Carol F. Kwiatkowski's research while affiliated with North Carolina State University and other places

Publications (23)

Article
Full-text available
Background Widespread environmental contamination can directly interact with human immune system functions. Environmental effects on the immune system may influence human susceptibility to respiratory infections as well as the severity of infectious diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, the...
Article
Background: To date, the toxicity of organophosphate esters has primarily been studied regarding their use as pesticides and their effects on the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Currently, flame retardants and plasticizers are the two largest market segments for organophosphate esters and they are found in a wide variety of products,...
Article
Full-text available
Background There are several standards that offer explicit guidance on good practice in systematic reviews (SRs) for the medical sciences; however, no similarly comprehensive set of recommendations has been published for SRs that focus on human health risks posed by exposure to environmental challenges, chemical or otherwise. Objectives To develop...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary presents a scientific basis for managing as one chemical class the thousands of chemicals known as PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances). The class includes perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluoroalkylether acids, and their precursors; fluoropolymers and perfluoropolyethers; and other PFAS. The basis for the class approach is presented...
Article
Full-text available
Food packaging is of high societal value because it conserves and protects food, makes food transportable and conveys information to consumers. It is also relevant for marketing, which is of economic significance. Other types of food contact articles, such as storage containers, processing equipment and filling lines, are also important for food pr...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, onshore oil and gas extraction operations generate an estimated 900 billion gallons of produced water annually, making it the largest waste stream associated with upstream development of petroleum hydrocarbons. Management and disposal practices of produced water vary from deep well injection to reuse of produced water in agric...
Article
Background Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) confer waterproof, greaseproof, and non-stick properties when added to consumer products. They are also used for industrial purposes including in aqueous film forming foams for firefighting. PFAS are ubiquitous in the environment, are widely detected in human biomonitoring studies, and are of gr...
Article
Background: Estimates of autism prevalence have increased dramatically over the past two decades. Evidence suggests environmental factors may contribute to the etiology of the disorder. Objectives: This scoping review aimed to identify and categorize primary research and reviews on the association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the last decade unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction has rapidly proliferated throughout the United States (US) and the world. This occurred largely because of the development of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing which allows access to fossil fuels from geologic formations that were previously not cost effective t...
Article
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environ...
Article
Full-text available
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent used in personal care products. Although frequently studied with another antimicrobial, triclosan, it is not as well researched, and there are very few reviews of the biological activity of TCC. TCC has been shown to be a possible endocrine disruptor, acting by enhancing the activity of endogenous hormon...
Article
Melamine is commonly used in a variety of consumer products such as furniture, dining ware, and food utensils. The chemical infamously gained worldwide attention by its illegal addition to a variety of foodstuffs in order to falsify protein content, which led to serious, sometimes fatal, health impacts in children and pets. This resulted in a large...
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of common persistent environmental pollutants found in water, air, soil, and plants and can be released by natural sources. However, the majority of atmospheric PAHs are from vehicular emissions, coal-burning plants, and the production and use of petroleum-derived substances. Exposure to PAHs has...
Article
Full-text available
For nearly 30 years, Dr. Theo Colborn (1927–2014) dedicated herself to studying the harmful effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, humans, and the environment. More recently, she extended this effort to address the health impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Colborn was a visionary leader who excelled at synthesizing s...
Article
Full-text available
Children in America today are at an unacceptably high risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the brain and nervous system including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disabilities, and other learning and behavioral disabilities. These are complex disorders with multiple causes—genetic, social, and en...
Article
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are retrieved during fossil fuel extraction and used as solvents in consumer and industrial products, as gasoline additives, and as intermediates in the synthesis of organic compounds for many consumer products. Emissions from the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels are the largest contributors...
Article
This exploratory study was designed to assess air quality in a rural western Colorado area where residences and gas wells co-exist. Sampling was conducted before, during, and after drilling and hydraulic fracturing of a new natural gas well pad. Weekly air sampling for 1 year revealed that the number of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their co...
Article
The technology to recover natural gas depends on undisclosed types and amounts of toxic chemicals. A list of 944 products containing 632 chemicals used during natural gas operations was compiled. Literature searches were conducted to determine potential health effects of the 353 chemicals identified by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers. More...

Citations

... Ingestion in the diet is considered a potential major pathway for human exposure to OPEs (Zhang et al. 2016). Some studies indicate that components of OPEs have significant biological effects including kidney toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity (Patisaul et al. 2021;Wang et al. 2022). For example, tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) cause developmental toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and other detrimental effects in fish, animals, and humans (Bekele et al. 2021; van der Veen and Boer 2012). ...
... 26 The levels of TFA reported in blood samples in China suggests either high levels of direct ingestion, or metabolic breakdown of one or more unknown longer chain PFAS and deserves further investigation. Kwiatkowski et al. 30 claim that TFA can cause severe skin burns and eye damage as well as harm to aquatic life with long-lasting effects. Environmental impact assessments need to consider the relevant environmental concentrations. ...
... We then systematically summarized the existing relevant mechanisms. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in accordance with the COSTER recommendations (22). ...
... An assessment of the available alternatives in the market is given in Table 2. The short chain fluorinated compounds have the potential to cause adverse effects to human health and environment similar to those of the long chain ones, which may lead to replacing these chemicals in the long run [35,36]. The non-fluorinated alternatives show only water repellent properties. ...
... Polystyrene absorbs persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons more extensively than other plastic polymers [25]. When used as plates, cups, and food packaging materials, food contact chemicals may transfer into food and be ingested by humans [26,27], and they are prone to weathering and resistant to biodegradation [24,28]. Currently, there are few studies on the adverse effects of microplastics on terrestrial mammals, as most studies are focused on aquatic organisms despite the ubiquitous presence of microplastics in the terrestrial environment [29,30]. ...
... For example, only limited information is available on constituents contained in FP water. Danforth et al. (2020) reported on a framework to identify potential constituents (such as Benzo(a)pyrene, Tetrachloroethylene, Decane, Acetic acid, Toluene, among others) of concern in FP water to better prioritize monitoring, treatment, and research to understand the risks associated with FP reuse [55]. ...
... They have been used in the coating of paper food packaging, and therefore can be incorporated into PPMS where recycled paper products are used as a feedstock (Wiegand, 2021). PFAS are a family of >4700 persistent chemicals which are a growing human health concern because of their accumulation in plant and human tissue and evidence of their possible links with multiple health effects including hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in kidneys, increased chronic kidney disease, kidney cancer, and testicular cancer (Costello and Lee, 2020;Kirk et al., 2018;Pelch et al., 2019). Sewage biosolids are known to be a potential source of PFAS, with concentrations up to 2615 μg/kg having been reported for PFOS in digested sludge (Jensen et al., 2012). ...
... Regarding the environment, the cumulative stress hypothesis proposes that vulnerability for a given condition, such as ASD [7], is enhanced if adversities accumulate during early life [8]. Within the three-hit concept [9], another generic etiological model, cumulative early life stress is considered a second hit, subsequent to genetic predisposition (first hit) and followed by later-life environment (third hit), with evidence for this model applying in ASD so far found in animal studies [10][11][12]. According to the dimensional model of ASD [13], these underlying genetic and environmental factors are assumed to form a continuous distribution of liability to a categorical outcome, such as a diagnosis of ASD [14]. ...
... Several studies indicate that maternal exposure to OGM hazards affects women's physical and/or mental health, pre-conception germ cells and hormones, and foetal development [38][39][40][41]. In fact, there have been limited but concerning reports that women employed in OGM industry may experience abnormal menstruation, congenital malformation, pregnancy complications, miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labour, low birth weight, birth defects and other gynaecological inflammation and hyperplasia [23,[41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
... The epigenetic effects are induced by exposure to certain substances during the embryonic period (occurring due to disorders related to the genetic expression of genes instilled in DNA), resulting in alterations in the individual's metabolism, hormonal processes, and homeostasis. They may persist throughout life [4,6,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...