Catherine McBride-Chang's research while affiliated with The Chinese University of Hong Kong and other places

Publications (158)

Chapter
The etiology and markers of developmental dyslexia in Chinese are of great practical and theoretical interest in part because these may differ somewhat from those of alphabetic orthographies. Whereas the hallmark of dyslexia in alphabetic orthographies is phonological processing, this is not as clear in Chinese, perhaps in part because the phonolog...
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Literacy is a multilevel construct comprising word reading, spelling, and text reading comprehension. Understanding the key linguistic and cognitive factors that support word reading, spelling, and text reading comprehension is fundamentally important to elucidate the detailed nature of literacy acquisition. While most contemporary models of litera...
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Not all parents are skilled in scaffolding their young children`s numeracy learning. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a parent training program in promoting Filipino young children`s number sense via card game playing at home. Participants were 161 young children and their parents; families were of a relatively low socioeconomic...
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Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children’s lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from...
Chapter
Both characters and words in Chinese are related to meaning, and it is interesting to consider the ways in which children process the two. Both phonetic and semantic radicals are essential for character identification. At the same time, within multi-character words, the association(s) of each character to the other(s) are additionally important for...
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Although the issue of visual skills in relation to word reading has not been central to recent explorations of read-ing development, all visual word reading involves visual skill. Children constantly face tasks of differentiating visually sim-ilar letters or words. For example, dis-tinguishing "b" from "d," "a" from "e," or "book" from "boot" all r...
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This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8 years of age. Three groups of 15 children each—those with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls—participated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8 years of age. All...
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In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 y...
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The present study explored the early predictors of reading comprehension difficulties in Chinese children. We originally recruited 290 Beijing and 154 Hong Kong children and further selected from each sample those (30 from Beijing and 22 from Hong Kong sample) in the lowest 25 % on reading comprehension tests across the last two consecutive testing...
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Children’s literacy development forms the foundation for lifelong learning. Acquisition of reading and writing skills involves crucial aspects of both cognitive and psychosocial development. This book critically analyses research and theory on literacy acquisition from an ecological perspective.
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In the present study, we compared models of overall writing quality, in addition to differences in grammatical usage in this writing, between children from Beijing and Hong Kong societies. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) resulted in a five-element scoring system used to tap overall writing quality in the Beijing sample. In addition, Beijing and...
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A 4-stage developmental model, in which auditory sensitivity is fully mediated by speech perception at both the segmental and suprasegmental levels, which are further related to word reading through their associations with phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short-term memory and morphological awareness, was tested with concurr...
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In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject an...
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This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two syntactic...
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Ninety-four Mainland Chinese children in the second and third years of kindergarten (mean age = 65 months, SD = 6.94) were tested on Pinyin letter-name knowledge, invented Pinyin spelling, general copying skills of unfamiliar print (in Korean, Hebrew and Vietnamese, ultimately combined to create a pure copying factor), delayed copying of characters...
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An in-depth exploration of the associations of two aspects of morphological awareness in Chinese—homophone awareness and lexical compounding awareness—to Chinese word reading and vocabulary knowledge was the primary focus of the present study. Among 154 9-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children, both lexical compounding and homophone awareness were sig...
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This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading E...
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The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children (N = 509) and four samples of East Asian children (N = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated that, although processing spe...
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The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of two types of learning, stroke order writing and radical knowledge training, for enhancing children's Chinese literacy skills in the context of parent-child joint Chinese writing. Eighty Hong Kong kindergarteners were pretested on nonverbal IQ, word reading, vocabulary knowledge, semantic-r...
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Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same to...
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Across 626 Hong Kong Chinese fifth and sixth graders, children's experiences of victimization and bullying in online and real life contexts were compared. Children reported their best friendships at school and online when playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). With demographic variables, computer gaming habits, school victimization and...
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We tested the overlap in the bottom 25% of scorers (termed “poor readers”) in word reading in Chinese and English, respectively, among statistically representative groups of 8-year-olds from Hong Kong and Beijing in order to determine the chances of being a poor reader in English given that one was already a poor reader in Chinese. The overlap in t...
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In this chapter, we discuss three issues in relation to very early literacy acquisition and impairment across cultures. First, we review some environmental influences on literacy development, particularly in the pre-primary school years. Second, we focus more specifically on parental impact on children's literacy acquisition. Finally, we talk about...
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Examined how naming speed and phonological awareness may be related to reading skills among Chinese children. 80 3–4 yr old Chinese kindergarten students in Hong Kong were tested on a variety of reading-related skills, including speeded picture and number naming, phonological awareness, visual attention, visual memory, vocabulary, letter knowledge,...
Data
Descriptive statistics of phenotype measures. *The absolute scores were log-transformed for Age 7 cross out to achieve suitable skewness and kurtosis values. (DOC)
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Several independent studies have supported the association of DYX1C1 with dyslexia, but its role in general reading development remains unclear. Here, we investigated the contribution of this gene to reading, with a focus on orthographic skills, in a sample of 284 unrelated Chinese children aged 5 to 11 years who were participating in the Chinese L...
Data
Pearson correlations between phenotype measures. VSR- the Visual-Spatial Relationship test, VM-Visual Matching, VC-Cross Out, OJ-orthographic judgment, CCR-Chinese character reading, CCD-Chinese character dictation. Correlation coefficients above 0.19 are significant at P<0.001, correlation coefficients above 0.15 are significant at p<0.01, and cor...
Data
Examples of the orthographic judgment test, black-and-white drawing (A), illegal position (B), ill-formed component (C), and pseudo characters (D). (TIF)
Data
Markers genotyped by MassArray system (sequenom) probes. (DOC)
Data
Linkage disequilibrium. MAF, minor allele frequency. D′ values are shown in the upper half of the table, and r2 values in the lower half of the table. (DOC)
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Examples from Chinese, Thai, and Finnish illustrate why researchers cannot always be confident about the precise nature of the word unit. Understanding ambiguities regarding where a word begins and ends, and how to model word recognition when many derivations of a word are possible, is essential for universal theories of reading applied to both dev...
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Research Findings: In this study, 88 kindergartners received special training in lexical compounding, homophone awareness, or phonological awareness or were assigned to a control condition over a period of approximately 2 months, with 20-min lessons administered twice per week. Chinese word reading improved significantly more in the lexical compoun...
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The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to examine group differences in processing of orthographic information in Chinese children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Twelve dyslexic (ages 100-125 months) and 11 control (ages 104-124 months) children were given a character decision task (similar to a lexical decision task...
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This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and...
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Predictors of age 10 spelling and reading comprehension skills in both Chinese and English from vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and word reading at age 8 were tested in this longitudinal study of 141 Hong Kong Chinese children learning to read English as a second language. The correlation between spelli...
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This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by paedi...
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We examined the nature of maternal mediation of children's word writing and its associations to kindergartners' independent Chinese reading and writing skills in 63 Hong Kong and 43 Beijing mother–child dyads. The nature of maternal mediation of writing was analyzed across the 3 dimensions of cognitive support, autonomy support, and social–emotiona...
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Studies of Chinese children's reading have focused both on the development and impairment of literacy skills. This article surveys the basics of Chinese literacy development, considering the environments in which reading and writing are taught across Chinese societies, as these may differ in languages and scripts used. It reviews the macro-level va...
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The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the diffe...
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Eighty-five Hong Kong Chinese children were tested across both the 2nd and 3rd years of kindergarten (ages 4-5 years) on tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and word reading. With age, vocabulary knowledge, and metalinguistic skills statistically controlled, the combina...
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The present study examined the relations of Chinese word reading and writing to both maternal mediation of writing and a number of metalinguistic and cognitive skills in 63 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners. The whole process of maternal mediation of writing, in which mothers individually facilitated their children's writing of 12 two-character wor...
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Among 262 Chinese children, syllable awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN) at age 5 years and invented spelling of Pinyin at age 6 years independently predicted subsequent Chinese character recognition and English word reading at ages 8 years and 10 years, even with initial Chinese character reading ability statistically controlled. In addit...
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This study examined the associations of three levels of meaning acquisition, i.e., whole word (vocabulary), morpheme (morphological awareness), and semantic radical (orthography-semantic awareness) to early Chinese reading comprehension among 164 Hong Kong Chinese primary school students, ages 7 and 8 years old, across 1 year. With time 1 word read...
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This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2–4 (N=133) participated and were administered measures of IQ, word...
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Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely...
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This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4–6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across t...
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There were two goals of the present study. The first was to create a scoring scheme by which 9-year-old Chinese children’s writing compositions could be rated to form a total score for writing quality. The second was to examine cognitive correlates of writing quality at age 9 from measures administered at ages 6–9. Age 9 writing compositions were s...
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Preschoolers’ metalinguistic and visual capabilities may be associated with the writing system of their culture. We examined patterns of performance in phonological awareness, naming of letters, morphological awareness, and visual-spatial relations, in 5-year-old native speakers of Spanish (n = 43), Hebrew (n = 40), and Cantonese (n = 63) and the r...
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Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given...
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Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers scor...
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What are the longitudinal cognitive profiles of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific reading difficulties in Chinese only, in English only, or both? A total of 16 poor readers each of Chinese (PC) and English (PE) and 8 poor readers of both orthographies (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 16 children; all were drawn from a statistica...
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One hundred four Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders completed a questionnaire on eight separate motivational subscales related to reading separately for Chinese as a first language (L1) and English as a foreign language (EFL) in addition to measures of both Chinese and English reading comprehension. Motivations related to self-efficacy, curiosity, inv...
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Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with chil...
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This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills. Forty-seven at-...
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Early prediction of reading disabilities in Chinese is important for early remediation efforts. In this 6-year longitudinal study, we investigated the early cognitive predictors of reading skill in a statistically representative sample of Chinese children from Beijing. Two hundred sixty-one (261) native Chinese children were administered seven lang...
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This study examined how gender, instrumentality, expressivity and dating status were associated with adolescents’ perceived cross-sex friendship quality. Two hundred sixty-two Hong Kong Chinese heterosexual teenagers (117 males, 145 females) aged 14 to 18 rated the levels of companionship, closeness, help, security and conflict in their best cross-...
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In this article, we highlight the fact that Chinese literacy acquisition can be a very different experience across societies because of the diversity of Chinese learning environments. There are at least three ways in which this diversity can be documented. First, Chinese families often speak different languages or dialects, and the language spoken...
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Among 30 Hong Kong Chinese fourth graders, sensitivities to character and word constructions were examined in judgment tasks at each level. There were three conditions across both tasks: the real condition, consisting of either actual two-character compound Chinese words or real Chinese compound characters; the reversed condition, with either the o...
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Family characteristics' links to literacy learning and their differences across macrosystems (economic and cultural contexts) were explored in multilevel analyses of the reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds across 41 countries. Students who had two parents, had higher family socioeconomic status (SES), were native...
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What is the nature of learning to read Chinese across grade levels? This study tested 199 kindergartners, 172 second graders, and 165 fifth graders on 12 different tasks purportedly tapping constructs representing phonological awareness, morphological awareness, orthographic processing, and subcharacter processing. Confirmatory factor analyses comp...
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As many studies have now demonstrated that morphological awareness contributes to students' literacy development, there is growing interest in the educational value of instruction in morphological awareness. This review was undertaken to integrate findings of studies that sought to determine whether such instruction contributed to improvement in li...
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In the present study, morphological structure processing of Chinese compounds was explored using a visual priming lexical decision task among 21 Hong Kong college students. Two compounding structures were compared. The first type was the subordinate, in which one morpheme modifies the other (e.g., 籃 球 [laam4 kau4, basket-ball, basketball]), similar...
Chapter
This chapter outlines three aspects of early literacy in relation to general environment and parenting. First, we overview some general characteristics of the home environment that can influence how (and what) children learn to read and write. Next, we overview more specifically how parents can facilitate children’s early literacy growth. These stu...
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Is the Confucian concept of filial piety relevant for understanding contemporary Chinese children’s psychological well-being? This study of 231 Hong Kong Chinese fifth and sixth graders demonstrated that parental warmth and two facets of children’s filial piety belief were uniquely associated with life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social competen...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological structure processing of Chinese compounds at short SOAs of 57ms. Event-related potentials were recorded while 16 Hong Kong Chinese university students were instructed to make visual lexical decisions in a decision-making task involving Chinese compound words. Only words in the category of t...
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While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have investigated...
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Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming...
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The present study examined invented spelling of pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching and learning Chinese words) in relation to subsequent Chinese reading development. Among 296 Chinese kindergartners in Beijing, independent invented pinyin spelling was found to be uniquely predictive of Chinese word reading 12 months later, even with...
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This study investigated the effects of dialogic parent–child reading in English on 51 Hong Kong kindergarteners learning English as a second language. Children were pre-tested on nonverbal IQ, reading interest and receptive vocabulary, word reading and phonological awareness in both Chinese and English. They were then assigned randomly to one of th...
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In this study, we examined the intercorrelations among speech perception, metalinguistic (i.e., phonological and morphological) awareness, word reading, and vocabulary in a 1st language (L1) and a 2nd language (L2). Results from 3 age groups of Chinese–English bilingual children showed that speech perception was more predictive of reading and vocab...
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This study investigated the extent to which language skills at ages 2 to 4 years could discriminate Hong Kong Chinese poor from adequate readers at age 7. Selected were 41 poor readers (age M = 87.6 months) and 41 adequate readers (age M = 88.3 months). The two groups were matched on age, parents' education levels, and nonverbal intelligence. The f...
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One hundred twenty-one third-grade Chinese children were assessed with a new morphological awareness task involving open-ended lexical compounding, in addition to completing other measures. With children's age, nonverbal intelligence, phonological awareness, and previously established measures of morphological awareness statistically controlled, th...
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This study examined the perceived parental styles of maternal warmth and control, as well as adolescent filial piety, in relation to parent–child relationship quality, in 308 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The three mother–child relationship qualities measured were perceived maternal support, conflicts, and relationship depth. Adolescents' attitude...
Article
The present study examined the relations of Chinese word reading and writing to both maternal mediation of writing and a number of metalinguistic and cognitive skills in 63 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners. The whole process of maternal mediation of writing, in which mothers individually facilitated their children's writing of 12 two-character wor...
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Full-text available
In the present study, maternal Pinyin mediation and its relations with young Chinese children’s word reading and word writing development were explored. At time 1, 43 Mainland Chinese children and their mothers were videotaped on a task in which children were asked to write 12 words in Pinyin (a phonological coding system used in Mainland China as...
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This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically con...
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Two scales of mothers’ mediation of their children's writing based on Aram and Levin (20012. Aram , D. and Levin , I. 2001 . Mother-child joint writing in low SES. Sociocultural factors, maternal mediation and emergent literacy . Cognitive Development , 16 ( 3 ) : 831 – 852 . [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) were developed and tes...
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A total of 82 Chinese 11- and 12-year-olds with and without dyslexia were tested on four paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, rapid naming, and verbal short-term memory in three different experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that children with dyslexia were significantly poorer in visual-verbal P...
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This study examined the associations of Chinese visual-orthographic skills, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness to Chinese and English word reading among 326 Hong Kong Chinese second- and fifth-graders learning English as a second language. Developmentally, tasks of visual-orthographic skill, phonological awareness, and morphologica...
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Previous research has shown a relationship between speech perception and dyslexia in alphabetic writing. In these studies speech perception was measured using phonemes, a prominent feature of alphabetic languages. Given the primary importance of lexical tone in Chinese language processing, we tested the extent to which lexical tone and aspiration,...