Cédric Feschotte's research while affiliated with Cornell University and other places

Publications (286)

Article
Full-text available
The human endogenous retrovirus type-H (HERVH) family is expressed in the preimplantation embryo. A subset of these elements are specifically transcribed in pluripotent stem cells where they appear to exert regulatory activities promoting self-renewal and pluripotency. How HERVH elements achieve such transcriptional specificity remains poorly under...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical interactions between viral and host proteins are responsible for almost all aspects of the viral life cycle and the host’s immune response. Studying viral-host protein-protein interactions is thus crucial for identifying strategies for treatment and prevention of viral infection. Here, we use high-throughput yeast two-hybrid and affinity p...
Preprint
Physical interactions between viral and host proteins are responsible for almost all aspects of the viral life cycle and the host’s immune response. Studying viral-host protein-protein interactions is thus crucial for identifying strategies for treatment and prevention of viral infection. Here, we use high-throughput yeast two-hybrid and affinity p...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims The intestinal barrier is comprised of a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are critical in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Dysfunction within various IEC fractions can alter intestinal permeability in a genetically susceptible host, resulting in a chronic and debilitating condition known as CD. Defi...
Article
Transposable elements (TEs) comprise about half of the mammalian genome. TEs often contain sequences capable of recruiting the host transcription machinery, which they use to express their own products and promote transposition. However, the regulatory sequences carried by TEs may affect host transcription long after the TEs have lost the ability t...
Article
There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of transposable elements (TEs) on embryonic development. Studies in humans and mice are limited by the difficulty of working with mammalian embryos, and by the relative scarcity of active TEs in these organisms. Zebrafish is an outstanding model for the study of vertebrate development and o...
Article
Full-text available
Severe respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) promotes an imbalanced host response which underlies the development and severity of COVID-19. Infections with viruses are known to modulate transposable elements (TEs) which can exert downstream effects by modulating host gene expression, innate immune sensing, or activities encoded by their protein pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human endogenous retrovirus type-H (HERVH) family is expressed in the preimplantation embryo. A subset of these elements are specifically transcribed in pluripotent stem cells where they appear to exert regulatory activities promoting self-renewal and pluripotency. How HERVH elements achieve such transcriptional specificity remains poorly under...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transposable elements are increasingly recognized as a source of cis -regulatory variation. Previous studies have revealed that transposons are often bound by transcription factors and some have been co-opted into functional enhancers regulating host gene expression. However, the process by which transposons mature into complex regulator...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of transposable elements (TEs) on embryonic development. Studies in humans and mice are limited by the difficulty of working with mammalian embryos, and by the relative scarcity of active TEs in these organisms. Zebrafish is an outstanding model for the study of vertebrate development and o...
Article
A recipe for new genes Most lineages contain evolutionarily novel genes, but their origin is not always clear. Cosby et al. investigated the origin of families of lineage-specific vertebrate genes (see the Perspective by Wacholder and Carvunis). Fusion between transposable elements (TEs) and host gene exons, once incorporated into the host genome,...
Article
The HML2 subfamily of HERV-K (henceforth HERV-K) represents the most recently endogenized retrovirus in the human genome. While the products of certain HERV-K genomic copies are expressed in normal tissues, they are upregulated in several pathological conditions, including various tumors. It remains unclear whether HERV-K(HML2)-encoded products ove...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Transposable elements are increasingly recognized as a source of cis-regulatory variation. Previous studies have revealed that transposons are often bound by transcription factors and some have been co-opted into functional enhancers regulating host gene expression. However, the process by which transposons mature into complex regulatory...
Article
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that propagate within genomes. Through diverse invasion strategies, TEs have come to occupy a substantial fraction of nearly all eukaryotic genomes, and they represent a major source of genetic variation and novelty. Here we review the defining features of each major group of eukaryotic TEs and e...
Article
Full-text available
To predict the tropism of human coronaviruses, we profile 28 SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-associated receptors and factors (SCARFs) using single-cell transcriptomics across various healthy human tissues. SCARFs include cellular factors both facilitating and restricting viral entry. Intestinal goblet cells, enterocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells...
Preprint
Endogenous retroviruses are abundant components of mammalian genomes descended from ancient germline infections. In several mammals, the envelope proteins encoded by these elements protect against exogenous viruses, but this activity has not been documented in human. We report that our genome harbors a large pool of envelope-derived sequences with...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the human genome, HERV-K(HML2) is the most recently endogenized retrovirus (ERV). While HERV-K(HML2) transcription is observed in normal tissues, both retroviral and the envelope (Env)-derived endogenized accessory products (e.g. Np9 and Rec) are upregulated in various cancer. Still, it is not clear whether the different HERV-K-derived genes con...
Article
Full-text available
To predict the tropism of human coronaviruses, we profile 28 SCARFs using scRNA-seq data from a wide range of healthy human tissues. SCARFs include cellular factors both facilitating and restricting viral entry. Among adult organs, enterocytes and goblet cells of small intestine and colon, kidney proximal tubule cells, and gallbladder basal cells a...
Preprint
Full-text available
To predict the tropism of human coronaviruses, we profile 28 SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-associated receptors and factors (SCARFs) using single-cell RNA-sequencing data from a wide range of healthy human tissues. SCARFs include cellular factors both facilitating and restricting viral entry. Among adult organs, enterocytes and goblet cells of the sma...
Preprint
Full-text available
How genes with novel cellular functions evolve is a central biological question. Exon shuffling is one mechanism to assemble new protein architectures. Here we show that DNA transposons, which are mobile and pervasive in genomes, have provided a recurrent supply of exons and splice sites to assemble protein-coding genes in vertebrates via exon-shuf...
Article
Full-text available
The accelerating pace of genome sequencing throughout the tree of life is driving the need for improved unsupervised annotation of genome components such as transposable elements (TEs). Because the types and sequences of TEs are highly variable across species, automated TE discovery and annotation are challenging and time-consuming tasks. A critica...
Article
Thousands of unfixed transposable element (TE) insertions segregate in the human population, but little is known about their impact on genome function. Recently, a few studies associated unfixed TE insertions to mRNA levels of adjacent genes, but the biological significance of these associations, their replicability across cell types and the mechan...
Article
Full-text available
Alu retrotransposons account for more than 10% of the human genome, and insertions of these elements create structural variants segregating in human populations. Such polymorphic Alus are powerful markers to understand population structure, and they represent variants that can greatly impact genome function, including gene expression. Accurate geno...
Article
Full-text available
Arc, a neuronal gene that is critical for synaptic plasticity, originated through the domestication of retrotransposon Gag genes and mediates intercellular messenger RNA transfer. We report high-resolution structures of retrovirus-like capsids formed by Drosophila dArc1 and dArc2 that have surface spikes and putative internal RNA-binding domains. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
The accelerating pace of genome sequencing throughout the tree of life is driving the need for improved unsupervised annotation of genome components such as transposable elements (TEs). Because the types and sequences of TEs are highly variable across species, automated TE discovery and annotation are challenging and time-consuming tasks. A critica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Thousands of unfixed transposable element (TE) insertions segregate in the human population, but little is known about their impact on genome function. Recently, a few studies associated polymorphic TE insertions to mRNA levels of adjacent genes, but the biological significance of these associations, their replicability across cell types, and the m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alu retrotransposons account for more than 10% of the human genome, and insertions of these elements create structural variants segregating in human populations. Such polymorphic Alu are powerful markers to understand population structure, and they represent variants that can greatly impact genome function, including gene expression. Accurate genot...
Article
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that colonize genomes and threaten genome integrity. As a result, several mechanisms appear to have emerged during eukaryotic evolution to suppress TE activity. However, TEs are ubiquitous and account for a prominent fraction of most eukaryotic genomes. We argue that the evolutionary success of T...
Article
Full-text available
RNAi and Polycomb repression play evolutionarily conserved and often coordinated roles in transcriptional silencing. Here, we show that, in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, germline-specific internally eliminated sequences (IESs)-many related to transposable elements (TEs)-become transcriptionally activated in mutants deficient in the RNAi-de...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) occupy a substantial fraction of the genome and impact cellular function with both beneficial and deleterious consequences. The vast majority of HERV sequences descend from ancient retroviral families no longer capable of infection or genomic propagation. In fact, most are no longer represented by...
Article
Full-text available
Background The organization of chromatin in the nucleus plays an essential role in gene regulation. About half of the mammalian genome comprises transposable elements. Given their repetitive nature, reads associated with these elements are generally discarded or randomly distributed among elements of the same type in genome-wide analyses. Thus, it...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of eukaryotic genomes. However, the extent of their impact on genome evolution, function, and disease remain a matter of intense interrogation. The rise of genomics and large-scale functional assays has shed new light on the multi-faceted activities of TEs and implies that they should no lon...
Article
Full-text available
A family of retroviral-like elements in the human genome has a pervasive influence on gene expression.
Preprint
Full-text available
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) occupy a substantial fraction of the genome and impact cellular function with both beneficial and deleterious consequences. The vast majority of HERV sequences descend from ancient retroviral families no longer capable of infection or genomic propagation. In fact, most are no longer represented by full-length p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The organization of chromatin in the nucleus plays an essential role in gene regulation. When considering the mammalian genome it is important to take into account that about half of the DNA is comprised of transposable elements. Given their repetitive nature, reads associated with these elements are generally discarded or randomly distr...
Article
It is becoming clear that most eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs) owe their evolutionary success in part to horizontal transfer events, which enable them to invade new species. Recent large-scale studies are beginning to unravel the mechanisms and ecological factors underlying this mode of transmission. Viruses are increasingly recognized as ve...
Article
Full-text available
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that e...
Article
Transposable elements (TEs) are selfish genetic units that typically encode proteins that enable their proliferation in the genome and spread across individual hosts. Here we review a growing number of studies that suggest that TE proteins have often been co-opted or 'domesticated' by their host as adaptations to a variety of evolutionary conflicts...
Article
Eukaryotic genomes are littered with sequences of diverse viral origins, termed endogenous viral elements (EVEs). Here we used examples primarily drawn from mammalian endogenous retroviruses to document how the influx of EVEs has provided a source of prefabricated coding and regulatory sequences that were formerly utilized for viral infection and r...
Data
Identity of 34 B. pfeifferi and B. glabrata sequence homologs
Data
Biomineralization transcripts from B. glabrata mantle tissue.