Charles H. Hennekens's research while affiliated with University of Wisconsin–Madison and other places

Publications (956)

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Objectives: Since the inception of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the United States has been the leader in cases and deaths. Healthcare workers treating these severely ill patients are at risk of many deleterious consequences. Residents, in particular, may be affected by physical as well as psychological consequences. Because da...
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Objective To explore whether individuals who consume higher amounts of ultra-processed food have more adverse mental health symptoms. Design Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the consumption of ultra-processed foods as a percentage of total energy intake in kilo-calories using the NOVA food classification system. We explored whether indi...
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Objectives Individuals who engage in regular physical activity, consume a healthy diet, have a normal body mass index (BMI), as well as avoid smoking and heavy alcohol consumption have lower risks of morbidity and mortality. While self-reported health is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality, data are sparse about the interrelationship of c...
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Background Alcoholic cirrhosis is an advanced form of alcohol-related liver disease. In the United States (US) between 2010 and 2016, alcohol-related liver disease was the primary cause of nearly 1 in 3 liver transplants, surpassing hepatitis C. Methods We utilized the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epid...
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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produces a wide array of deleterious consequences, some of which are unintended. Data are sparse on whether, and if so, how, current cigarette smoking habits are affected by COVID-19. We describe changes to smoking habits and their correlates during the COVID-19 pandemic among participants in a tobacc...
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In treatment or prevention of COVID-19, ivermectin is not approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Nonetheless, in the US, prescriptions of ivermectin by healthcare providers have increased > tenfold from 3589 per week pre-COVID-19 to 39,102. Ivermectin is FDA approved for animals to treat parasites and for humans to t...
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Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a noninvasive therapeutic technology with multiple pediatric clinical applications. The ability of focused ultrasound to target tissues deep in the body without exposing children to the morbidities associated with conventional surgery, interventional procedures, or radiation offers significant advantages. In 2021, there...
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In the United States (US), morbidity and mortality from pediatric asthma are increasing. We explored racial inequities using the Multiple Causes of Death Files of the US National Center for Health Statistics and the Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) for 1–14-year-olds from 1999 to 2018. We obtained mortality rates, Black:...
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Recent guidelines restricted aspirin (ASA) in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to patients <70 years old and more recent guidance to <60. In the most comprehensive prior meta-analysis, the Antithrombotic Trialists Collaboration reported a significant 12% reduction in CVD with similar benefit−risk ratios at older ages. Using Prefer...
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Introduction Excited delirium, which has been defined as combativeness, agitation, and altered sensorium, requires immediate treatment in prehospital or emergency department (ED) settings for the safety of both patients and caregivers. Prehospital ketamine use is prevalent, although the evidence on safety and efficacy is limited. Many patients with...
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In this report our primary goals are to quantitate knowledge of patients with biopsy proven advanced colorectal polyps of their need for a repeat colonoscopy and, if so, their knowledge of the proper surveillance interval. These data create both clinical and public health challenges.
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As of May 2021, the United States remains the world leader with 33 million of 165 million cases worldwide (20%) and 590,000 of 3.4 million deaths worldwide (17%) from COVID-19. Achieving herd immunity by disease spread and vaccination may result in 2 million to 4 million total US deaths. The future perfect of the vaccine should not be the enemy of...
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Although the development and increasingly widespread availability of effective and safe vaccines provides the greatest hope for the future recovery from the increasingly devastating COVID-19 pandemic, there are other preventive efforts that offer an immediate route to decreasing morbidity and mortality. Genomic surveillance is emerging as a vital n...
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During the last several decades, there have been major advances in the evolution of drug therapies for the rate management of atrial fibrillation (AF). Initially, the drug of choice was digoxin but currently, the drug of choice is beta-adrenergic blockers. Drug therapies for stroke prevention in AF have also evolved. Initially, the drug of choice w...
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Objective To evaluate the effect of aspirin dose on the incidence of all gestational age preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia.Data sourcesElectronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Web of Science) were searched for articles published between January 1985 and March 2019 with no language restrictions.Methods We follow...
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Background Family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in first degree relatives (FDR) is a major risk factor, especially for premature events. Data are sparse on FH of different manifestations of CVD among FDRs of patients with premature myocardial infarction (MI), chronic stable angina (CSA) or peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Methods...
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Purpose : Meta-analyses of observational studies reduce the role of chance but also introduce bias because the individual component studies are not randomized. Further, it is plausible that the bias may be different in case-control and cohort studies. We explored these issues in meta-analyses of observational studies of Opioid Use Disorder (OUD)....
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We reviewed the evidence on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and dementia. PPIs are among the most widely utilized drugs in the world. Dementia affects roughly 5% of the population of the United States (US) and world aged 60 years and older. With respect to PPIs and dementia, basic research has suggested plausible mechanisms but descriptive and analyt...
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From December 2019 to May 22, 2020 the emerging and ever-increasing pandemic of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) had no effective and safe treatment. Not surprisingly, remdesivir attracted worldwide attention. In a trial published online ahead of print, of 1063 patients, 541 were assigned at random to remdesivir and 522 to placebo. The primary prespecifie...
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Background Since 1979, mortality from hepatocellular cancer (HCC) has doubled in the United States (US). Lifesaving drugs, prohibitively expensive for some, were approved and marketed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major risk factor for HCC, beginning in 1997. After the prior introduction of other lifesaving innovations, including active retro...
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Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States (US) and worldwide, due primarily to increased risks of stroke as well as myocardial infarction. While there are therapeutic lifestyle changes and adjunctive pharmacologic medications of proven benefit, recent interest has increasingly...
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Objectives: To explore temporal trends and geographic variations in mortality from prescription opioids from 1999 to 2016. Methods: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research Multiple Cause of Death files were used to calculate age-adjusted rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and create sp...
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Background: Inflammation is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is accurately measured by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a sensitive marker for future risk of cardiovascular disease. The Correlation between Oral Health and Systemic Inflammation (COHESION) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that Plaq...
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Objectives (a) Update previous descriptions of trends in ASSB; (b) determine if factors previously associated with ASSB are replicated by updated data; and (c) generate new hypotheses about the occurrence of ASSB and racial inequalities in ASSB mortality. Methods National Center for Health Statistics files (International Classification of Diseases,...
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Migraine headaches are among the most common and potentially debilitating disorders encountered by primary healthcare providers. In the treatment of acute migraine and the prevention of recurrent attacks, there are prescription drugs of proven benefit. However, for those without health insurance or high co-pays, these drugs may be neither available...
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Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycotic infection often found in pigeon droppings and other bird excrement. This serious disease is often fatal and, not unexpectedly, far more common in patients with immune deficiency, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been hypothesized that women with cryptococcosis and HIV have a...
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Integrity and trust are essential attributes of medical researchers. Research misconduct represents clear and present dangers to academic institutions and their faculty, residents, students, and staff. To achieve and maintain public trust, medical researchers must achieve and maintain research integrity. To do so requires synchronicity and collabor...
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Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin, naproxen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen, as well as selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors such as celecoxib. Their use is common, as well as their side effects which cause 100 000 hospitalizations and 17 000 deaths annually. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration strengt...
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Background: Mortality from firearms among US schoolchildren is an increasingly major clinical and public health crisis. We explored temporal trends in mortality from firearms among US schoolchildren from 1999 to 2017 by age and race. Methods: We used the Multiple Cause of Death Files of the United States National Center for Health Statistics; Pu...
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Background: Colorectal cancer is the third-most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States, and advanced colorectal polyps are a major risk factor. Although there are no large-scale individual trials designed a priori to test the hypothesis, in meta-analyses of trials in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, aspirin reduces risk of...
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Introduction: In this descriptive study we explored whether there are states and counties within the United States where blacks have lower mortality rates from cancer than whites. Methods: We used the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) public Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research (WONDER) data to explore race/ethnicity related di...
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The interrelationships between cadmium biomarker levels, smoking, and myocardial infarction and stroke have been established. In this cross-sectional analysis, we explored the interrelationships of blood cadmium levels, smoking, and angina. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003-2014) accounting for the multi...
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The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease worldwide, including the United States, underscores the need for the more widespread use of adjunctive drug therapies of proven net benefit in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. These include aspirin to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease, statins to lower LDL-cholesterol level...
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This qualitative literature review aimed to describe the totality of peer-reviewed scientific evidence from 1990 to 2017 concerning validity of self-reported mammography. This review included articles about mammography containing the words accuracy, validity, specificity, sensitivity, reliability or reproducibility; titles containing self-report, r...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD), principally myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, is the leading clinical and public health problem in the United States and is rapidly becoming so worldwide. Their primary prevention is promising, in theory, but difficult to achieve in practice. The principal modalities that have demonstrated efficacy include therape...
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Objective: Describe southern US homicide rates in whites and blacks between 1999 and 2015. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multiple Cause of Death Files provided mortality rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for non-Hispanic whites (NHW) as well as non-Hispanic blacks and African Americans (NHB). Results: Overall,...
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include traditional (tNSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, as well as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COXIBs), principally celecoxib. COXIBs were developed to decrease gastrointestinal side effects. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration strengthened its warning about the...
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Young’s experiment is hailed as a milestone in ushering a new understanding of the wave nature of light and is even taught at the high school level. Unfortunately, even the most cursory presentation of the subject of diffraction becomes confusing. The theory and equations based on Fresnel’s work appear arcane and incomprehensible to a high school s...
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Levine, Robert S., Jason L. Salemi, Maria C. Mejia de Grubb, Sarah K. Wood, Lisa Gittner, Hafiz Khan, Michael A. Langston, Baqar A. Husaini, George Rust, and Charles H. Hennekens. Altitude and variable effects on infant mortality in the United States. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. Aims: To explore whether altitude has different effects on...
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Objective Describe trends in non-Hispanic black infant mortality (IM) in the New York City (NYC) counties of Bronx, Kings, Queens, and Manhattan and correlations with gun-related assault mortality. Methods Linked Birth/Infant Death data (1999-2013) and Compressed Mortality data at ages 1 to ≥85 years (1999-2013). NYC and United States (US) Census...
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Background: On a daily basis, healthcare providers, especially those dealing with terminally ill patients, such as hospice workers, witness how advance directives help ensure the wishes of patients. They also witness the deleterious consequences when patients fail to document the care they desire at their end of life. To the best of our knowledge...
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The worldwide human population growth rate, which doubled during the 20th century, as well as the increasing fertility rate, have contributed to an increasing and evolving emphasis on contraception. With respect to female contraceptive methods, many have been developed, marketed, and are widely available. In contrast, male contraception has been li...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a 61-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a large prospective study among women. This form W88 administered twice to 173 particIpants at an interval of approximate'y one year (1980-1981), and four one-week diet records for each subject were collected dur...
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Traditional medicines for inflammatory arthritis (IA) include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COXIBs), which have variable clinical benefits and serious side effects. In large-scale randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in IA, they have demonstrated significant decreases in pain and inflammation but als...
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In the treatment or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is general consensus that the absolute benefits of aspirin far outweigh the absolute risks. Despite evidence from randomized trials and their meta-analyses, older adults, defined as aged 65 years or older, are less likely to be prescribed aspirin than their middle-aged...