Chang H Lee's research while affiliated with Sogang University and other places

Publications (39)

Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that readers of Korean Hangul demonstrate precise orthographic coding. In contrast to findings from many other languages, the identification of Hangul words is not speeded by prior masked presentation of transposition primes relative to substitution primes. The present studies asked whether evidence for precise orthographic coding...
Article
The Korean writing system, Hangul, is an alphabetic syllabary which permits a unique opportunity to investigate how both the syllabic and letter similarity structure of the Korean mental lexicon influences lexical processing. We capitalized on the availability of lexical decision behavioral data for thousands of Korean words, and the tools of netwo...
Article
There is substantial debate around the nature of letter position coding in reading. Research on a variety of Indo-European languages suggests uncertainty in position coding; for example, readers perceive transposed-letter stimuli (jugde) as similar to their base words (judge). However, these effects are not apparent for all languages. We developed...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial research across Indo-European languages suggests that readers display a degree of uncertainty in letter position coding. For example, readers perceive transposed-letter stimuli, such as jugde, as similar to their base words (e.g., judge). However, tolerance to disruptions of letter order is not apparent in all languages, suggesting that...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for syllable-trans...
Article
We suggest that the linguistic characteristics of letters also need to be considered to fully understand how a reader processes printed words. For example, studies in Korean showed that unambiguity in the assignment of letters to their appropriate onset, vowel, or coda slot is one of the main sources of the letter-transposition effect. Indeed, the...
Article
The current study aimed to provide initial quantitative data on the relationship between college students' style of language usage and their creativity. Correlation coefficients between Alternative Use Test creativity scores and Korean Linguistic Inquiry and Word Counts were calculated from 157 college students' stream of consciousness writings. Th...
Article
Previous research has shown that being religious is beneficial in various ways. Though religion's benefits are well-studied, few investigations have provided quantitative and explorative perspectives on its effects. Most studies concern religion's influence on specific psychological aspects of the human mind. This study investigated whether people'...
Article
Full-text available
Korean subsyllabic structure was investigated by observing the pattern of responses arising from letter transpositions within a syllable in the Hangul script. Experiment 1 revealed no confusions when the onset and coda of one syllable of a disyllabic word were transposed. This was also the case in Experiment 2, where the transposition took place wi...
Article
The syllable and the morpheme are known to be important linguistic variables, but is such information involved in the early stages of word recognition? Syllable-morpheme information was manipulated in the early stage of word naming by means of the fast priming paradigm. The letters in the prime were printed in a mixture of lower- and upper-case let...
Conference Paper
A phonological priming task was conducted in order to determine the presence of second language phonological recoding. Eighteen Koreans who had acquired English after a critical language learning period participated in the experiment. Compared with controls, the phonological condition (e.g., TOWED -> toad) was more advantageous in processing the ta...
Article
When two consonants within an English word were transposed to create a nonword, difficulty in lexical decision responses to that nonword was revealed, most strongly when the coda of the first syllable was exchanged with the onset of the second (e.g., nakpin derived from napkin), but also when onsets were exchanged between syllables (e.g., kapnin) a...
Article
Substantial neurobiological data indicate that the dominant cortical region for printed-word recognition shifts from a temporo-parietal (dorsal) to an occipito-temporal (ventral) locus with increasing recognition experience. The circuits also have different characteristic speeds of response and word preferences. Previous evidence suggested that gra...
Article
Language use of schizophrenics and normal people was compared by applying the language analysis program, Korean Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Participants were asked to write a story about the most emotional experience of their lives on A4 size paper. 28 schizophrenics (M age: 26 yr.) and 32 normal people (M age: 23 yr.) participated. Analysis...
Article
Full-text available
The authors of this study provided basic descriptive data on the correlation between personality tests and Korean language use. Native Korean-speaking students (N = 80) at Pusan National University completed 2 personality tests, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; I. B. Myers, M. H. McCaulley, N. L. Quenk, & A. L. Hammer, 1998) and the 5-Factor...
Conference Paper
The effects of two important lexical variables, word frequency and word length, are investigated for Korean word recognition. The processing of Korean words did not show similar effects as one of many other orthographies. First, a subtype of Korean orthography showed no word frequency effects. Second, one syllable words are processed more slowly th...
Article
A small proportion of chronic hepatitis B patients have persistently detectable serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA despite lamivudine therapy. The incidence and clinical outcomes of patients who persistently have detectable serum HBV-DNA during lamivudine therapy was investigated. We enrolled 221 chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent lamivudine...
Article
Phonemic awareness has been known as the most important variable for developing reading skills. Although various training curricula and programs were developed in order to cultivate the phonemic awareness, this study introduces a new phonemic awareness curriculum, called Tturtletalk training program. The principle of this program in learning is pro...
Article
Three experiments were conducted to test the phonological recoding hypothesis in visual word recognition. Most studies on this issue have been conducted using mono-syllabic words, eventually constructing various models of phonological processing. Yet in many languages including English, the majority of words are multisyllabic words. English include...
Article
A language analysis program, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), was successful in identifying various psychological variables. This study investigated the relationship between spoken language and age inferred from drama scripts of 162 characters, analyzed by the Korean-LIWC across 4 age categories (10-19, 20-39, 40-59, and 60-79 years). Anal...
Article
The two-cycle model assumes that consonants in words are processed more quickly than vowels. This study tested the two-cycle model with different word types using a priming task which presented consonants or vowels before the target. Analysis showed presenting consonants before the target was beneficial in processing the target for the words with t...
Article
This brief report provides descriptive data on uses of language in emotional writing to give some dues on the mechanism of emotional writing. Two written samples, emotional writing and superficial writing, were analyzed using the program, Korean Linguistic and Word Count. Emotional writing has more complicated language structure and more cognitive...
Article
A series of experiments studied the effects of repetition of printed words on (1) lexical decision (LD) and naming (NAM) behavior and (2) concomitant brain activation. It was hypothesized that subword phonological analysis (assembly) would decrease with increasing word familiarity and the greater decrease would occur in LD, a task that is believed...
Conference Paper
Three experiments on English word recognition have been conducted in order to investigate the locus of word length effect, as well as the locus of the frequency effect. The other aim of this study was to investigate whether the processing of English word recognition for Koreans is similar to that of Americans’ or not in the respect of word length a...
Article
This pilot study analyzed the actual language used in two writing samples by university students (8 men, 28 women) about a tragic public incident, the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack. To analyze samples a computer-based text-analysis program with a wide range of psychological dimensions and linguistic variables was used. More words and more pa...
Article
Clinical cerebral-fat embolism shows both reversible and irreversible changes. We used MR imaging to investigate the reversibility of embolized lesions induced with a fat-emulsion technique and to evaluate the histologic findings. A fat emulsion was made with 0.05 mL of triolein and 20 mL of normal saline and vigorous to-and-fro movement through a...
Article
Homophone usage was compared between speaking and writing across two sets of experiments. In the first set of studies 101 introductory students talked into a video camera about an emotional attitudinal issue - Once in a way that supported their view and another time that was opposite to their view. In a different session, 44 different students perf...
Article
Word recognition and sentence comprehension are initial and necessary processes to summarize a story. This study was conducted to investigate the relations among word recognition, sentence comprehension, and reading summarization. Analysis showed performance for word naming, an index of on-line word recognition, was correlated with the Latent Seman...
Article
Many written English words contain silent letters. Omitting them produces nonwords pronounced identically to the original words, for example, SALM for PSALM and COLUM for COLUMN. We report two naming and two lexical decision experiments in which targets of 4-11 letters followed primes exposed for 100 ms in mask-prime-mask-target sequences. Priming...
Article
In some English words is a silent letter in the letter strings, e.g., PSALM. This type of word provides room to manipulate phonological similarity against the words with a nonsilent letter in the corresponding position, e.g., PASTA, to test the phonological recoding hypothesis. Letter strings excluding the silent letter or the sounding letter, e.g....
Article
The successes of the phonological recoding hypothesis induced us naturally to question the role of orthographic information. Mixed-case words (e.g., tOwEd -> toad vs. tOlD -> toad) were used as a prime in the priming task in order to investigate the locus of an orthographic spelling check, based on the assumption of the phonological recoding hypoth...
Article
English words have multi-letters that correspond to one phoneme (e.g., CHOP, SHIP, and THAT). The current competing hypotheses on the word recognition argue differently on whether these multi-letters would form a phonemic unit in the fast-time scale priming task. Using the nonword priming task, three experiments showed that CLEY → crop (the conditi...
Article
The hypothesis that the earliest representations in visual processing of print are activated word-specific units leads to the expectation that homophonic priming (HP) should be greater for word pairs than pseudohomophone pairs. Ten experiments with naming disconfirmed this hypothesis. At interstimulus intervals of 0, 129, 516, and 930 ms, HP for ps...
Article
The role of syllables using the conventional lexical task of naming was examined with 107 college students. Equal numbers of four- and six-letter mono syllabic and multisyllabic words were presented for naming. There were significant syllable effects for 4-letter words as in previous studies but not for 6-letter words. In stead, monosyllabic words...
Article
Lee (1999) argued that there would be two possible confounding variables in the word length effect. This study attempted to control those two variables. A possible confounding variable in the word-length effect is the neighborhood size. A shortword usually has more neighbors than a long word.Another confounding variable is different perceptual avai...
Article
Word length has a strong effect on visual word recognition. This study was conducted to examine the locus of the word-length effect by looking at the interacting pattern between word length and word frequency. If the interacting pattern is additive, the two variables are believed to affect separate stages. In contrast, the expanding pattern would i...

Citations

... Similarity within the second language is often thought to be confusing for learning, leading to errors (e.g., Laufer, 1988;Nation, 2000), but this is not always the case (e.g., Lally et al., 2020). Although a lot is known on between-language similarity effects during learning (e. g., Meade & Dijkstra, 2017;Meade et al., 2018;Otwinowska & Szewczyk, 2017;Tonzar et al., 2009) and the interaction of within-language word and concept similarity with word recognition and production (Chan & Vitevitch, 2010; van Heuven & Dijkstra, 2010), exactly how within-language similarity comes into play during learning is less well understood. ...
... Consider that more than one syllabled prefixes are not easily found within the Korean lexicon, implying that the two constituents shifted in position may unlikely be noticed as existing words at the earlier stage of recognition (i.e., the suffix -ship in English is similar to the stem ship). The stimuli in the 4) control-plus-stem condition were also created by shifting the two morphemes from the second condition (e.g., neighborhood size is fairly sufficient to make sure the comparing conditions similar in lexical properties (Rastle, Lally, Lee, 2019). ...
... Hangul, the Korean writing system, is composed of a syllable and the syllable has a morphological component in Hangul, but not in Western languages. Lee and his colleagues investigated the syllable transposition effect and found slower rejection times in the case of a transposition of the middle two syllables of four-syllable words (i.e., 해욕수장 for 해수욕장 'beach') than for matched control replaced nonwords (e.g., 해욕주장), using the nonword rejection paradigm [24]. Our recent study [25] also found the syllable transposition effect in Korean four-syllable inflected nouns, in which the transposition of the middle two syllables showed a significantly longer rejection time and higher error rate than matched replaced nonwords. ...
... Previous findings have linked the high frequent use of first-person singular pronouns to negative mental health outcomes because most of these self-focused thoughts are usually negative, maladaptive, and ruminative (80). It is possible that the self-focused thoughts, reflected by the use of first-person singular pronouns in language, are impacted by religious beliefs (81), because religious beliefs are often linked to positive self-focus and self-enhancement, resulting in a greater emphasis on self-related responsibility and emotional states (82), which helps with SUD treatment retention. Future in-depth explorations of this association are needed. ...
... F2 (1, 15) = 5.99, p = .027). This replicates previous studies (for native speakers, see Lee and Cochran, 2000;Wager et al., 2009; and for learners, see Jiang, 2004;Wilson and Miyamoto, 2015). One possible reason for this difference is that the head noun in the grammatical condition was plural (chickens), therefore it was one character longer than the head noun in the ungrammatical condition. ...
... For this, we adopted a textual analysis. This method has proven to be a reliable measure of key psychological factors, including developmental (Pennebaker & Stone, 2003), physiological (Petrie, Booth, & Pennebaker, 1998), cognitive (Lee, Nam, & Pennebaker, 2004), personality ( Lee et al., 2007;Pennebaker & King, 1999;Rude, Gortner, & Pennebaker, 2004), and social psychological variables . For example, Pennebaker and Stone (2003) found notable differences in language use over the life span. ...
... From Week 3 the five transfer words were also post-tested (see Table 3 for an overview of the strategies taught). To help children learn the rules we provided a chart called the "Big 8" spelling strategies, which presented the long vowel spellings, the doubling rule and syllable breaking -see Table 4. Tutors also taught students "turtle talk", to say words slowly so as to separate each of the phonemes in a word (Gough & Lee, 2007). ...
... Although Korean is alphabetic, it is similar to Chinese in that each character represents a syllable, which encourages syllable-level rather than phoneme-level phonological processing. Note, however, that sub-syllabic units are also activated in Korean word recognition, including individual letters (Lee, 1999) or the body unit (Lee & Taft, 2011;Yoon et al., 2002). In terms of orthographic depth, Korean is more transparent than English, as the sound-letter mapping is quite consistent (Pae, 2018). ...
... There is already indirect evidence across several paradigms that may be taken to suggest that the bulk of the case-mixing cost does not occur in the initial contact to the lexico-semantic representations. Using Forster and Davis' (1984) masked priming technique, mixed-case repetition primes are as effective as same-case (lowercase) repetition primes at activating uppercase target words (latency data: LaTeRaL-LATERAL = lateral-LATERAL and nUcLeAr-LATERAL = nuclear-LATERAL; Forster, 1998; see also Lee, Honig, & Lee, 2002;Perea, Vergara-Martínez, & Gomez 2015, for similar evidence). If mixed-case words were initially encoded more slowly than same-case words, one would have expected a smaller masked repetition priming effect for mixed-case primes than for same-case primes. ...
... Six practice trials were followed by 80 test trials. Items were adapted from prior studies using homophones and pseudohomophones (Borowsky, Owen, & Masson, 2002;Davis, 1998;Laxon, Masterson, Pool, & Keating, 1992;Lukatela, Eaton, Lee, Carello, & Turvey, 2002;Lukatela & Turvey, 1991;Lupker & Pexman, 2010;Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Petersen, 1996;Martin, 1982;Rastle & Coltheart, 1999;Reynolds & Besner, 2005;Seidenberg, Petersen, MacDonald, & Plaut, 1996;Taft & Russell, 1992;Yates, Locker, & Simpson, 2003) and were checked to ensure that they did not have form overlap with French, Hebrew, or Mandarin Chinese words. Approximately half of the items (38) had misspellings that exclusively involved the vowel segment(s), and the other half (42) had misspellings that involved consonant segment(s). ...