Caroline Buts's research while affiliated with Vrije Universiteit Brussel and other places

Publications (43)

Article
Understanding the application of economic analysis methods in merger reviews across various jurisdictions can benefit antitrust authorities when reviewing cases and aid the legal and economic teams that work with merging parties in better anticipating concerns and outcomes. The comparative studies on economic analysis methods applied in merger case...
Article
The case study methodology has proved to be a useful empirical tool for competition policy evaluation. However, as far as China’s Fair Competition Review System (FCRS) is concerned, empirical studies are scarce. This article aims to partly fill this gap by thoroughly studying the first litigation case in light of three questions: (1) does China’s F...
Article
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This article discusses the effects of the changing (hybrid) conflict environment on the burden sharing debate. We discuss the actions taken by both the alliance as the member states in repelling these threats, arguing that this mainly produces security outputs that are private or impure public. As the burden sharing literature currently lacks notio...
Article
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Revisionist actors are increasingly operationalising a broad number of non-violent threats in their quest to change the status quo, popularly described as hybrid conflict. From a defensive point of view, this proliferation of threats compels nations to make difficult choices in terms of force posture and composition. We examine the choice process a...
Conference Paper
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This essay makes a conceptual contribution to the understanding of the great power rivalry between the United States and China with respect to Artificial Intelligence. A new concept referred to as General Technology Races is defined. General Technology Races arise as the result of a confluence of an emerging General Purpose Technology and great pow...
Article
For decades, the concept of deterrence and the fear for nuclear confrontation withheld large powers from waging aggression against each other. Recent technological developments and the growing interconnectedness however allowed some states to find ways to challenge the West by using so called ‘hybrid threats’. This way of waging war entails the syn...
Article
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As the amount of regulation continues to increase and private security firms play a more and more vital role in a modern society’s security, policy makers and practitioners acknowledge the need for sound research. Moreover, studying regulation and private security industry dynamics can enable a better alignment of regulation to its objectives, name...
Article
The implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation within the European Union intensifies regulatory requirements in terms of data protection for Smart City services. In particular, the mandatory Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) process constitutes a complex managerial challenge. To reduce the complexity, this study develops a typo...
Article
The case study constitutes an important methodology in academic research, also in the field of competition policy. However, to the best of our knowledge, an elaborate review on how the case study method is applied in competition policy research is still missing. In response, this article presents a systematic literature review that comprehensively...
Article
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This article quantifies the level of regulation for the private security industry in the European Union. Departing from previous studies that offer only snapshots of regulation, our research presents a yearly quantification of regulation for every EU Member State from 1931 to 2018 (i.e. 2464 observations). The outcome is based on 17 aspects of coun...
Article
The European arms industry is challenged by several adverse “headwinds.” Fragmentation leads to costly duplications and, in conjunction with stagnating budgets and sharply increasing costs, prevents firms from exploiting economies of scale and learning. This is exacerbated by size differentials vis-a-vis the leading US arms manufacturers and compet...
Article
Despite considerable restructuring since the end of the Cold War, the European armoured vehicle industry remains largely fragmented along national lines. As stagnating domestic budgets, rising R&D and production costs and the limits of export-focused industrial strategies provide an economic imperative for further consolidation, the merger of Nexte...
Article
While several past studies have measured the impact of standards on indicators such as output and productivity for a variety of countries, a quantitative analysis that focuses on Belgium has not been performed yet. Based on a dataset containing sector level data spanning 25 years (1994-2018), the authors find that, next to capital investment and th...
Article
The flow of foreign fighters leaving for Iraq and the Syrian Arab Republic has slowed, but they often still pose a serious threat, either by encouraging others toward violence or by directly assisting themselves in a terrorist attack after their return. This article studies the effect of a country’s active involvement in a conflict zone on the flow...
Article
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The body bag syndrome is often described as a casualty aversion that decreases public support of participation in military missions. As policymakers believe in the body bag syndrome, they may adapt their foreign policy accordingly, leading to reduced willingness to supply personnel. This article seeks empirical evidence for the existence of the bod...
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The determinants of military deployment have been extensively discussed in the literature. Empirical studies indicate that, next to the international security arena, also domestic socio-economic variables play an important role. For example, wealth and size of the supplying nation tend to positively influence the number of military troops being dep...
Article
Extant literature documents a relationship between military deployment and the risk of an international terrorist attack against citizens of the deploying country. It appears that deployment significantly increases the possibility of terrorist actions in the home country. In particular, if country A decides to send troops to nation B, then citizens...
Article
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Analysing the relationship between the provision of military support and the probability of becoming the target of a terrorist attack, this paper contributes to the literature on the causes of transnational terrorism. We find that deployment of military troops of country X in country Y increases the probability of a terrorist attack on citizens of...
Article
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For the first time, the determinants of a country's success at the Paralympic Games are studied, using data from four editions, starting in 1996. By means of a tobit panel, the authors find that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, population, having many participants per million inhabitants, being a former communist country, hosting the Paraly...
Article
This paper empirically investigates the impact of fixed asset subsidies to firms on market shares. By means of a tobit regression on a sample of over 13 000 Belgian firms we find a significant and positive joint influence of all fixed asset subsidies on market shares, acknowledging that this is not the objective of the subsidies. This effect only b...
Article
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Despite an international consensus on the importance to limit State aid spending, large amounts of resources are still devoted to a wide variety of subsidies to firms. A sizable literature studies the relationship between general government spending and the proximity of elections, mostly documenting a positive link. In addition, other studies verif...
Article
Within the European Union, Member States are not free to act at will with regard to State aid. There is a set of rules in place, limiting their autonomy in this field in order to ensure fair and effective competition within the single market. Nevertheless, considerable resources are still spent on subsidies, which are a substantial part of State ai...
Article
We study whether the European Commission’s State aid decisions are in line with the goals of the State Aid Action Plan (2005–2009). Next, we explore the determinants of these decisions using data for 2007 on 600 cases. We find by means of logit and probit regressions that authorization is more likely when notification took place recently. Furthermo...

Citations

... There are two papers that present methodological innovations. Balcaen, Du Bois and Buts [3] use prospect theory to study the uncertainty of conflicts between a State challenger and a defender. The article raises awareness with regard to cognitive bias associated with conflict choices. ...
... However, nations may take defence policy decisions whose effects may not be proportional to their costs, and whose costs may not be fully captured in defence budgets. When considering hybrid threats, for example, Balcaen, Du Bois, and Buts (2021) similarly conclude that 'aggregate military expenditures no longer suffice to provide [a] comprehensive assessment'. ...
... The need to deal with a broad range of threats creates, given a budgetary constraint, a choice dilemma. These dynamics have been demonstrated from a game-theoretic perspective by Balcaen, Du Bois, and Buts (Balcaen, et al., 2021a powers force their counterparts to maintain a (costly) level of conventional and nuclear deterrence by playing a signalling game, maintaining a reputation of toughness by organising missile tests and large-scale exercises. This diverts attention away from other resources required to respond to hybrid threats that are simultaneously being launched. ...
... The tests include the usual independent control variables, including economic, political and social characteristics, based on the extant literature from for example Benmelech & Klor (2020), Burgat (2017) and Du Bois & Buts (2019). We first include GDP per capita (The World Bank) to control for prosperity and economic development, as we could expect that poorer regions offer less future prospects and a resulting higher chance of radicalisation. ...
... Available figures are complicated by changes to licensing requirements and by the narrow definitions of security work adopted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Some indication of growth is apparent, however, from Victorian figures, which show that between 1980 and 1990 the number of licensed security firms and security guards almost doubled and the number of inquiry agents tripled (Frost 1991). In marked contrast, ABS labour force estimates for "guards and security officers" show only a slight increase between 1994 and 1998-from approximately 31,000 to 32,750 (ABS 1998a). ...
... In case an envisaged data processing activity is anticipated to pose ' signifi cant risks to the fundamental rights and freedoms of data subjects ' a DPIA is to be performed. 17 Following Vandercruysse, Buts, and Dooms (2020) a SC service would constitute ' a solution to a societal demand based on technology that interacts with the physical world, where data collection and data use are central and several stakeholders, both public and private, are involved. ' 18 Th is defi nition includes large-scale, systematic monitoring of public space, which is explicitly mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article 35 as a processing requiring a DPIA. ...
... The progress of the research on conceptualizing smart-city services has led to development of more fine-grained typologies, e.g., those based on data-protection dimensions, enabling the clustering of services based on data-protection needs. This encompasses the evaluation of various related criteria such as the number of data streams, data ownership, number of use cases, privacy invasiveness, and ease of scrutinizing the service [71]. ...
... Shrinking national defence budgets after the Cold War and the resulting worldwide concentration undoubtedly shaped the creation of EADS as an instance of integrating defence production at the European level. However, these demand conditions also existed in numerous other defence-related domains, such as land systems and ship-building, where comparable mergers did not occur (Kleczka et al., 2020;Schmitt, 2000). Apparently, such a strong demand for integration is not always supplied (Genschel & Jachtenfuchs, 2018, p. 179). ...
... The present research therefore proposes a framework to bridge the theoretical and actual smart city concept (Christofi et al., 2019). It introduces a connecting tool, highlighting areas of action and key elements needed for a comprehensive city vision. ...
... To satisfy the human need for the sense of security, there has been an increase in demand for services traditionally provided by state authorities, primarily the police Janković and Cvetković, 2020). Resulting from the inability to meet all citizens' requests and needs, a part of the responsibility is transferred from the police to the private security (Scheerlinck et al. 2019). Although traditionally in charge of ensuring public safety, the police cannot achieve a satisfactory level of public safety independently without cooperating with other state authorities, and with the private security industry. ...