Chain-Shu Hsu's research while affiliated with National Chiao Tung University and other places

Publications (254)

Article
A positive‐type photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) based on a chain extendable poly(amic acid) (PAA), a thermally degradable cross‐linker 1,3,5‐tris[(2‐vinyloxy)ethoxy]benzene (TVEB), and a photoacid generator (PAG) (5‐propylsulfonyloxyimino‐5H‐thiophene‐2‐ylidene)‐(2‐methylphenyl)acetonitrile (PTMA) has been developed. The chain extendable PAA was pr...
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In this study, the surface properties of iron microparticles were modified for the manipulation of liquid droplets using atmospheric pressure plasma jets. These modified hydrophobic iron microparticles were prepared by synthesizing fluorinated silica nanocomposites on the surfaces of iron microparticles under atmospheric pressure plasma. The compos...
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Integrating an additional component featuring complementary light absorption into binary polymer solar cells is a superior tactic to ameliorate solar cell efficiency and stability. An appropriate additive not only extends absorption range, but may also facilitate charge separation and transport processes. In this work, we elucidate the effects of i...
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A new thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-incorporated acceptor TTC unit was developed. The TTC acceptor was installed in a haptacyclic ladder-type core (BDCPDT) to furnish a new A-LD-A type n-type BDCPDT-TTC. The BDCPDT-TTC was paired with the p-type polymer PBDB-T to form an appropriate HOMO/LUMO energy alignment and complementary absorption. The standard BDC...
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The device performance of inverted organic metallohalide perovskite solar cells (OMPSCs) is optimized via tailoring the electrode surfaces with electron- and hole-transporting materials. This work demonstrates the fabrication of PEDOT:PSS-free OMPSCs using a hole-transporting composite material consisting of bilayered vanadium oxide (VOx) and a the...
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We synthesize three liquid crystal molecules with angular anthradithiophene (a-ADT) as the core for the application in organic film-effect transistors (OFETs). Thiophene-octyl group and thiophene-dodecyl group are introduced on both sides of the a-ADT core to yield compounds Bis-C8T-a-ADT and Bis-C12T-a-ADT. Moreover, thiophene-dodecyl group is att...
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In this research, a haptacyclic carbazole-based dithienocyclopentacarbazole (DTCC) ladder-type structure was formylated to couple with two 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC) moieties, forming a new non-fullerene acceptor DTCCIC-C17 using a bulky branched 1-octylnonayl side chain at the nitrogen of the embedded carbazole and four 4-octylphenyl gro...
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Two fullerene derivatives with styryl and oxetane cross-linking groups served as interfacial materials to modify an electron-transporting layer (ETL) of TiO2, doped with Au nanoparticles, processed under low-temperature conditions to improve the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSC). The cross-linkable [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric styryl dendron...
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Directional solution coating using the Chinese brush provides a facile approach to fabricate highly oriented polymer thin films, by finely controlling the wetting and dewetting process under directional stress, as presented in article number 1606987 by Huan Liu, Chain-Shu Hsu, and co-workers. The as-prepared polymer thin films exhibit over 6 times...
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Directional solution coating by the Chinese brush provides a facile approach to fabricate highly oriented polymer thin films by finely controlling the wetting and dewetting processes under directional stress. The biggest advantage of the Chinese brush over the normal western brush is the freshly emergent hairs used, whose unique tapered structure r...
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A formylated benzodi(cyclopentadithiophene) (BDCPDT) ladder-type structure with forced coplanarity is coupled with two 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC) moieties via olefination to form an non-fullerene acceptor BDCPDT-IC. The BDCPDT-IC as an acceptor (A1) with broad light-absorbing ability and excellent solution processability is combined with...
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The development of nanotheranostic agents that integrate diagnosis and therapy for effective personalized precision medicine has obtained tremendous attention in the past few decades. In this report, biocompatible electron donor–acceptor conjugated semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (PPor-PEG NPs) with light-harvesting unit is prepared and develo...
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An A-D-A oligomer, DTS(F2BT)2, was synthesized; its structural evolution was studied with DSC, POM, 2D- WAXD and in situ GI-XRD. The structural evolution of DTS(F2BT)2 is stepwise and kinetically slow. Both rapid drying and the presence of PC71BM trapped DTS(F2BT)2 in a less ordered nematic (N) phase. PDMS-assisted crystallization enabled a pristin...
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Synthesis, structural and retrostructural analysis of a library containing sixteen self-assembling perylene (PBI), 1,6,7,12-tetrachloroperylene (Cl4PBI), naphthalene (NBI), and pyromellitic (PMBI) bisimides functionalized with environmentally friendly AB3 chiral racemic semifluorinated minidendrons at their imide groups via m = 0, 1, 2, and 3 methy...
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A thieno [3,2-b] thiophene-based planar liquid crystal molecule, C12-PTTT, which possesses the characteristics of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET), was synthesised and its mesomorphic properties were studied by polarising optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. A wide temperature range for a highly oriented smectic phase...
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Ternary organic solar cells are emerging as a promising strategy to enhance device power conversion efficiency by broadening the range of light absorption via the incorporation of additional light-absorbing components. However, how to find compatible materials that allow comparable loadings of each component remains a challenge. In this article, we...
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A novel method has been developed to recharge and rejuvenate perovskite solar cells by immersing the device into methyl ammonium iodide (MAI) solution and heating at 70 1C for 40 s. We demonstrated that Au electrodes are more robust than Al and Ag electrodes for ZnO planar structures rather than ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs). In addition to thi...
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In this communication, we report the development of high mobility organic thin film transistor (OTFT) devices using anthradithiophene-based organic semiconductors. Asymmetric molecular structures are introduced by attaching phenyl groups to the fused rings to obtain a wider temperature range of the liquid crystal phases of the anthradithiophene-bas...
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Two angular-shaped 4,9-didodecyl α-aNDT and 4,9-didodecyl β-aNDT isomeric structures have been regiospecifically designed and synthesized. The distannylated α-aNDT and β-aNDT monomers are copolymerized with the Br-DTNT monomer by the Stille coupling to furnish two isomeric copolymers, PαNDTDTNT and PβNDTDTNT, respectively. The geometric shape and c...
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Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-assisted crystallization (PAC) is a facile method to produce oriented C60 crystal arrays. Changing the drying mechanism from evaporation to solvent absorption (by PDMS) widens the solvent selection and facilitates the engineering of both the macroscopic shape and the microscopic lattice structure of the crystal arrays....
Article
A triarylamine-based material DVTPD containing two styryl groups has been developed. Upon isothermal heating at 180 °C for 30 min, DVTPD can be thermally cross-linked to form a solvent-resistant layer to realize the fabrication of solution-processed multilayer devices. The crosslinked DVTPD (denoted as X-DVTPD) layer possesses not only hole-collect...
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Although the tetracyclic angular-shaped naphthodithiophenes (aNDTs) derivatives are an emergent building block for constructing promising semiconductor conjugated polymers, the absence of aliphatic side chains as solubilizing groups on the aNDTs greatly restricted their further application toward polymer synthesis. To create a new class of aNDT-bas...
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A series of three PVTh4FBT polymers containing different alkyl side chain placement was synthesized. The thermochromic behaviors and DFT calculations indicated that the backbone coplanarity and rigidity of the PVTh4FBT polymers can be effectively modulated by adjusting the side chain position and density. Higher ordered and better oriented edge-on...
Article
High-molecular-weight conjugated polymer HD-PDFC-DTBT with N-(2-hexyldecyl)-3,6-difluorocarbazole as the donor unit, 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit, and thiophene as the spacer is synthesized by Suzuki polycondensation. HD-PDFC-DTBT shows a large bandgap of 1.96 eV and a high hole mobility of 0.16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . HD-PDFC...
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Simple synthetic methods for a strongly electron-accepting naphthalene bisimide (NBI) derivative functionalized with a new environmentally friendly chiral racemic semifluorinated alkyl group and with AB3 minidendrons containing the same semifluorinated group are reported. The semifluorinated dendron was attached to the imide groups of the NBI via o...
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We have developed a new germanium-bridged heptacyclic arene, dithienogermolocarbazole (DTGC), in which two outer thiophene subunits are covalently fastened to the central 2,7-carbazole core by two dibutylgermanium bridges. The germole moieties embedded in the DTGC structure were successfully constructed by one-pot nucleophilic cyclization in a high...
Article
Harvesting solar energy from sunlight to generate electricity is considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future sustainability of humans. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous interest and attention over the past two decades due to their potential advantage to be fabricated onto large area and light-weight...
Article
A copolymerization strategy is developed to utilize porphyrin as a complementary light-harvesting unit (LHU) in D-A polymers. For polymer solar cells (PSCs), the presence of LHUs increases the short-circuit current density (Jsc ) without sacrificing the open-circuit voltage (Voc ) and fill factor (FF). Up to 8.0% power conversion efficiency (PCE) i...
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Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) on the basis of polymer:fullerene blends have delivered numerous impressive results in the last decade and thus have drawn much attention of the scientific and industrial communities. However, BHJ PSCs often suffer from several intrinsic problems, such as the low open-circuit voltage (Voc), energ...
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Highly efficient tandem and semitransparent (ST) polymer solar cells utilizing the same donor polymer blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as active layers are demonstrated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.5% and a record high open-circuit voltage of 1...
Article
A conductive and transparent substrate with periodic surface nanostructures was used to induce strong diffusion and diffraction of incident light. The nanostructures were fabricated using UV-curing nanoimprint lithography on photoresist followed by coating of the ITO layer and organic materials with uniform and conformal morphology. The periodic su...
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A new PC61BM-based fullerene, [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid pentafluorophenyl ester (PC61BPF) is designed and synthesized. This new n-type material can replace PC61BM to form a P3HT:PC61BPF binary blend or serve as an additive to form a P3HT:PC61BM:PC61BPF ternary blend. Supramolecular attraction between the pentafluorophenyl group of PC61BPF and t...
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This paper describes a promising approach toward preparing effective electrical and optical interconnections for tandem organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The first subcell featured a semi-transparent electrode, which allowed a portion of the solar irradiation to pass through and to enter the second subcell exhibiting complementary absorption beh...
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We developed organic solar cells based on multiple-device stacked structures featuring complementary absorption behavior. The first, semitransparent (ST) subcell featured an inverted structure; its anode comprised a MoO3/Ag bilayer. This structure provided a transmittance of greater than 35% in the visible region. The second subcell, featuring a lo...
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Metal nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxides are promising materials for use in various optoelectronic applications because of their unique plasmonic properties. In this paper, a simple, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxide that can be used to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic...
Article
Highly efficient tandem and semitransparent (ST) polymer solar cells utilizing the same donor polymer blended with [6,6]‐phenyl‐C61‐butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and [6,6]‐phenyl‐C71‐butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as active layers are demonstrated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.5% and a record high open‐circuit voltage of 1...
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In this work, gold nanoparticle/graphene oxide (AuNP/GO) nanocomposites are synthesized and used as anodic buffer layers in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The application of thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol as a capping agent prevents the aggregation of AuNPs on the GO surface and further improves the solubility and stability of these nan...
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Solution-processed nanocomposites containing molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been used as anode buffer layers in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The resulting device exhibited a remarkable enhancement in the power conversion efficiency after Au NPs were incorporated into the device. Such enhancements can be attribu...
Article
Composite anodic buffer layers composed of solution‐processed graphene oxide and vanadium oxide (GO/VOx ) exhibit a significant enhancement in their electron‐blocking properties and sol–gel‐precursor blocking abilities, compared to buffer layers of only the d0 transition metal oxide. Such composites enable inverted polymer solar cells to have high...
Article
The versatility of a fluoro-containing low band-gap polymer, poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b’]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(5-fluoro-2,1,3-benzothia-diazole)] (PCPDTFBT) in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) applications is demonstrated. High boiling point 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) is used as a solvent to manipulate PCPDTFBT:[6,6]-ph...
Article
Unpredictable trends of charge mobility (μ) in multicyclic heteroarenes-contained polymers remain an obstacle in designing high performance polymers used in polymeric field effect transistors (PFETs). The roles of the comonomeric units in reaching high hole mobility (μh) of copolymers containing a heptacyclic arene unit, dithienocyclopentacarbazole...
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A pentacyclic indacenodiselenophene (IDS) arene was synthesized via intramolecular Friedel-Craft cyclization of the selenophene moieties. This IDS framework was used as a model system to investigate the alkyl/alkoxy side-chain effect by preparing IDS-OCH8 and IDS-C6, where the side chains on the sp3 carbon in the cyclopentadienyl ring are 4-octylox...
Article
We have developed a new ladder-type conjugated polymer and a robust interconnecting layer (ICL) integrating a hole-collecting m-PEDOT:PSS layer with an electron-collecting ZnO layer. The inverted device using exhibited a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.76% with a Voc of 0.81 V, a Jsc of 12.82 mA cm(-2), and a FF of 55.5%. The inverted t...
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Poly(1,4-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) has drawn a great deal of attention in the last two decades because of their applications in areas such as light-emitting diodes. To improve the solubility and optoelectronic properties, various PPV derivatives have been synthesized and investigated for their light-emitting performance. Among PPV derivatives, poly...
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A new cross-linkable fullerene material, bis(2-(trichlorosilyl)propyl)-malonate C60 (TSMC), functionalized with two trichlorosilane groups, was easily synthesized by Pt-catalyzed olefin hydrosilylation. By making use of facile hydrolysis of the trichlorosilyl moieties, TSMC can be spontaneously self-assembled and cross-linked on the TiOx surface by...
Article
A new cross-linkable fullerene material, bis(2-(trichlorosilyl)propyl)-malonate C60 (TSMC), functionalized with two trichlorosilane groups, was easily synthesized by Pt-catalyzed olefin hydrosilylation. By making use of facile hydrolysis of the trichlorosilyl moieties, TSMC can be spontaneously self-assembled and cross-linked on the TiOx surface by...
Article
Two new C60-based n-type materials, EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH, functionalized with hydrophilic triethylene glycol groups (TEG), have been synthesized and employed in conventional polymer solar cells. With the assistance of the TEG-based surfactant, EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH can be dissolved in highly polar solvents to implement the polar/nonpolar-orthogona...
Article
A high organic field-effect transistor mobility (0.29 cm2 V-1 s-1 ) and bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cell performance (PCE of 6.82%) have been achieved in a low bandgap alternating copolymer consisting of axisymmetrical structural units, 5,6-difluorobenzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole. Introducing the fluorine substituents enhanced intermolecular interact...
Article
A new design for constructing two-dimensional conjugated copolymers with the D1–A(D2) repeating pattern (A: acceptor, D1: donor 1, D2: donor 2; molecules enclosed in parentheses are pendant groups.), is proposed. D1 and A are employed to construct the linear main-conjugated polymer chain and D2 is situated at the conjugated side chains connected to...
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Molecules constructed from a combination of zero-dimensional ([60]fullerene (C(60) )) and two-dimensional (porphyrin (Por)) nanobuilding blocks represent an intriguing category of sphere-square "shape amphiphiles". These sphere-square shape amphiphiles possess interesting optoelectronic properties. To efficiently synthesize a large variety of C(60)...
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A new dithienobenzo-carbazole (DTBC) heptacyclic arene using sp2-sp2 dialkylethylene moiety as the bridge was successfully synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. This facile benzoannulation planarizes the conjugated framework with the concomitant introduction of four octyl substituents, making the newly designed copolymer PDTBCDTBT...
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We successfully address the challenge of aligning single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and conjugated polymer chains in composite nanofibers for enhancing their opto-electrical properties. A pore-filling template strategy has been developed to prepare such nanocomposites from SWNTs and poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) chains, with both species...
Article
Phase behavior and crystal structure of a series of poly(2,3-diphenyl-5-alkyl-p-phenylenevinylene) (denoted as DPn-PPV, where n represents the carbon number of the alkyl side-chain, n = 6, 8, 10, 12) were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and selected area elec...
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This work presents a simple method to generate ordered chromophore/dispersant nanoarrays through a pore-filling process for nanoporous polymer template to enhance chromophore luminescence. Fluorescence results combining with the morphological evolution examined by scanning probe microscopy reveal that the enhanced luminescence intensity reaches the...
Article
Porphyrin, despite chosen by Nature as light harvesting units, hasn't revealed its full potentials as a structural unit in porphyrin-incorporated polymers (PPors). A novel PPor was synthesized to investigate the origins of the low performances of PPor-based polymer solar cells (PSCs). The polymer features broad absorption in the blue-light region,...
Article
We have developed a new multifused indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene arene (IDTT) unit where the central phenylene is covalently fastened with the two outer thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT) rings, forming two cyclopentadiene rings embedded in a heptacyclic structure. This rigid and coplanar IDTT building block was copolymerized with electron-deficient ac...
Article
We incorporated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in inverted organic photovoltaic devices to enhance the device performance. The photocurrent and fill factors were improved after the addition of Au NPs into the Cs2CO3 buffer layer. The photoluminescent measurements revealed a significant increase of light absorption of the photoactive layer. We attribut...
Article
A novel porphyrin-C60 dyad (PCD1) is designed and synthesized to investigate and manipulate the supramolecular structure where geometrically isotropic [such as [60]fullerene (C60)] and anisotropic [such as porphyrin (Por)] units coexist. It is observed that PCD1 possesses an enantiomeric phase behavior. The melting temperature of the stable PCD1 th...
Article
We have developed a method, using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS), to directly analyze metal ion impurities in liquid crystals (LCs). From measurements of resistivity, a commonly used technique for quality control of liquid crystal display (LCD) cells, we found that the resistivities of the LCs decreased sig...
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We have developed a new heptacyclic benzodi(cyclopentadithiophene) (BDCPDT) unit, where 3,7-positions of the central benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophenes (BDT) subunit are covalently rigidified with 3-positons of the two external thiophenes by two carbon bridges, forming two external CPDT rings that share two thiophene rings with the central BDT core. T...
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Two conjugated copolymers, poly{4,7‐[5,6‐bis(octyloxy)]benzo(c)(1,2,5)thiadiazole‐alt‐4,8‐di(2‐ethylhexyloxyl)benzo[1,2‐b:3,4‐b]dithiophene} (P1) and poly(2‐{5‐[5,6‐bis(octyloxy)‐4‐(thiophen‐2‐yl)benzo(c)(1,2,5)thiadiazol‐7‐yl] thiophen‐2‐yl}‐4,8‐di(2‐ethylhexyloxyl)benzo(1,2‐b:3,4‐b)dithiophene) (P2), composed of benzodithiophene and 5,6‐dioctylox...
Article
A pentacyclic benzodipyrrolothiophene (BDPT) unit, in which two outer thiophene rings are covalently fastened with the central phenylene ring by nitrogen bridges, was synthesized. The two pyrrole units embedded in BDPT were constructed by using one-pot palladium-catalyzed amination. The coplanar stannylated Sn-BDPT building block was copolymerized...
Article
DEP is one of promising techniques for positioning nanomaterials into the desirable location for nanoelectronic applications. In contrast, the lithography technique is commonly used to make ultra-thin conducting wires and narrow gaps but, due to the limit of patterning resolution, it is not feasible to make electrical contacts on ultra-small nanoma...
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Herein, two asymmetric chiral bent-core molecules, 3-[(4-{[4-(heptyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}benzoyl)oxy]-phenyl-4-[(4-{[(1R)-1-methylheptyl]oxy}benzoyl)oxy] benzoate (BC7R) and 3-[(4-{[4-(heptyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}benzoyl)oxy]-phenyl-4-[(4-{[(1S)-1-methylheptyl]oxy}benzoyl)oxy] benzoate (BC7S), were synthesized to demonstrate control of the helicity of their s...