Catherine E. Ross's research while affiliated with University of Texas at Austin and other places

Publications (130)

Article
A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health - edited by Teresa L. Scheid June 2017
Article
Full-text available
Cambridge Core - Sociology of Science and Medicine - A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health - edited by Teresa L. Scheid
Chapter
PurposeDespite mixed evidence, researchers often suggest that married adults tend to live generally healthier lifestyles than their unmarried counterparts. In this chapter, we propose and test a reconceptualization of the health lifestyle that distinguishes between “homebody” risks and “hedonic” risks that may help to make sense of previous finding...
Article
Subjective alienation is the sense of being separate from oneself or others. Perceived powerlessness is the main type of alienation because it is a separation from important outcomes in one's own life. Self-estrangement is a type of powerlessness related to one's work, and the closest conceptually to Marx's ideas of alienation. Others include socia...
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Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and...
Chapter
Residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods suffer higher levels of depression, anxiety, and anger than do residents of more advantaged neighborhoods. In this entry, we define neighborhoods and discuss objective and subjective measures. Then we describe the processes by which neighborhoods might influence psychological well-being and distress, and the...
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What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic har...
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The sense of personal control is the cognitive link between social structural conditions and emotional distress. The sense of personal control is the perception that one’s life is shaped by one’s own efforts and actions. Perceived control versus powerlessness is the cognitive imprint of structured inequality, disadvantage, and objective powerlessne...
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What explains the benefits of marriage to good health? Do cohabitors, gay or straight, receive similar benefits from their intimate relationships? Liu and her colleagues open with this statement: “Marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the healt...
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The positive associations between education and health and survival are well established, but whether the strength of these associations depends on gender is not. Is the beneficial influence of education on survival and on self-rated health conditioned by gender in the same way, in opposite ways, or not at all? Because women are otherwise disadvant...
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A threatening and dangerous neighborhood may produce distressing emotions of anxiety, anger, and depression among the individuals who live there because residents find these neighborhoods subjectively alienating. The author introduces the idea that neighborhood disorder indicates collective threat, which is alienating-shaping perceptions of powerle...
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The association between education and good health is well established, but whether the strength of the association depends on other social statuses is not. We test a theory of resource substitution which predicts a larger correlation between education and health (measured for physical impairment) for people who grew up in families with poorly-educa...
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Does education improve health more for one sex than the other? We develop a theory of resource substitution which implies that education improves health more for women than men. Data from a 1995 survey of U.S. adults with follow-ups in 1998 and 2001 support the hypothesis. Physical impairment decreases more for women than for men as the level of ed...
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Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and neighborhood-spec...
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Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry agita...
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With age, the quality of emotions may shift from negative in tone to positive, but also from active to passive. The shift from negative to positive is consistent with the age as maturity perspective. The shift from active to passive supports the age as decline perspective. If these generalities are correct, then they should apply to positive emotio...
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Does neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) have a significant positive effect on health over and above the personal and household socioeconomic status of the residents who live there, and, if it does, what is its relative importance compared to an individual's own SES? Resolution of this question has been impeded by lack of conceptual clarity in...
Article
The goal of this research is to see if more highly educated older Chinese have lower levels of distress than do their poorly educated counterparts and whether engaging in cognitively stimulating activities such as reading and playing mahjong explains the association. Using the Chinese Healthy Longevity Survey, the authors find a significant negativ...
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The cumulative advantage hypothesis predicts that the adulthood rate of decline in health differs across levels of education in a manner that progres- sively enlarges the health gap across most or all of adulthood. The rising importance hypothesis predicts that the differences across levels of education in the rate of health's decline have been gro...
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Employees with greater control over their own activities have better health. People who are employed give up some control over their own activities for pay, yet employment is associated with better health. Perhaps paid jobs provide resources for productive self-expression that make up for the loss of autonomy. We find that paid employment is associ...
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This study looks for evidence of an adulthood trajectory of perceived control over one's own life, and education's role in shaping it. Vectors from a 1995-2001 U. S. survey of adults imply a much steeper trajectory than did previous cross-sectional studies, peaking in late middle age rather than early adulthood. They also show a trend toward larger...
Article
Does education improve psychological well-being more for one sex than for the other? Resource substitution theory hypothesizes that education improves well-being more for women, because socioeconomic disadvantage makes them depend more on education to achieve well-being. Resource multiplication implies the opposite, that education improves well-bei...
Article
This paper examines the conditions under which normlessness leads to trouble with the law and the mechanisms through which social structure affects trouble with the law. Objective conditions of structural inconsistency, common in low socioeconomic positions, can lead to normlessness. The results presented here show that the association of normlessn...
Chapter
Some conditions rob people of control over their own lives. Joblessness, dependency, alienated labor, victimization, disadvantage, and disorder ingrain a sense of powerlessness and mistrust that demoralizes and distresses. The most destructive situations hide from people in them the fact that everyone has a choice. However threatening or constricti...
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Education’s positive effect on health gets larger as people age. The large socioeconomic differences in health among older Americans mostly accrue earlier in adulthood on gradients set by educational attainment. Education develops abilities that help individuals gain control of their own lives, encouraging and enabling a healthy life. The health-re...
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Education forms a unique dimension of social status with qualities that make it especially important to health. Educational attainment marks social status at the beginning of adulthood, functioning as the main bridge between the status of one generation and the next, and also as the main avenue of upward mobility. It precedes the other achieved soc...
Article
How do neighborhoods affect the health of residents? We propose that the impact of neighborhood disorder on self-reported health is mediated by psychological and physiological distress. We hypothesize a stress process in which chronic stressors in the environment give rise to a psychological and physiological stress response that ultimately affects...
Article
This paper reviews survey research explaining the social patterns of distress. There are four basic patterns: (a) The higher one's social status the lower one's distress; (b) women are more distressed than men; (c) married persons are less distressed than unmarried persons, and; (d) the greater the number of undesirable events in one's life the gre...
Article
Do supportive personal relationships increase subjective life expectancy? The objective existence of family relationships and the subjective sense of having someone to call on in need may increase the length of life a person expects by creating assurance about the future, by reinforcing healthy habits, and by improving current health. Using the 199...
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Does life in the city foster mistrust of others? This study tests four connected hypotheses about urban mistrust by comparing the City of Chicago to suburbs, small cities, towns, and rural areas. The Urban Mistrust Hypothesis is that urban residents are more mistrusting than residents of places outside the city. The Neighborhood Disadvantage Hypoth...
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This paper argues a number of points about measurement in the sociology of mental health: (1) measurement is critical, (2) measures should represent and assess elements of human experience, taking measure of life as people feel it, sense it, and understand it, and (3) social scientists should create a human science, producing information for the pe...
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The theory of personal control predicts that women have a lower sense of control than men, but the evidence is equivocal. Inconsistencies in research results suggest that women's sense of control is lower than men's under some conditions, but not others. We hypothesize that the gender gap in perceived control is greater for older persons than for y...
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This study tests the hypothesis that the correlation between current depression and parenthood depends on the age at first birth for adults. An early first birth suggests a poor start in life. It may reflect a disordered transition from adolescence into adulthood and may itself disrupt that transition, with life long consequences that influence emo...
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We examine the question of whether living in a disadvantaged neighborhood damages health, over and above the impact of personal socioeconomic characteristics. We hypothesize that (1) health correlates negatively with neighborhood disadvantage adjusting for personal disadvantage, and that (2) neighborhood disorder mediates the association, (3) partl...
Article
The objective of this research is to see whether characteristics of the neighborhood in which a person lives influence the likelihood of having a gun in the household. I use my 1995 “Community, Crime and Health” multilevel data set, a survey of a probability sample of 2,482 Illinois adults with linked census information on the respondent's census t...
Article
A theory of trust is developed and tested. The theory posits that mistrust develops in neighborhoods where resources are scarce and threat is common, and among individuals with few resources and who feel powerless to avoid or manage the threat. Perceived neighborhood disorder, common in disadvantaged neighborhoods where disadvantaged individuals li...
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The amount of depression associated with economic hardship among adults may depend on age. This study tests alternative hypotheses about the interaction. The first asserts that the amount of depression associated with economic hardship decreases with older age because of maturity and experience. The second, the opposite, asserts that the amount inc...
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This article proposes that academic achievement boosts self-esteem and the sense of personal control, but that only the latter influences subsequent academic achievement. Most previous research on adolescent self-concept has included self-esteem or, less commonly, the sense of personal control, but not both. Using three waves of panel data from the...
Article
Does occupation-level information reflect what people actually do at work and thus influence individuals? I examine whether there is an effect of occupation-level complexity on individuals' sense of personal control, and if there is, whether the effect is a proxy for the actual work people do on their jobs. I analyze a national probability sample o...
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This paper proposes that individuals who report that they live in neighborhoods characterized by disorder--by crime, vandalism, graffiti, danger, noise, dirt, and drugs--have high levels of fear and mistrust. It further proposes that an individual's alliances and connections with neighbors can buffer the negative effects of living in a neighborhood...
Article
Neighborhood context could affect health behaviors because of structure or contagion. We expected that residents of US neighborhoods where a high percentage of residents are poor and do not have college degrees would be more likely to smoke and less likely to walk and exercise. We examined the hypotheses using multi-level data in which survey infor...
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According to a cohesiveness perspective, neighborhood stability is good for communities and the individuals who live in them, and may be especially beneficial in poor neighborhoods. In contrast, a social isolation perspective proposes that neighborhood stability has negative effects on residents' psychological well-being in economically disadvantag...
Article
This paper proposes that individuals who report that they live in neighborhoods characterized by disorder—by crime, vandalism, graffiti, danger, noise, dirt, and drugs—have high levels of fear and mistrust. It further proposes that an individual's alliances and connections with neighbors can buffer the negative effects of living in a neighborhood c...
Article
This study tests the hypothesis that American adults expect longer lives, the higher their achieved socioeconomic status. It maps the relationship in a 1995 national sample of 2,037 Americans ages 18 through 95. We find that each additional year of education increases the predicted subjective life expectancy by about .7 years. Adults currently in s...
Article
Using multilevel data, I find that residents of poor, mother-only neighborhoods have higher levels of depression than residents of more advantaged neighborhoods. My data are from the 1995 Community, Crime and Health survey, a prob-ability sample of 2,482 adults in Illinois with linked information about the respondents ' census tract. Adjustment for...
Article
Both access to insurance and health itself vary widely by socioeconomic status (SES). Are socioeconomic variations in health linked to insurance coverage or to factors that lie outside the medical care arena? Data from the Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control Survey were the basis of a representative U.S. national telephone survey conducted in 1...
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We refine the established association between education and health by distinguishing three aspects of a person's education (quantity, credential, and selectivity) and by examining the mechanisms through which they may correlate with health. Data are from the 1995 Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control Survey, a representative U.S. national telepho...
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We examine the association between adult depression and childhood parental divorce, and the explanations for this association, using a representative national sample of 2,592 adults interviewed by telephone in 1995. Parental divorce may disrupt the life course, with lifelong consequences for adult well-being in two ways: lowered socioeconomic statu...
Article
We test two hypotheses about the relationship between age and reported difficulty paying bills or buying things the family needs, such as food, clothing, medicine, and medical care. The affluence-trajectory hypothesis follows from age-group differences in income, income per capita, and official poverty, suggesting that economic hardship declines in...
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This study tests the hypothesis that the high sense of personal control enjoyed by adult Americans develops during the transition to adulthood. Analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which interviewed respondents in 1979 who were between the ages of 14 and 22 and again in 1992 when they were between 27 and 35. Cros...
Article
This chapter is organized according to 3 main issues relating to the sense of personal control: (1) concept and measurement, (2) social-structural causes, and (3) emotional consequences. In the 1st section, we discuss concepts and measures related to personal control, including locus of control, self-efficacy, helplessness, and subjective alienatio...
Chapter
Some people attribute the events and conditions of their lives to their own actions, whereas others believe their lives are shaped by forces external to themselves, such as luck, chance, fate, or powerful others. The sense of personal control is the belief that you can and do master, control, and shape your own life. Its opposite is the sense of pe...
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The authors develop and assess a scale of perceived neighborhood disorder. The scale of neighborhood disorder has high reliability, external validity, and shows interesting distinctions, and overlaps between physical and social disorder. It also shows that order and disorder are two ends of a single continuum.
Article
We compare retirement with full-time employment on four forms of engaging activity and examine the consequences of retirement activities for the sense of control and psychological distress. We use a 1995 U.S. national telephone probability sample of 2,592 respondents with an oversample of persons aged sixty and older. In comparison to the activitie...
Article
Using data from the 1995 survey of Community, Crime and Health, a representative sample of 2,482 adults in Illinois age 18 to 92 (with linked data on respondents' census tracts), we find that urban residence is associated with perceived powerlessness. Most of the effect, however, is due to the sociodemographic characteristics of people living in th...
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This article examines gender differences in four dimensions of work alienation—routine, nonautonomous, estranged, and isolated work—and the ways in which work alienation shapes subjective alienation, measured as the sense of powerlessness versus control. It is expected that women's work is more objectively alienating than men's, that these work cha...
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The concept of human capital implies that education improves health because it increases effective agency. We propose that education's positive effects extend beyond jobs and earnings. Through education, individuals gain the ability to be effective agents in their own lives. Education improves physical functioning and self-reported health because i...
Article
The relationship between the sense of personal control and psychological well-being is well established, but this association may be specific to Western cultures. In this study we examine the relationship between Asian culture and the sense of personal control, and the impact of perceived control on depression and anxiety among Asians and non-Asian...
Article
Stratification research has established education's critical role in the intergenerational transmission of parental socioeconomic status to adult work and economic status. However, almost no research examines the intergenerational processed by which socioeconomic origins affect adult physical and psychological well-being. Furthermore, stratificatio...
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We examine whether education influences subjective quality of life. If it does, what are the mechanisms by which education affects well-being? We propose that education improves well-being because it increases access to nonalienated paid work and economic resources that increase the sense of control over life, as well as access to stable social rel...
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This paper analyzes the relationship between the sense of control over one's own life and the belief that most Americans control their lives and create their own good or bad outcomes. We analyze the effects of four aspects of stratification: an ascribed status (race), achieved statuses of differing stability (education and household income). and re...
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Fundamental analysis defines the basic terms of social and behavioral research. It usually follows the rule "one concept to a measure." However, some responses inherently reflect more than one underlying attribute, as when a test score reflects both knowledge of the subject and practice with taking tests. The standard methods of fundamental analysi...
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Perhaps women earn less than do men because they get other rewards. We examine interpersonal work rewards as potential alternatives to economic rewards. The theory of compensating differentials suggests that the subjective utility (measured as psychological well-being and personal control) of earnings is greater for men whereas that of interpersona...
Article
We examine how gender inequality in the family affects anger. A sociological model of distress predicts that conditions of inequality and disadvantage result in higher levels of all types of distress. However, most research on gender and parenthood has measured distress with depression and anxiety. Theoretically, anger results from perceptions of s...
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Employment correlates positively with health, but is employment cause or consequence? The social causation hypothesis says that employment improves the health of men and women. The selection hypothesis says that healthy people get and keep jobs more than unhealthy people do. We test both hypotheses using longitudinal data from a national probabilit...
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Women report greater distress than men, but do women genuinely experience greater distress, suggesting a heavier burden of hardship and constraint? Or do they merely report the feelings in standard indexes more frequently? Perhaps women discuss their emotions more freely. Or perhaps the indexes tap "feminine" emotions such as depression rather than...
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A representative national sample of 2,031 adults aged 18 to 90 was interviewed by telephone in 1990. Results showed that men report better health than women, but that the gap closes with age. We argue that a gender difference in labor and lifestyles explains sex differences in perceived health across the life course: gender inequality in paid and u...
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Is being overweight distressing? If it is, is the distress due to negative appraisals by others, to the stresses of trying to fit norms of thinness by dieting, or to the health consequences of being overweight? If being overweight is stigmatizing, negative evaluations by others may be internalized as high levels of depression. This perspective pred...
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Keeping house is still the primary activity of many women at some point in their lives. In fact, houseworker would be the single largest occupation if it were counted as such. Using a national representative sample of 2,031 adults aged 18 to 90, we compare housework and family care as a primary activity with paid work, and also with volunteer work,...
Article
Fear of victimization may have consequences for subjective well-being. I develop and test a model linking fear of victimization to subjective health. I hypothesize that two processes link fear to subjective health-psychological and behavioral. Specifically, I hypothesize that fear of victimization increases psychological distress, and fear decrease...
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In this study, the relationship between age and depression is analyzed, looking for effects of maturity, decline, life-cycle stage, survival, and historical trend. The data are from a 1990 sample of 2,031 U.S. adults and a 1985 sample of 809 Illinois adults. The results show that depression reaches its lowest level in the middle aged, at about age...
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This paper investigates how the combination of job and household circumstances modifies the association between employment and the sense of control over one's life. Data are from a 1985 sample of 809 Illinois adults. The average sense of control is greater among people with paying jobs than among those without. The difference increases with greater...
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The well educated are more likely than the poorly educated to engage in work that provides control over one's own work, control over people, and control over money, yet the total effect of education on job satisfaction is null. Using a representative sample of 557 Illinois workers interviewed by telephone in 1982, we find that education increases e...
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How does marriage affect the sense of control of men and women? Most research on the social determinants of personal control has examined the effects of socioeconomic status and paid work, not the effects of marriage and family. There are three perspectives on the ways in which marriage affects the sense of control: marriage as a social and economi...
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Defensiveness and a tendency to agree bias findings based on unbalanced measures of the sense of control. A comprehensive model shows the defense bias introduced by not balancing the number of statements about good and bad outcomes and the agreement bias introduced by not balancing the number of internal (instrumental) and external (fatalistic) sta...
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How does the family affect the health of its adult members? It is in the family that the macro-level social and economic order affects individual physical and emotional well-being. This review presents a general model of understanding family and health that describes patterns of well-being, and then asks, "what explains these patterns?" Explanation...
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People may attribute their success in life to their own hard work and ability or to forces external to themselves like luck, chance, God, or other people. These attributions have social causes and emotional consequences (Seeman 1959; Wheaton 1980). Theory and research indicate that belief in personal control is associated with low levels of psychol...
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According to the consolation-prize theory of alienation, low-status people feel less distressed by their situation when they reject responsibility for outcomes in their own lives. Recent evidence suggests this is false. Studies do not find that blaming chance, fate, or powerful others reduces the distress associated with low status. Failure to conf...
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Defense theory holds that defensive illusions guard well-being. People supposedly are least depressed if they claim responsibility for good outcomes and deny responsibility for bad ones. Control theory states that active, effective problem solving builds well-being; thus a sense of personal control and responsibility for both success and failure is...
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We expect that mothers vary in the degree to which they perceive their children as burdensome, and that this variation may help explain why past research on the effect of children on mothers' psychological distress often finds insignificant or inconsistent effects: mothers who feel their children are a burden may have high distress levels compared...
Chapter
How do macrolevel social changes affect individual well-being and distress? Specifically, how do lags—situations in which one change lags behind another—affect individuals? Women’s labor force participation is changing much faster than the household division of labor. This means that many women are employed, yet solely responsible for the housework...
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Research on the social patterns of depression in the community finds consistently that high levels of education and income, being male, and being married are associated with lower levels of depression. We attempt to explain these patterns as the result of two essential social perceptions: the sense of controlling one's own life rather than being at...
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Throughout the 1980s, psychiatry has promoted diagnosis--with its language of categories--as the preeminent measure of psychological problems. In clinical psychiatry, the decade opened with the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III (DSM-III). In psychiatric epidemiology, the decade saw the development of the D...
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The roles of mother and employee can be incompatible, producing role strain, or they can be integrated. The effect of a wife's employment status on psychological well-being depends on the presence of children, the type of child care available, the difficulty of arranging child care, and the husband's participation in child care. In a national proba...
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In a representative sample of 401 adults in Illinois in 1984, the authors found that increased participation in exercise, sports, and physical activities is associated with improved psychologic well-being. Part of this association is through improved subjective physical health. The authors controlled for potentially confounding factors, including s...

Citations

... Territoriality attempts to inform the public that the built environment is well maintained and cared for to promote and transmit a positive image. The positive image has a potential effect on the fear of crime and crime itself (see Kraut, 1999;Newman, 1973;Perlgut, 1983;Ross & Jang, 2000;Ross & Mirowsky, 1999;Wilson & Kelling, 1982). Respondents often did not select areas that looked well-maintained, frequently stating that it Territoriality may encourage residents to care and even want to defend their environment (Newman, 1972). ...
... Psychological distress is a nonspecific mental health issue that is typically characterized by the symptoms of depression and anxiety; however, it can also involve other negative affective states, including anger, guilt, grief, and loneliness (Drapeau, Marchand, and Beaulieu-Prévost, 2012;Mirowsky and Ross, 2003). While psychological distress may resolve without professional support, there are times when people experiencing psychological distress may benefit from professional support delivered by formally trained mental health professionals (Sareen et al., 2013). ...
... It primarily entails physical protection from hazards, which may ordinarily be regarded as shelter, but it also serves as the setting for many of the fundamental biological and social processes required to sustain life. Overall, housing, as a component of man's environment, has a significant impact on the community's health, social behavior, satisfaction, and overall well-being (Mirowsky, & Ross, 2017). As the best physical and historical evidence of civilization in a country, it reflects a society's cultural, social, and economic values (Currie, 2019). ...
... Occupational status is one of the important factors to be considered when choosing an occupation (Fershtman et al., 1996) because it symbolises the relative prestige, honour, standing, and esteem of any individual's occupation (Mirowsky & Ross, 2003). The valuable contributions by the scholar of status in understanding entrepreneurial phenomena (Milanov, 2015) may be more helpful for the Ministry of Education Malaysia's (MoE's) to achieve their objective in encouraging university graduates to become entrepreneurs (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2019). ...
... Szczególnie istotna z punktu widzenia analizy cyklu lub biegu życia jest wyraźnie dostrzegalna korelacja dodatnia między zamożnością indywidualną a stanem zdrowia (Martinson 2012). Na stan zdrowia społeczeństwa wpływa także poziom wykształcenia: im jest on wyższy, tym ludzie żyją przeciętnie dłużej oraz dłużej w zdrowiu (Mirowsky, Ross 2003;Schuller i in. 2004;Clark, Royer 2013), przy czym większa korelacja między poziomem wykształcenia a stanem zdrowia jest odnotowywana wśród kobiet. ...
... Never having smoked was positively associated with education level among Pakistani and Norwegian men [33]. Education improves physical functioning and self-reported health because it enhances a sense of personal control that encourages and enables a healthy life style such as regular walking, exercising, drinking moderately, avoiding being overweight and smoking [34]. Education enables people to coalesce health producing behaviors into a coherent life style. ...
... 26 Although marriage may not necessarily militate against the onset of mental illness in partners, meaningful spousal support may promote resilience and could present as a potential protective factor against mental health challenges among persons in marital relationships. 27 For PLHIV, having a supportive spouse is critical to promoting resilience in the face of mental health challenges. 28 The key finding that PLHIV without formal education (compared to those with tertiary education) are at increased odds of experien- ...
... Sebbene le condizioni socioeconomiche sembrino avere l'influenza maggiore nell'orientare i comportamenti di salute, va necessariamente riconosciuto che vi sono una serie di altri importanti fattori sociali. Ad esempio, gli stili di vita salutari possono essere influenzati dall'età (Burdette et al. 2017;Jones et al. 2011;Lawrence et al. 2017;Mize, 2017;Mollborn, Lawrence, 2018;Mollborn et al. 2014), dal genere (Cockerham, 2005;2013b;Flood, Moen, 2015), dalla razza (Cockerham et al. 2017), dalla religione (Hill et al. 2007) e dallo stato civile (Ross, Hill, Mirowsky, 2016). ...
... Inmate accounts of feelings of powerlessness are a key measure used to assess the relationship between upstream factors and the quality of death row inmate mental health. Powerlessness is defined by Seeman (2001) as "the expectancy or perception that one's own behavior cannot control the occurrence of personal and social outcomes" (p. 385). ...
... Furthermore, past research has shown that these demographic factors are related to several key variables in the present study. For example, aspects of SES such as education or income have been associated with endorsement of gun control (e.g., Celinska, 2007;Kleck, 1996), Republican preference (e.g., Fay, 2012;Schmidt, Shelley, Bardes, & Ford, 2014), and rates of gun ownership (e.g., Ross, 2001;Smith, 2001). Being white also has been associated with lower endorsement of gun control (e.g., Celinska, 2007;Pew Research Center, 2010), Republican preference (e.g., Fay, 2012;Pew Research Center, 2010), and higher rates of gun ownership (e.g., Dixon & Lizotte, 1987;Silver, 2012). ...