Chadly Stern's research while affiliated with University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and other places

Publications (40)

Chapter
Social categorization, the process of mentally placing others into a group, is a universal aspect of daily life. Researchers have long been interested in understanding the consequences of social categorization and have more recently turned their attention to determining the processes of how people categorize others into social groups. In this chapt...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created objectively threatening situations in everyday life (e.g., unemployment, risk of infection), and researchers have begun to ask whether threats from the pandemic are linked to people's political attitudes. However, scholars currently lack a systematic answer to this question. Here, we examined whether objective COVI...
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We investigated whether political ideology was associated with the endorsement of race and gender stereotypes, and examined motivational and cognitive factors that could account for any ideological differences. Across five preregistered studies, people who were more politically conservative more strongly supported the use of stereotypes to make soc...
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In this research, we document the existence of broad ideological differences in judgment and decision-making confidence and examine their source. Across a series of 14 studies (total N = 4,575), we find that political conservatives exhibit greater judgment and decision-making confidence than do political liberals. These differences manifest across...
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Attitude and belief similarity have long stood as topics of inquiry for social psychology. Recent research suggests that there might be meaningful differences across people in the extent to which they perceive and actually share others’ attitudes and beliefs. I outline research examining the relationship between political ideology and the perceptio...
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Previous research has found that individual differences in epistemic motivation predict political conservatism. However, meta-analyses indicate substantial heterogeneity in this association and such variation remains underexamined. Using a large, pre-existing dataset, we investigated whether group status—a group’s social value—modulates this relati...
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In an adversarial collaboration, we examined associations among factors that could link ideological conflict—perceiving that members of a group do not share one’s ideology—to prejudice and affiliation interest. We also examined whether these factors would possess similar (“symmetrical”) or different (“asymmetrical”) associative strength among liber...
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We discuss a disconnect between the predictions of Whitehouse's model regarding the accumulative nature of fusion and real-world data regarding the age at which people generally engage in self-sacrifice. We argue that incorporating the link between age and identity development into Whitehouse's theoretical framework is central to understanding when...
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What belief systems are associated with negative attitudes toward lower status groups? Does the relationship differ across higher and lower status groups? We examined the extent to which status quo supporting beliefs (social dominance orientation and conservatism) were associated with negative attitudes toward African Americans and whether the stre...
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Do people accurately perceive their romantic partner? What are the implications of perceiving one’s partner accurately or inaccurately? These questions are frequently debated and researched in psychology, and so researchers need to have methods for assessing accuracy that are flexible enough to answer different theoretical questions. Researchers fr...
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Do liberals or conservatives have more agreement in their political attitudes? Recent research indicates that conservatives may have more like-minded social groups than do liberals, but whether conservatives have more consensus on a broad, national level remains an open question. Using two nationally representative data sets (the General Social Sur...
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A meta-analysis by Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, and Sulloway (2003) suggested that existential needs to reduce threat were associated with political conservatism. Nevertheless, some maintain that fear plays as prevalent a role on the left as the right. In an attempt to resolve this issue, we reviewed evidence from 134 different samples (N = 369,525) a...
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Researchers have recently begun to examine how categorization processes impact social evaluations. In two studies, we examined how sex categorization influences attitudes toward transgender individuals. We found that people evaluated transgender individuals more negatively if they possessed physically androgynous (vs. sex-typical) characteristics b...
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How does crime influence punishment? Past work has heavily focused on whether punishment deters crime; we explored the inverse of this frequently studied relationship to test the processes by which crime influences legal punishment. Specifically, we asked whether the crime rate of the area in which individuals reside predicts the degree to which a...
Article
Across six studies, people used a “bad is black” heuristic in social judgment and assumed that immoral acts were committed by people with darker skin tones, regardless of the racial background of those immoral actors. In archival studies of news articles written about Black and White celebrities in popular culture magazines (Study 1a) and American...
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Recent research has demonstrated that conservatives perceive greater similarity to political ingroup members than do liberals. In two studies, we draw from a framework of "anchoring and adjustment" to understand why liberals and conservatives differ in their perceptions of ingroup similarity. Results indicate that when participants made judgments u...
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Full-text available
Unlabelled: Several contagious diseases were nearly eradicated through childhood vaccination, but some parents have decided in recent years not to fully vaccinate their children, raising new public health concerns. The question of whether and how beliefs about vaccination are linked to political ideology has been hotly debated. This study investig...
Data
List of Pro- and Anti-Vaccination Statements. (DOCX)
Data
Illustration of the calculation of within-subject accuracy score. (DOCX)
Data
Illustration of the calculation of within-subject similarity score. (DOCX)
Article
In the present article, we introduce the concept of metaphorical conflict—a conflict between the concrete and abstract aspects of a metaphor. We used the association between the concrete (spatial) and abstract (ideological) components of the political left-right metaphor to demonstrate that metaphorical conflict has marked implications for cognitiv...
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Does government stability shift the way White and Black Americans represent and make voting decisions about political candidates? Participants judged how representative lightened, darkened, and unaltered photographs were of a racially ambiguous candidate ostensibly running for political office (Studies 1-3). When the governmental system was present...
Article
Significance People often evaluate others in a negative manner when they do not fit the stereotypes that are generally believed about their group. Here, we not only show that political conservatives are more likely to negatively evaluate people who deviate from stereotypes than are liberals, but also explain why. Previous research has heavily empha...
Article
In three studies, we examined whether activating a reasoning process that fosters the consideration of alternatives (a conflict mindset) reduces the extent to which individuals consistently overestimate how different outgroup members' attitudes are from their own attitudes. In Study 1, tacitly activating a conflict mindset reduced the overestimatio...
Chapter
For several decades, the work of Daniel Bar-Tal has illuminated the means by which belief systems are socially constructed and shared widely within societies. His work has offered pivotal insights regarding the ideologies that promote and sustain intense intergroup conflicts and the ways in which these belief systems become firmly rooted in citizen...
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Intergroup interactions are often anxiety provoking, and this can lead members of both majority and minority groups to avoid contact. Whereas negative consequences of experiencing intergroup anxiety are well documented, the role of perceived anxiety has received substantially less theoretical and empirical attention. We demonstrate in 3 experiments...
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In three studies, we examined (a) whether conservatives possess a stronger desire to share reality than liberals and are therefore more likely to perceive consensus with politically like-minded others even for non-political judgments and, if so, (b) whether motivated perceptions of consensus would give conservatives an edge in progressing toward co...
Article
Theoretical approaches that treat religiosity as an evolutionary byproduct of cognitive mechanisms to detect agency may help to explain the prevalence of superstitious thinking, but they say little about the social–motivational (or ideological) functions of religious beliefs or the specific contents of religious doctrines. To address these omission...
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Interactions with new acquaintances are often filled with anxiety that can reduce the desire for long-term contact. The present research tested whether providing participants with implementation intentions (“if–then” plans) that specify how to act when feeling anxious boosted interest in sustained contact and close interpersonal distance. Implement...
Article
In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference be...
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How do perceivers make accurate social judgments? A substantial amount of evidence suggests that perceivers' judgments are often quite accurate even when they do not have direct access to the truth, in part because they make judgments through biased processes. In the present article, we examine the dynamic relationship between bias and accuracy in...
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Full-text available
Anxiety leads to exaggerated perceptions of distance, which may impair performance on a physical task. In two studies, we tested one strategy to reduce anxiety and induce perceived proximity to increase performance. We predicted implementation intentions that reduce anxiety would increase perceived visual proximity to goal-relevant targets, which w...
Article
In the present research, we investigated whether, because of differences in cognitive style, liberals and conservatives would differ in the process of categorizing individuals into a perceptually ambiguous group. In 3 studies, we examined whether conservatives were more likely than liberals to rely on gender inversion cues (e.g., feminine = gay) wh...
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Whereas most social psychological perspectives assume that needs to manage uncertainty, existential anxiety, and social cohesion should motivate any form of ideological zeal, System Justification Theory predicts that these needs are positively associated with the endorsement of system-justifying beliefs, opinions, and values but negatively associat...
Article
We agree that promoting intergroup harmony "carries insidious, often unacknowledged, 'system-justifying' consequences" (sect. 4.1.3, para. 2) and identify several ways in which "benevolent" and "complementary" stereotypes, superordinate identification, intergroup contact, and prejudice reduction techniques can undermine social change motivation by...

Citations

... Such a conceptualization also implies the possibility that inconsistency itself may influence responses, potentially producing unique effects that cannot be understood as the additive product of individual cues. For example, a person's behavior toward a genderambiguous target may be distinct from the mere average of that person's responses toward an individual with unambiguous male features and an individual with unambiguous female features (Stern, 2022). In technical terms, these considerations suggest that, when studying effects of social category cues on behavioral responses, researchers should investigate not only main effects of individual category cues but also their interactions. ...
... States (Rosenfeld et al. 2021;Stern & Axt 2021), Netherlands (Reeskens et al. 2021), Germany, Sweden and Spain (Ares et al. 2021) found overwhelming attitude stability. On the international dimension, Drouhot et al. (2020) found no changes in xenophobic attitudes using German panel data, while Dennison et al. (2021), using panel data from the UK and Germany and repeated cross-sectional data from the US and 28 European countries, reached a similar conclusion on the relationship between immigration preferences and the severity of the outbreak. ...
... This enhanced stability of attitudes in high-RWA individu als is consistent with studies suggesting that RWA is associated with lower cognitive flexibility (Onraet et al., 2015;Sidanius, 1985;Zmigrod, 2020). Several studies have highlighted the importance of adaptation to change in understanding the emergence and maintenance of prejudice (Dhont & Hodson, 2014;Roets & Van Hiel, 2011;Stern & Axt, 2021). In addition, RWA is typically linked with Need for Closure, defined as the motivation to have a definite answer or knowledge instead of uncertainty or doubts about the social environment, and can therefore be linked to a stronger 'primacy effect' (i.e., higher levels of RWA are associated with a better memory for the first items on a list as compared to the last items; Jost et al., 2003;Kruglanski et al., 2006). ...
... One research strand on the relation between political attitudes and negative stereotypes examines what has been described as a "prejudice gap" (Chambers et al. 2013). It finds that conservatives exhibit more stereotypical information processing than liberals (e.g., Jost et al. 2018), which is associated with greater prejudice. For example, social conservatism regarding issues such as abortion or LGBTQ rights is correlated with racial and homophobic prejudice (Hodson and Dhont 2015). ...
... For example, forthcoming research suggests that conservatives tend to self-report greater interoceptive sensitivity-that is, to subjectively feel that they are more sensitive to the internal physiological states and signals of their own bodies-although by objective metrics they are actually less sensitive than are liberals [68]. Moreover, other research suggests that conservatives' overconfidence may extend beyond interoception to experiences, judgments, and perceptions writ large [69]. Extending these past findings to the domain of disgust sensitivity would seem to suggest that conservatives may be likely to subjectively feel that they are more sensitive to disgust than they actually are, perhaps explaining why self-report measures of disgust sensitivity-which in part assess self-beliefs about one's own degree of sensitivity to disgust-show more robust associations with conservatism than measures of disgust that are rooted in more immediate experience. ...
... Second, the range of discrepancies observed within the political parties concerning voters' beliefs about the police practices their own parties value/support suggests that voters' also hold a variety of inaccurate views about the extent to which candidates from their own political parties value/support police practices. Although these discrepancies might reflect geographic differences among participants that lessen when sampling is contained to voters in specific locales (e.g., urban vs. rural elections), political science research suggests that members of political parties regularly overestimate the level of attitude similarity among their party supporters (Stern, 2020). Together, these findings suggest that personnel selection for elected law enforcement positions would benefit from providing voters with specific information about the police practices that candidates value/ support (perhaps even on ballots-i.e., directly in the decision context) rather than having them base their selections on potentially inaccurate political heuristics. ...
... However, those who do not support the policy goals of the program might be more willing to do so if they can interact with an automated system instead of a human. Recent work in the United States suggests that individuals dislike and try to avoid interacting with those who have different political views from them (see Brandt et al., 2014;Iyengar et al., 2012;Lelkes & Westwood, 2017;Stern & Crawford, 2021). Individuals whose views are not aligned with program goals might assume that program employees hold different policy views from them, leading them to prefer an automated system to a human interaction. ...
... In addition to information processing, there are at least three distinct modes of cognitive style or epistemic motivation that we believe impact motivated reasoning, two of which should be negatively related to motivated reasoning (need for cognition, scientific attitude), and one of which should be positively related (dogmatism) (cf. Amit & Sagiv, 2013;Neuberg et al., 1997;Stern & Axt, 2020). ...
... Thus, we are proposing that young people in emerging adulthood (with the exact age being culturally and individually variable) are prone to identity fusion with a nonfamily or family-like group to a greater degree after they have left their family of origin and before they create their own families. Indeed, existing empirical evidence documents that fusion levels are particularly high in this age range (see Rosenzweig et al., 2018). ...
... Here, we draw on past literature of group differences in IAT scores to establish a priori expectations of known groups validity. For each comparison, we expect participants from the higher status group (e.g., straight) to show higher IAT scores relative to participants from the lower status group (e.g., gay/lesbian; Axt et al., 2014;Dasgupta, 2004;Stern and Axt, 2019). Put another way, we anticipate that the lower status groups will exhibit scores that are lower in bias than the scores of the higher status group, but note that we do not necessarily expect that the lower status group will show pro-ingroup preferences (e.g., pro-gay/anti-straight preferences). ...