Charles D. Spielberger's research while affiliated with University of South Florida and other places

Publications (152)

Article
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The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Farsi version of Spielberger's (1988) State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2) for Iranian university students. 1140 students were selected from Tehran University, and Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 with one of the five instruments were completed by them....
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This study investigated differences between asthma patients and a control group of healthy individuals in their responses to eight measures of trait anxiety and the experience, expression and control of anger. The Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety (ISRA) and a Spanish adaptation of State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) were...
Article
The current research investigates gender differences in test anxiety level and academic performance of medical students. A sample of 150 medical students (75 males and 75 females) was drawn from the Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) within the age range of 17-24 years. Purposive sampling technique was used. ∗ Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI...
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The purpose of this article is to focus on unique issues that are encountered in the crosscultural adaptation of measures of emotions. We take into consideration the cross-cultural equivalence of the concept of emotion, and how cultural differences influence the meaning of words that are utilized to describe these concepts. The critical need to tak...
Chapter
The nature of anger, hostility, and aggression and the relations among these concepts are considered in this chapter. The evolution of the concepts of anger and aggression from the ancient writings of Plato and Aristotle to those of Darwin and Freud is noted. Recent research findings on the relationships between anger, Type A behavior, and coronary...
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Depression is the most prevalent mental disorder and one of the most important health problems in Chile. The current study shows data for validity and reliability of the State subscale (S-DEP) of the Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP). The procedure conducted with the original version of the questionna...
Chapter
Anxiety was defined by Freud as “something felt,” an emotional state that included feelings of apprehension, tension, nervousness, and worry accompanied by physiological arousal. Consistent with Darwin's evolutionary perspective, Freud observed that anxiety was adaptive in motivating behavior that helped individuals cope with threatening situations...
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Negative effects of stress in the workplace on the health and well-being of workers have been observed throughout human history. The phrase “mad as a hatter” came into the English language long before anyone knew that mercury in the materials used in making hats affected the central nervous system (Kahn, 1981). In the nineteenth century, descriptio...
Chapter
As Seymour Sarason (1959), a major early contributor to theory and research on test anxiety, observed, “We live in a test-conscious, test-giving culture in which the lives of people are in part determined by their test performance” (p. 26). Consequently, it is not surprising that test anxiety is a pervasive problem for many students who are so dist...
Chapter
In 1872, Darwin (1965) observed that anger (rage) was a powerful emotion that motivated “animals of all kinds, and their progenitors before them, when attacked or threatened by an enemy, to fight and protect themselves” (p. 74). Anger is reflected in facial expressions (e.g., reddened face, clenched teeth), muscular tension, and accelerated heart r...
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Previous studies have investigated social images in health-risk behaviors, suggesting that these images are important factors in adolescents' health-related decisions. In this study, 548 secondary school students (aged 14-21 years, M = 16.5 years, SD = 1.3) in Szeged, Hungary, were tested to determine how social attitudes influence the development...
Article
Anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity are major indicators of psychological distress and well-being that require careful assessment. Measuring these psychological vital signs is of critical importance in diagnosis, and can facilitate treatment by directly linking intense emotions to the events that give rise to them. The historical background r...
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Nous avons réalisé l’adaptation française du STAXI-2 [Spielberger CD. Manual for the state-trait anger expression inventory STAXI-2. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1999] que nous avons administrée à 546 femmes et 539 hommes français, âgés de 18 à 70 ans. Les items des sous-échelles de colère-état, colère-trait, expression de la col...
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Les families de fumeurs ont étéétudiées à partir du comportement tabagique d'un grand échantillon représentatif des lycéens des 8* et 10* niveaux du centre de la Floride (n= 1416). Des analyses multivariées ont révélé que le tabagisme de la mère, du père, de la soeur ou du frère aînés rendait compte de 12% de la variance de la décision de se mettre...
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This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP) of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP): Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90). The t...
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The present study reports the preliminary analyses and normative data of the State-Trate anxiety inventory (Spielberger, Gorusch & Lushene, 1970), for a Chilean, general population sample. Data were obtained from a total sample of 1488 people, between 13 and 60 years old. A high internal consistency for STAI-S .92 and for STAI-T .87 is reported. Tw...
Article
Full-text available
The present study reports the preliminary analyses and normative data of the State-Trate anxiety inventory (Spielberger, Gorusch & Lushene, 1970), for a Chilean, general population sample. Data were obtained from a total sample of 1488 people, between 13 and 60 years old. A high internal consistency for STAI-S .92 and for STAI-T .87 is reported. Tw...
Article
Full-text available
El tema del carácter dimensional o categorial de la depresión, así como de otros trastornos mentales, es un asunto de gran relevancia científica y clínica. Las implicaciones de la existencia de un modelo categorial en la actualidad para definir y estimar la presencia de un cuadro clínico se ven reflejadas en los datos epidemiológicos, los resultado...
Article
One of the crucial subjects, either for the clinical or scientific activity, is the dimensional or categorical character of depression and other mental diseases. Each approach is different from the theoretical and epistemological points of view. At presence, the categorical model for the definition and estimation of the presence of a disorder are r...
Article
One of the crucial subjects, either for the clinical or scientific activity, is the dimensional or categorical character of depression and other mental diseases. Each approach is different from the theoretical and epistemological points of view. At presence, the categorical model for the definition and estimation of the presence of a disorder are r...
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SUMMARY The differentiation between the symptoms of anxiety and depres- sion is one of the most important problems in psychology as the dilemma profoundly affects the diagnosis and clinical intervention. According to the epidemiological data there is a strong comorbility between the two types of disorder. Nevertheless, it is not known which one of...
Article
The differentiation between the symptoms of anxiety and depression is one of the most important problems in psychology as the dilemma profoundly affects the diagnosis and clinical intervention. According to the epidemiological data there is a strong comorbility between the two types of disorder. Nevertheless, it is not known which one of them prece...
Article
Although there is growing consensus that psychophysiological response to stress is in part a function of the Ss’ definition of the situation, many investigators continue to ignore individual differences in Ss’ interpretation of stressor situations. In this study, high (HA) and low (LA) anxiety Ss were run in Threat of Shock and No Threat Conditions...
Article
Consistent with Eysenck’s Diathesis-Stress Theory, smokers and smokeless tobacco users (SLT-Users) were found in previous research to have higher EPQ Neuroticism and Psychoticism scores than non-users. The present study investigated the influence of psychological defense mechanisms and motivational factors on the use of tobacco products by Smokers,...
Article
Biographical information regarding Wilhelm Wundt and William James is briefly described, and the contributions of these founders of psychology in Europe and the US to the understanding of emotions and personality are reviewed. Important theoretical contributions of Darwin and Freud to the historical evolution of emotions and personality as psycholo...
Article
To determine if sensory curiosity (SC) could be identified as a meaningful psychological construct, a pool of SC items was administered to 552 undergraduate students (402 women, 150 men), along with measures of perceptual and epistemic curiosity. Participants also responded to the trait anxiety, anger, and curiosity scales of the State-Trait Person...
Article
Depression is a main Public Health problem due to its high prevalence and to the costs for intervention and treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify strategies that allow an adequate assessment that would let us obtain a more precise and useful diagnosis. Nevertheless, an important obstacle for this task, is a lack of theoretical clarity i...
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La depresión constituye uno de los principales problemas de salud pública, dada su alta prevalencia así como los costes que acarrean su intervención y tratamiento. Esto hace que cada vez sea más necesario identificar estrategias para su adecuada evaluación, que permitan realizar diagnósticos más precisos y útiles. No obstante, un primer obstáculo q...
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The effects of anxiety on concept acquisition were evaluated for first and second grade children enrolled in either a traditional or in an individualized or multiage learning program, the latter specifically designed to reduce anxiety during the learning process. Regardless of their learning environment, first graders who scored high on trait anxie...
Article
Police trainees who were ready to graduate from the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) volunteered to participate in an exercise designed to evaluate their survivability. In a highly stressful interactive scenario, which included a hostage situation, performance was evaluated for a range of responses, including: shooting judgment and a...
Article
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Police trainees who were ready to graduate from the Federal Law Enforcement Training, Center (FLETC) volunteered to participated in an exercise designed to evaluate their survivability. In a highly stressful interactive scenario, which included a hostage situation during a staged domestic dispute, performance was evaluated for a range of responses,...
Article
A Spanish adaptation of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for children and adolescent population, was derived from the original English adult inventory to assess the experience, expression and control of anger in Spanish children and adolescents (STAXI; Spielberger, 1988). A sample of 2191 subjects, 940 female and 1251 male, between 7 and...
Article
According to Eysenck's Diathesis-Stress Theory, individual differences in personality contribute to the persistent use of tobacco products. In previous research, users of smokeless tobacco (SLT-Users) scored significantly higher than Non-Users on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Psychoticism scales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. SLT-Us...
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Perceptual curiosity, as defined by Berlyne (1954), involves interest in and giving attention to novel perceptual stimulation, and motivates visual and sensory-inspection. A 33-item questionnaire constructed to assess individual differences in perceptual curiosity was administered to 320 undergraduate students (202 females; 118 males). The particip...
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Abstract: The initial goal of this study was to determine if the cognitive and affective components of depression, which are measured collectively by the BDI Cognitive-Affective subscale, could be identified as separate factors in a non-clinical population. A pool of 40 cognitive and affective depression items was adapted from the BDI and three oth...
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This study describes the adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC; Spielberger, Edwards, Lushene, Montuori, & Platzek, 1973) to the Greek population. It was hypothesized that the STAIC would be able to measure children's state-trait anxiety levels. In the initial phase, a sample of 100 children, aged 9-12 years, was used...
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A questionnaire constructed to assess epistemic curiosity (EC) and perceptual curiosity (PC) curiosity was administered to 739 undergraduates (546 women, 193 men) ranging in age from 18 to 65. The study participants also responded to the trait anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity scales of the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI; Spielberg...
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Discusses the problem of occupational stress with primary emphasis on job pressures and lack of organizational support as two key causes of stress and health risks at work. Job stress has been labeled a modern health epidemic by P. Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress, based on a variety of indicators such as workers' compensation c...
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Occupational stress adversely affects productivity, absenteeism, and job turnover, and contributes to health-related problems. The effects of organizational level and gender on the specific sources of occupational stress assessed by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) were evaluated for a heterogeneous sample of 1,791 working adults (860 males, 931 females...
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Equivalent English and German versions of the State-Trait Depression Scales (STDS) were developed and presented to samples of American and German students who were comparable with regard to gender and age. Factorial structure and equivalence of the two versions were determined by confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The CFAs included multiple group...
Article
The main goal of this study was to examine depression and its components in cancer patients as compared with healthy control subjects and psychiatric inpatients. The participants were 54 cancer patients (28 females with breast cancer, 26 males with prostate cancer), 59 healthy controls (33 females, 26 males), and 75 psychiatric patients (27 females...
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English and German versions of a newly developed instrument for measuring coping with achievement stressors (the Mainz Coping Inventory — Ego Threat; MCI-E) were presented to samples of American and German students. Equivalence of the two versions was determined by principal component and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA included a multi...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of personality, motivational, and situational factors on Regular (n=191) and Occasional (n=80) users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. The participants completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and Anger Expression (AX) Scale, and questionnaires...
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In this article, the authors respond to comments in the October 1998 issue of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Vol. 3, No. 4) in regard to measuring occupational stress with the Job Stress Survey (JSS). The authors are pleased that (a) the need to assess the perceived severity and frequency of occurrence of specific sources of occupat...
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In this article, the authors respond to comments in the October 1998 issue of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Vol. 3, No. 4) in regard to measuring occupational stress with the Job Stress Survey (JSS). The authors are pleased that (a) the need to assess the perceived severity and frequency of occurrence of specific sources of occupat...
Article
The nature of anxiety and anger as emotional states and personality traits, and the procedures employed in their measurement are briefly reviewed here. Measures of state and trait anxiety, and the development of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) are discussed first. The next part examines conceptual ambiguities in the constructs of anger, ho...
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The goal of this study was to develop a psychometric scale to assess the experience, expression and control of anger in Latin American countries. Items for the Spanish Multicultural State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-SM) were adapted from the English State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In keeping with the STAXI conceptual def...
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Person-environment fit and demand-control theoretical models developed to explain stress and strain in the workplace have guided the construction of most measures of occupational stress. The strengths and limitations of 8 job stress measures are briefly reviewed, and the Job Stress Survey (JSS), designed to assess the severity and frequency of occu...
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Consistent evidence from a large number of studies suggests that personality, motivation, and emotional factors contribute to the initiation and continued use of tobacco products. This study compared the reasons why male smokers (N = 267) and smokeless tobacco (SLT) users (N = 271) begin and continue to use tobacco products. The study participants...
Article
Recently, Forgays, Forgays, and Spielberger (in press) reported the first exploratory factor analysis of the total 44-item State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) by gender. The analyses were based on a sample of over 700 male and female university students and identified quite well six of the original STAXI scales and subscales. In addition...
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The factor structure of Form Y of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) was examined with 1,862 Japanese adult workers (1,509 men, 353 women). The initial principal component analysis extracted three factors based on the scree test. All 20 state (S-Anxiety) and 20 trait (T-Anxiety) items had dominant salient loadings on the first factor, which...
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Symptom endorsements and response patterns of 1,862 Japanese adult workers (1,509 males and 353 females) to the Japanese adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-JY) items, were examined in this study. The mean STAI-JY State and Trait anxiety scores of Japanese workers were substantially higher than those of American workers rep...
Article
The assessment of anger has received increased attention because of growing evidence that anger and hostility are related to heart disease. Research on anger assessment has also been stimulated by the development of psychometric measures for evaluating different facets of anger, such as the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In this st...
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Differences in the experience, expression, and control of anger were evaluated for young-adult drug addicts and a control group (matched in age, residence, and education) of nondrug users from Southern Italy. The Italian adaptation of Spielberger's State- Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) was administered with standard instructions to both g...
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Psychometric properties of the R/ED Scale were investigated in four samples of Spanish populations: male (n = 98) and female (n = 239) students, healthy women (n = 96), women with benign breast disease (n = 90), and women with breast cancer (n = 122). Analyses reveal high inter-item consistency (Cronbach's alpha from 0.82 to 0.87), high item remain...
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This article introduces the special section on the American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (APA/NIOSH) collaboration. The section includes an overview statement of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research by Linda Rosenstock and 5 competitively peer-reviewed articles submitted t...
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This article introduces the special section on the American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (APA/NIOSH) collaboration. The section includes an overview statement of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research by Linda Rosenstock and 5 competitively peer-reviewed articles submitted t...
Article
This study compares the personality characteristics of men who use smokeless tobacco (ST) products with smokers and non-users. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), and the Anger Expression (AX) Scale were given to a heterogeneous sample of 755 men residing in Florida and Texas, consisting of 275...
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Describes historical and current conceptions of anger, hostility, and aggression and the relation of these psychological constructs to cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Psychometric measurement of anger and hostility, differences between manifest and contained anger, measurement of anger control, and evaluation of anger in the context of cor...
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Stress in the workplace results in extensive costs to individuals, organizations, and society through its adverse effects on employee productivity, absenteeism, health, and well-being. Person–environment fit and the transactional process theory of L. S. Lazarus (1994) guided construction and development of the Job Stress Survey (JSS). This psychome...
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Walter Bradford Cannon, M.D., made a significant contribution to psychology and medicine with the discovery of the stress response around 1915, setting the cornerstone for psychosomatic medicine. This brief, introductory article etches out the nature of his contribution and sets the stage for Dr. Bradford Cannon to reflect on his father's important...
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The Job Stress Survey (JSS) was administered to large samples of university and corporate employees and senior military personnel. Differences in the perceived severity, frequency of occurrence, and overall level of occupational stress were evaluated for individuals working in these settings. Gender differences in job stress and the factor structur...
Chapter
nature of anxiety and anger as emotional states and the procedures employed in their measurement are reviewed briefly / the measures of state and trait anxiety are discussed, and the development of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is described in some detail / examine conceptual ambiguities in the constructs of anger, hostility, and aggress...
Article
Emphasizes that family stress is not an event or internal state but an ongoing process that especially affects and is affected by individuals' personal and social resources. This process entails both objective and subjective factors. However, the authors argue that the subjective factors are largely a product of the actual event. This differs from...
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Family stress theory and family stress measurement were critically reviewed. After R. Hill's (1949) original formulation, 4 factors in family stress were examined: the stressor, family resources, family perceptions, and stress outcomes. The research findings clearly indicate that change per se can no longer be viewed as the essence of family stress...
Article
Emphasizes that family stress is not an event or internal state but an ongoing process that especially affects and is affected by individuals' personal and social resources. This process entails both objective and subjective factors. However, the authors argue that the subjective factors are largely a product of the actual event. This differs from...
Article
The psychological correlates of the Rationality/Emotional Defensiveness Scale and its two subscales were examined in 1236 males and 863 females from the Western Collaborative Group Study. An additional 157 males and 164 females with some form of cancer other than of the skin were also included in this analysis. Characteristics measured included sel...
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In this study, we report the findings of a 1990 survey of the membership of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and compare these results with a similar survey conducted in 1987. A four-page questionnaire was sent to approximately 1,800 SPA members; 900 surveys were returned, for a 50% response rate. Information was obtained on professiona...
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This study describes the construction and validation of a Japanese adaptation of Spielberger's (1980) Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and presents evidence of the reliability and validity of this new instrument. The items for the Japanese TAI (TAI-J) were selected on the basis of content validity and itemremainder correlations, which were .40 or highe...
Article
The relation of self-reported chest discomfort to the presence of atherosclerosis was examined, taking age and gender differences into account. Sixteen practicing cardiologists independently rated the items of a self-report questionnaire of angina pectoris (AP) symptoms according to their adjudged likelihood of being associated with coronary artery...
Article
A task force on war-related stress was convened to develop strategies for prevention and treatment of psychological, psychosocial, and psychosomatic disorders associated with the Persian Gulf War and other extreme stressors facing communities in general. The task force focused on the return home, reunion, and reintegration of service personnel with...
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Full-text available
A task force on war-related stress was convened to develop strategies for prevention and treatment of psychological, psychosocial, and psychosomatic disorders associated with the Persian Gulf War and other extreme stressors facing communities in general. The task force focused on the return home, reunion, and reintegration of service personnel with...
Article
The intensity and frequency of occurrence of 30 job stressors as measured by the job stress survey (JSS) were examined in white-collar employees of a large manufacturing firm, consisting of 68 managers, 171 professional (mostly engineers), and 69 clerical personnel. The highest levels of stress intensity were attributed to ‘lack of opportunity for...