particularly during puberty. We measured serum IGF-I concentrations in 325 sixth and seventh grade girls (12.4 +/- 0.7...
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Variation in the waist/hip ratio (WHR) may be related to changes in hormonal secretion associated with pubertal maturation. We therefore studied the effects of race, pubertal development, and body fatness on WHR during adolescence in a multiethnic population. A total of 688 white, Asian, and Hispanic female adolescents (mean (+/- SD) 12.4 +/- 0.7 y...
Article
In this study, the relationship between personality disorder traits and somatization was studied in 45 nonclinical volunteers. Personality disorder traits were assessed using a structured psychiatric interview and somatization was evaluated with a questionnaire. All DSM-III-R cluster B personality disorder traits (antisocial, borderline, histrionic...
Article
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alprazolam and imipramine for panic disorder, serum analysis revealed that a substantial proportion of the patients took explicitly prohibited anxiolytic medication. Excluding these patients changed the results.
Article
Motor activity and tonic heart rate were monitored in 62 drug-free panic disorder patients and 40 normal control subjects. Mean daily activity, mean waking heart rate controlled for activity, and mean sleeping heart rate were determined. Panic disorder patients without phobic avoidance showed higher activity than control subjects or patients with l...
Article
Seventy-nine patients with panic disorder were randomized to an 8-week double-blind treatment with alprazolam, imipramine, or placebo. Patients kept daily records of panic attacks, activity, anxiety, sleep, and medication use. Weekly measures of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, fears, avoidance, disability, and improvement were obtained. All...
Article
Patients with panic disorder may be at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is also preliminary evidence that some cardiovascular risk factors may be increased in patients with panic disorder. Since anti-panic medications can alter cardiovascular function, the cardiovascular effect of these medications should be consider...
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begin by critically reviewing the studies relating anxiety to heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors / for the purposes of this review, anxiety will be defined as a trait; its measurement in the studies reviewed is by self-report on standard psychometric instruments review the studies of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular risk fac...
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The lifetime prevalence of interview-determined four-symptom panic attacks in 95 ninth graders was 11.6%. Those with panic attacks were significantly more depressed, were significantly more likely to have separated or divorced parents, and tended to be more likely to have tried cigarette smoking.
Article
Plasma lipids were measured in 102 subjects with panic disorder or agoraphobia. In women, but not men, a significantly higher than expected number of subjects had cholesterol values that exceeded the 75th percentile of national reference values for their sex and age.
Article
Treadmill exercise test performance and ambulatory heart rate and activity patterns of 40 patients with panic attacks were compared with 20 age-matched controls (control group 1) and 20 nonexercising controls (control group 2). All patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise stress test. Panic attack patients and control group 1 wore an ambulator...

Citations

... If the evaluation of body image becomes negative, i.e., there is discrepancy between one's actual and ideal body, individuals are at risk of becoming unhappy with their appearance, which is considered as body dissatisfaction (BD) [2,3]. BD intensifies rapidly in late adolescence and is extremely widespread among college-age women [4][5][6], which is notable given its role as a risk factor for eating disorder symptoms [7,8]. Among the etiological factors of BD, repeated exposure to beauty ideals has been extensively studied [9]. ...
... It has been proposed that the hormonal changes at puberty may cause girls to experience greater internalizing problems, without ignoring gender identity and other relevant psychosocial aspects (Sanborn and Hayward, 2003;Natsuaki et al., 2015). All these aspects could help explain the differences between primary and secondary samples concerning gender. ...
... Only participants at risk for an eating disorder were eligible for participation in the trial, according to the following criteria: (1) a score greater than 57 on the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) (based on previous research findings that 10% of females in the highest quartile of the WCS develop subclinical or full eating disorders) [40,41], and/or (2) recurrent binge eating, and/or compensatory behaviours at a frequency of less than once a week or for a duration of less than 3 months assessed with the Short Evaluation of Eating Disorders (SEED). Additional inclusion criteria were: age (18-25 years), willingness and ability to access the Internet, a valid email address, and consent to participate. ...
... Looking at dependency as one specific aspect of adverse effects in psychotherapy, literature review is very limited. Bornstein and Bowen (14) noted earlier that there are a number of studies that assumed a correlation between dependency and depression (15), as well as other conditions such as eating disorders, anxiety disorders, alcoholism, and psychosomatic disorders (16)(17)(18). More recently, dependency was identified as a possible risk factor in psychotherapy (19,20). ...
... The PBI also did some breeding for oats and potatoes. Though the PBI developed considerable capacity in genetics and molecular biology, another institution, the John Innes Institute (JII), concentrated on basic research pertinent to plant breeding (Pray, 1996;Thirtle and others, 1998). ...
... Considering anthocyanins, cranberry consists largely of galactoside and arabinoside conjugates of cyaniding and peonidin (Singh et al., 2009). Furthermore , in strawberries, the principal red pigment is pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Lopez-Serrano & Barcelo, 1996). The cinnamic acids (p-coumaric, cafeic, and ferulic acids) represent a major proportion of the phenolic content of strawberries and black currant (Häkkinen et al., 1996). ...