Cathy Spatz Widom's research while affiliated with CUNY Graduate Center and other places

Publications (167)

Article
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Attachment theory has played an important role in attempts to understand the "cycle of violence," where maltreated children are at increased risk for perpetrating violence later in life. However, little is known empirically about whether adult attachment insecurity in close relationships may partly explain the link between childhood maltreatment an...
Article
Background Childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and/or neglect) is associated with cognitive deficits in adulthood. Little is known about how childhood maltreatment affects the trajectory of cognitive functioning during early to middle adulthood. Objective To explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment and change in co...
Article
Lower socio‐economic status (SES) and psychopathy are risk factors for criminal behaviour. This study examines whether psychopathic trait scores moderate the relationship between childhood family and neighbourhood SES and adult arrests. A large group of Midwest children ages 0–11 years old during 1967–1971 were interviewed as adults in 1989–1995 (N...
Article
Background Childhood adversity has been linked to many indicators of shorter healthy lifespan, including earlier onset of disease and disability as well as early mortality. These observations suggest the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment may accelerate aging. Objective To characterize the relationship between childhood maltreatment and accele...
Article
Full-text available
Background Research has shown that maltreated children are at increased risk for subsequent crime and violence and to reside in neighborhoods with a high likelihood of lead exposure. Other literature has reported associations between childhood lead exposure and antisocial and criminal behavior. Little is known about the relationships among childhoo...
Preprint
Importance: Childhood adversity has been linked to many indicators of shorter healthy lifespan, including earlier onset of disease and disability as well as early mortality. These observations suggest the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment may accelerate aging. We tested this hypothesis in a prospective cohort of individuals with documented chi...
Article
Stalking is a serious public health problem, estimated to affect about 15% of women and 6% of men. Victims of stalking have been reported to be at increased risk for psychological distress, depression, lowered social and daily functioning, and other forms of victimization. The present study sought to determine whether individuals with documented hi...
Article
Previous research suggests that out-of-home placement experiences increase the risk for mental health problems and criminal involvement. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms whereby out-of-home placement increases the risk for these outcomes. The present study examines whether sleep problems in part explain the relationship between chi...
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This study evaluated how continuities and discontinuities in the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment affect offspring psychopathology. Data from a multigenerational prospective, longitudinal study were used to compare the severity of offspring psychopathology in families with no history of maltreatment ( controls) and those in which pare...
Article
This research sought to determine whether inadequate sleep conditions in childhood and sleep problems in young adulthood in part explain the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety and depression later in life. Children with documented histories of abuse and neglect and matched controls were followed up and assessed in young an...
Article
Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for life-course psychopathology. However, the nature of this association remains unclear. Professionals working with young people who experienced documented abuse and neglect are all too familiar with the complex clinical presentations seen in this population. Similarly, professionals working with adult c...
Article
Background Childhood maltreatment has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning and poor academic performance. Not known is whether these characteristics are the direct consequence of the childhood maltreatment (that is, maltreatment plays a causal role) or whether other factors explain the relationship. Objectives To examine whether...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine whether basic housing, financial, and food insecurities in part explain the relationship between childhood neglect and violence as documented in the "cycle of violence" literature. Using a prospective cohort design, neglected children (under the age of 12) with court substantiated histories (1967-1971) in one m...
Article
This study sought to determine whether downward drift explains relationships among childhood maltreatment, psychiatric disorders, and residence in unhealthy neighborhoods. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, individuals with court substantiated cases of child abuse and/neglect (ages 0-11 during the years 1967-1971) and matched contro...
Article
Objectives To determine whether childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for two eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) using objective and subjective case definitions. Methods Using a prospective cohorts design, children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0–11) from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwester...
Article
Drawing on findings from a prospective cohort design study that followed abused and neglected children and demographically matched controls into adulthood, this paper focuses on these abused and neglected girls and one important consequence—the extent to which these victims become offenders themselves. We ask four questions: Is criminal behavior am...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lead is a common environmental hazard because of its past use as an additive to gasoline and household paint. Some evidence suggests that children with histories of child abuse and neglect are at elevated risk for residence in communities and households with less desirable characteristics and high levels of exposure to environmental haza...
Article
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Does psychopathology develop as a function of the objective or subjective experience of childhood maltreatment? To address this question, we studied a unique cohort of 1,196 children with both objective, court-documented evidence of maltreatment and subjective reports of their childhood maltreatment histories made once they reached adulthood, along...
Article
Background Several measures are available to assess childhood physical and sexual abuse, but few measures focus specifically on neglect and little psychometric research on measures exists. This paper aims to fill a gap in the field by describing a new instrument to measure childhood neglect retrospectively and providing information about construct,...
Article
Background Childhood maltreatment has been associated with suicide thoughts and attempts; however, few longitudinal studies have assessed risk of suicidality into adulthood. Fewer have examined potential mediators (psychiatric symptoms and environmental vulnerability factors). Methods Prospective cohort design. Children with documented cases of ma...
Article
Previous studies have reported associations between the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype and antisocial and aggressive traits and between child maltreatment and antisocial traits. However, few studies have examined whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the influence of childhood maltreatment on callous and unemotional traits, a hallmark of psychopathy....
Article
Rejoinder to Kraav, Tolmunen, Kauhanen, and Lehto Letter to the Editor - Cathy Spatz Widom
Article
While there have been major advances in documenting the consequences of childhood adversities for psychopathology, Professor Danese's excellent paper challenges existing theory and research methods, urging the field to move ahead with future research that overcomes existing limitations. Importantly, he reminds us of the methodological caveats neces...
Article
Background Childhood adversities have been associated with chronic inflammation and risk for cardiovascular disease. With some exceptions, existing knowledge of this relationship is based on retrospective self-reports, potentially subject to recall bias or memory problems. We seek to determine whether childhood maltreatment is associated with highe...
Article
Social support is frequently cited as a protective factor against juvenile offending. The current study examined whether a close relationship with an adult in childhood decreases the risk for offending among individuals with a history of child maltreatment. This research utilized data from a prospective cohort design study in which children with co...
Article
We explored the association between violence victimization and increased risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women by measuring cellular immune barrier properties from the female reproductive tract. STI-negative participants reporting repeated prior victimization occurrences through the lifetime trauma and victimization his...
Article
Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that has substantial behavioral, clinical, social, and economic ramifications. In the United States, 3.5 million children were referred to child protection agencies for possible maltreatment in 2016 alone, and almost 700 000 were found to have experienced maltreatment.¹ These cases represent doc...
Article
In this study, we examined the effects of childhood neighborhood characteristics on the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of abused and neglected individuals and matched controls followed into adulthood (N = 1,132). Using generalized linear models (GLM), the results indicated that growing up in more advantaged neighbor...
Article
Research shows that maltreated children are at elevated risk of arrest as adults and that higher verbal intelligence, reading ability, and executive functioning (abstract reasoning and cognitive flexibility) may be protective against criminal behavior. The current study examines this hypothesis using data from court-substantiated cases of child abu...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To examine the extent to which there are differences in the developmental course of offending among individuals with maltreatment histories, compared to nonmaltreated controls, and whether these patterns vary for males and females. Methods This paper uses data from a longitudinal study in which abused and neglected children (N = 908) we...
Article
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Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and livin...
Article
Although the percentage of crimes committed by females has increased over the last 20 years in the United States, most research focuses on crimes by males. This article describes an examination of the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts violent and nonviolent offending in females and the role of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a...
Article
Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent...
Article
This article begins with a description of the current state of knowledge on the “cycle of violence,” broadly defined. Subsequent sections focus on the impact of childhood neglect on criminal consequences, potential gender differences in criminal consequences, the extent to which sexual abuse leads to sexual offending, and the extent to which child...
Article
Although previous research has documented that social support acts as a protective factor for individuals exposed to trauma, most research relies on assessments of social support at one point in time. The present study used data from a prospective cohort design study to examine the stability of social support from childhood through middle adulthood...
Article
Living in a violent home and child maltreatment are major public health and social justice concerns that affect numerous children and adolescents in the USA and around the world (Gilbert et al. 2009). In fiscal year 2010, nearly 3 million children were referred to child protection service agencies for suspectedmaltreatment in theUSA.Of them, about...
Article
To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, childre...
Article
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities...
Article
The literature has been contradictory regarding whether parents who were abused as children have a greater tendency to abuse their own children. A prospective 30-year follow-up study interviewed individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched comparisons and a subset of their children. The study assessed maltreatmen...
Article
Childhood maltreatment has been linked to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined mediating processes using longitudinal designs or objectively measured biological data. This study sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts allostatic load (a composite indicator of accumulated stress-induced biologica...
Article
Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of c...
Article
Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in...
Chapter
When I was growing up, I thought I would become a lawyer, having been influenced by the Perry Mason television series that I watched as a child. However, I attended Cornell University on a full scholarship and found that majoring in prelaw did not seem an option. I majored in “Child Development and Family Relationships” and was exposed to Urie Bron...
Article
Over the past three decades, considerable progress has been made in understanding the long-term consequences of childhood victimization. Using a schematic modified ecological model to organize this chapter, the first part reviews the literature on the “cascade of consequences of childhood maltreatment” across multiple domains of functioning, includ...
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This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were p...
Article
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Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatmen...
Article
There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of var...
Article
To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect du...
Article
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with c...
Article
This study examines whether developmental role attainment in three areas (high school graduation, employment, and marriage) mediates the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and adult arrest. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (before age 11) and a comparison group of nonabused or neglected children...
Article
Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health...
Article
We examined whether adults with a documented or self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) report more emotional reactions and negative responses to research participation and whether psychiatric symptoms play a moderating role in their reactions. Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented histories of CSA and nonabus...
Article
we examined whether adults with a documented or self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) report more emotional reactions and negative responses to research participation and whether psychiatric symptoms play a moderating role in their reactions. Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented histories of CSA and nonabus...
Article
Objective: There is extensive evidence of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment for IQ, academic achievement, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and increased attention to neurobiological consequences. However, few prospective studies have assessed the long-term effects of abuse and neglect on executive functioning. This study exa...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts low levels of social support in middle adulthood and understand whether social support acts to mediate or moderate the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and subsequent outcomes (anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use). Method: Using data from a prospective cohort...
Article
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Scant research has examined how children of different races or ethnic backgrounds manifest consequences of neglect. We examined multiple domains of functioning (academic/intellectual, social/behavioral, and psychiatric), three theories (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience), and potential confounding variables. Children with documente...
Article
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This paper examined whether childhood maltreatment increases the risk of living in neighborhoods with less desirable characteristics (i.e., more disorder and disadvantage, less social cohesion, social control and advantage, and fewer resources) in middle adulthood and whether these neighborhood characteristics influence subsequent illicit drug use....
Article
A large proportion of children across the globe suffer abuse or neglect. 1 , 2 Therefore, studies that shed light on the health consequences of adverse childhood experiences and examine the potential for resilience are of great importance. The meta-analysis by Varese et al. 3 in this volume is a welcome addition to these studies.
Article
We investigated whether abused and neglected children are at risk for negative physical health outcomes in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, we matched children (aged 0-11 years) with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect from a US Midwestern county during 1967 through 1971 with nonmaltreated children. Both groups co...
Article
Studies have examined the interaction of MAOA genotype with childhood maltreatment in relation to depressive symptomatology and alcohol abuse with conflicting findings. Both high- and low-activity allele combinations have been shown to be protective for maltreated children with direction of findings varying by study methodology and participants' se...
Article
Child abuse and neglect are serious problems confronting professionals in public health, justice, social services, and education in the United States and elsewhere. Of all forms of child maltreatment, neglect is the most common form, and the overlap of poverty with child neglect has been most pronounced. This has led some to speculate that the cons...
Article
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away, home...
Article
This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abus...
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The relationship between childhood neglect and later life outcomes is an understudied topic. This study employs data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a longitudinal follow-up of 411 working-class males in London, to examine (a) the profiles of the boys who were neglected in childhood and (b) the relationship between childhood neg...
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Cross-sectional designs and self-reports of maltreatment characterize nearly all the literature on childhood abuse or neglect and pain in adulthood, limiting potential for causal inference. The current study describes a prospective follow up of a large cohort of individuals with court-documented early childhood abuse or neglect (n=458) and a demogr...
Article
This study examines whether child abuse; child neglect; demographic, family and social, behavioral, economic, and neighborhood risk; and protective factors predict different drug-use patterns into middle adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (processed duri...
Article
This study examines the roles of childhood neglect and childhood poverty (family and neighborhood) in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), academic achievement, and crime in young adulthood. Using existing data from a prospective cohort design study, 1,005 children with documented histories of neglect (N...
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This study sought to determine whether abused and neglected children are more likely than those without childhood maltreatment to use health and social services as adults and whether psychiatric status mediates or moderates the relationship. A prospective cohort design was used. Individuals with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neg...
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Full-text available
Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed i...
Article
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages...
Article
In the general population, women's lifetime risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is twice that of men's. However, evidence is contradictory as to whether this sex difference is present among child abuse/neglect victims. The authors examined sex differences in PTSD among a sample of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/negl...
Article
Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar con...
Article
Childhood maltreatment has been implicated as a risk factor for adult obesity. We describe the first prospective assessment of adult obesity in individuals with documented histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group in a 30-year follow-up. Using a prospective cohort design, children with court substan...
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Existing research on child welfare interventions as mediators of the criminal consequences of child maltreatment has focused on juvenile delinquency rather than adult criminality. This study uses a prospective sample of 772 maltreated youth to examine out-of-home placement as a mediator of adult criminality. Arrest data were collected from official...
Article
This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreate...
Article
We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexually transmitted diseases. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and foll...
Article
Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and/or neglect in childhood were associated with increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 8...
Article
Child maltreatment remains a major public-health and social-welfare problem in high-income countries. Every year, about 4-16% of children are physically abused and one in ten is neglected or psychologically abused. During childhood, between 5% and 10% of girls and up to 5% of boys are exposed to penetrative sexual abuse, and up to three times this...
Article
To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Using a prospective coh...
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This study examined mechanisms that might account for the association between early childhood abuse and neglect, and substance use and related problems in adulthood for women. Women with documented cases of early childhood abuse and/or neglect and matched controls were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age=29 years) and again in middle adulthood...
Article
This article examined links between childhood maltreatment and risky sexual behavior (early sexual contact, promiscuity, prostitution) and HIV in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, physically and sexually abused and neglected children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed...
Article
The congruence between adolescents' self-reports and their adult retrospective reports of parental discipline practices and physical abuse in adolescence was examined. A community sample of adolescents was recruited in 1979 through 1981 by a randomized telephone screening for a longitudinal study of adolescent development. These 104 men and 190 wom...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on alcohol use in middle adulthood. Individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 500) and matched controls (n = 396) from a metropolitan county in the Midwest were followed and interviewed in middle adulthood....
Article
This paper examines individual, family, and neighborhood level predictors of resilience in adolescence and young adulthood and describes changes in resilience over time from adolescence to young adulthood in abused and neglected children grown up. We use documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (n=676) from a Midwestern c...
Article
The authors tested the hypothesis that children who are maltreated earlier in life are at greater risk for poor psychological functioning in adulthood than those maltreated later in life. Age of onset of maltreatment was assessed with 3 classifications: (a) continuous (ages 0-11 years); (b) dichotomous (early [ages 0-5 years] vs. later [ages 6-11 y...
Article
Few prospective longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between abuse or neglect in childhood and depression in adulthood. To determine whether abused and neglected children were at elevated risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychiatric comorbidity, compared with matched control subjects, when followed up into young adulthood....
Article
Full-text available
Using prospective data from a cohort design study involving documented cases of child abuse and neglect and a matched control group, we examine two potential pathways between childhood victimization and violent criminal behavior: early aggressive behavior and problematic drinking. Structural equation models, including controls for race/ethnicity, s...

Citations

... To date, only a handful of studies have investigated early-life adversity and composite biomarker-based BA measures. Across three studies in large longitudinal cohorts, early-life adversity was associated with more advanced BA based on the Klemera-Doubal method, Phenotypic Age algorithm, and a multi-biomarker indicator of pace of BA [230][231][232]. ...
... Margolis et al. (23) show that among mothers experiencing stress, greater exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons strengthened associations with reduced hippocampal volumes in their school-age offspring, suggesting a potentiation of the negative associations of maternal stress with offspring outcomes in the context of exposure to ambient pollution. Widom et al. (28) build on the review by Cardenas-Iniguez et al. (22) to show that ongoing exposure to lead in adulthood continues to have negative impacts on function, demonstrating that blood levels of lead in adulthood predict arrests after blood collection, and that the level of lead in blood was strongly related to neighborhood disadvantage measures. While this study could not assess neighborhood disadvantage and lead levels in these individuals in childhood to understand the unique predictive effects of lead levels in adulthood, the data do indicate that these important relationships continue to be apparent in adult behavior. ...
... Health screenings of 122 young children in out-of-home care observed that 54% had behavioral/emotional problems (e.g., poor self-esteem, anxiety, grief, problematic interpersonal relationships, and depression), 33% had a speech delay, the hearing test for 30% was abnormal, and 28% failed their vision test [6]. Recent studies also underscored the higher prevalence of sleep problems as also related to mental health problems and crime among out-of-home care children [7] and young people who were in out-of-home care as children [8]. These findings may indicate that children who have ...
... Unfortunately, children do not know that they are acting out these roles and parents do not know that they are actually inflicting pain on their children. As far as they are concerned, they are treating their children far better than the way their own parents treated them [11][12][13][14][15]. Since the family is the first place a child learns what is right and wrong, he unconsciously stores in his memory activities and important action performed by his parents. ...
... Further, parental figures or caregivers' lack of consistent care and responsiveness likely contributed to developing limiting core beliefs and schemas (e.g., viewing the self as defective, unworthy, or unlovable, the world as a dangerous place, others as untrustworthy; Bowlby, 1969). In support of these speculations, much data showed that parental childhood abuse had long-term adverse effects on self-views, action tendencies, and behavioral regulation repertoires (e.g., Hong, 2012;Javakhishvili & Spatz Widom, 2021;Lee et al., 2018;VanMeter et al., 2021). Future research could examine the validity of these propositions. ...
... Childhood trauma is a complex and multifaceted construct historically assessed in multiple ways, which may include self-reported [81] and documented components, as well as prospective, concurrent, and retrospective accounts [82][83][84]. These types of accounts should not be conflated in studies regarding associations between childhood trauma and later outcomes [81]. ...
... Childhood maltreatment has been linked to an increased risk for a variety of negative outcomes such as violent behavior (Widom, 1989), drug abuse (Horwitz, Widom, McLaughlin, & White, 2001), physical and sexual victimization later in life (McIntyre & Spatz Widom, 2011), and criminal justice involvement (Caspi et al., 2002;Widom, 1989), with these experiences continuing to influence an individual through adulthood (Widom, 2017). Felitti et al. (1998) introduced formalized measures to study these and other forms of early maltreatment referred to as Adverse Childhood Experiences, or ACEs. ...
... Although research relies heavily on cross-sectional designs and retrospective recall of maltreatment, mounting prospective and longitudinal evidence confirms that, while not inevitable, abused and neglected children are at increased risk to engage in violence (Fitton et al., 2020;Widom, 2017). This pattern, which may extend deep into adulthood (Schuck & Widom, 2021), can contribute to an intergenerational cycle. Such findings underscore the importance of identifying mechanisms through which exposure to childhood maltreatment could translate into violent behavior, to help remediate its effects. ...
... The exposure to adverse situations during childhood and adolescence generates stressful developmental settings promoting adaptative problems on various domains like academic functioning (Fisher & Widom, 2021), psychosocial functioning (Alink et al., 2012), mental health (Cohen et al., 2019;Danese & Widom, 2020;Humphreys et al., 2020;VanMeter et al., 2021) or aggressive behavior (Augusti et al., 2018). Additionally, long term consequences ...
... These prisoners tended to display such mental health problems as anxiety (e.g. Schuck et al., 2021;Renner et al., 2020), depression (e.g. Schuck et al., 2021;Renner et al., 2020;Diaz et al., 2020), and somatisation (e.g. ...