Carme Borrell's research while affiliated with University Pompeu Fabra and other places

Publications (632)

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Energy poverty (EP) is becoming an increasingly important problem in the urban contexts of southern Europe. In Barcelona, EP indicators are higher than those of the European Union and are strongly associated with poor health status and high use of health services and medication, becoming a major public health problem. EP is unevenly distributed in...
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Background Municipalities are important actors in the implementation of policies to tackle health inequalities, which requires political will, the availability of financial support, and technical and human resources. With the aim of aligning with local government political priorities, in 2017 the Barcelona Public Health Agency (Agència de Salut Púb...
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Background and aims Urban green space has many health benefits, but it is still unclear how much actually is needed for better health. Recently a new 3-30-300 rule of thumb for urban forestry and urban greening has been proposed, but this rule has not been evaluated for benefits on health. The rule requires that every citizen should be able to see...
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To raise awareness about health inequalities, a well-functioning health inequality monitoring system (HIMS) is crucial. Drawing on work conducted under the Joint Action Health Equity Europe, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses in current health inequality monitoring based on lessons learned from 12 European countries...
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Objective Obtaining reliable health estimates at the small area level (such as neighbourhoods) using survey data usually poses the problem of small sample sizes. To overcome this limitation, we explored smoothing techniques in order to estimate poor mental health prevalence at the neighbourhood level and analyse its profile by income in Barcelona c...
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While the adverse effects of housing insecurity on mental health are known, much less is known about the modifiers underlying these effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the mental health of people with housing insecurity by housing tenure and considering the coexistence of other life insecurities (energy poverty and food insecurity). We co...
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Objective To analyse the gap in life expectancy by educational level in the city of Barcelona from 2004 to 2018 and to decompose this gap by age and causes of death. Method We computed abridged life tables at the age of 25 years by sex from 2004 to 2018 using standard methods. Educational level was categorised in two groups (lower secondary or les...
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Gender and its power relations are produced and reproduced in the housing sphere, leading to inequalities in living conditions and, therefore, in gender inequalities in health outcomes. The aim of the study is to review the published literature on gender, housing and health, to critically evaluate the incorporation of the gender perspective, and to...
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Background Spain has been hit hard by COVID-19 since March 2020, especially in its metropolitan areas. We share experiences from Barcelona in measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of COVID-19 in the different waves, and in implementing coordinated and equity-oriented public health policy responses. Methods We collected daily data o...
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Resumen La pandemia de COVID-19 ha mostrado su carácter sindémico, ya que al contagio por coronavirus se une la alta prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas en un contexto de gran desigualdad social, con un claro gradiente en todas ellas. Los objetivos de este artículo son: 1) mostrar un marco conceptual que permita identificar los determinantes de la...
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Objective To analyze by gender the relationship of forced displacements due to neglected housing insecurity with the physical and mental health of renters in Barcelona in 2019, distinguishing between economic (EHI) and legal (LHI) housing insecurity. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Survey of the Living Conditions of Renter...
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Little is known about how feminist abortion support initiatives -born in legally restrictive settings- approach quality of care. We conducted one focus group and one semi-structured interview with activists from eight organizations operating in Latin America and the Caribbean to understand their perspectives and strategies around quality of abortio...
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The COVID-19 pandemic currently affects populations worldwide. Although everyone is susceptible to the virus, there are numerous accounts of the pandemic having a greater impact on lower socioeconomic groups and minorities, which is a ubiquitous phenomenon. It is essential for public health administrations and governments to uncover and understandi...
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Objective: To analyse the trends in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality, and the associated socioeconomic inequalities, in nine European cities and urban areas before and after the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. Methods: This is an ecological study of trends in three periods of time: two before (2000-2003 and 2004-2008), and one...
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Self-managed abortion is a common self-care practice that enables pregnant people to exercise their rights to health, bodily autonomy and to benefit from the advances of science even when living in contexts that do not guarantee these rights. In this interpretative qualitative study, we aimed to understand women's abortion trajectories, experiences...
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While the negative effects of housing insecurity and unaffordability on health are well known, most of the studies in Spain have focused on very specific social groups so their findings cannot be extrapolated to the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of housing stress and risk of displacement due to economic reasons,...
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Background Intraurban sociodemographic risk factors for COVID-19 have yet to be fully understood. We investigated the relationship between COVID-19 incidence and sociodemographic factors in Barcelona at a fine-grained geography. Methods This cross-sectional ecological study is based on 10 550 confirmed cases of COVID-19 registered during the first...
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Children have been identified as being particularly vulnerable to energy poverty (EP), but little empirical research has addressed the effect of EP on children’s health and wellbeing, especially in southern Europe. In this work we aimed to provide an in-depth description of the distribution of EP by sociodemographic, socioeconomic and housing chara...
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The geographical distribution of mortality has frequently been studied. Nevertheless, those studies often consider isolated causes of death. In this work, we aim to study the geographical distribution of mortality in urban areas, in particular, in 26 Spanish cities. We perform an overall study of 16 causes of death, considering that their geographi...
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Objectives To explore the health effects of a community health intervention on older people who are isolated at home due to mobility problems or architectural barriers, to identify associated characteristics and to assess participants’ satisfaction. Design Quasi-experimental before–after study. Setting Five low-income neighbourhoods of Barcelona...
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Background: Pharmaceutical poverty occurs when a patient cannot afford the cost of prescribed medication and/or medical products. Nonprofit organizations are covering the cost of medication to those patients in some contexts. The aim of the study was to describe the population of beneficiaries of the PB, a nongovernmental organization based on the...
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Objective Previous research has found persistent socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes at the national level, with different patterns after the economic crisis. However, inequalities in urban areas are also important. This study analyses socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health and mental health in the city of Barcelona. Method R...
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Background: The objective of this paper is to analyze social inequalities in COVID-19 incidence, stratified by age, sex, geographical area, and income in Barcelona during the first two waves of the pandemic. Methods: We collected data on COVID-19 cases confirmed by laboratory tests during the first two waves of the pandemic (1 March to 15 July and...
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The quality characteristics of urban green spaces (UGS) have been suggested to play a critical role in their use and their potentials to exert health effects. However, epidemiological studies evaluating such a role are scarce. These studies have generally focused on a limited number of quality dimensions. We studied the association between 10 UGS q...
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RESUMEN La pandemia de COVID-19 ha afectado de manera particularmente intensa a España, pese a su nivel de desarrollo y la elogiada solidez de su Sistema Nacional de Salud. Para comprender qué ha pasado e identificar cómo mejorar la respuesta creemos imprescindible una evaluación independiente multidisciplinaria de la esfera sanitaria, política y s...
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Background The effect of inequalities aggravated by economic recessions in the mortality rates of certain diseases has been previously described. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between socio-economic deprivation and cancer mortality. We focused on lung, colon, prostate, and breast cancers in nine European urban areas over three periods...
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Background Housing is a social determinant of health. Extensive research has highlighted its adverse effects on health. However, less is known about the effects of cohousing typology on health, which has the potential to create lively social networks and healthy communities and environments. We report the findings of a scoping study designed to gat...
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Energy poverty (EP) is defined as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially required level of energy services in the home. The main objective of this study was to analyse the association between EP and distinct indicators of health status, health services utilisation and medication use in southern Europe, using the city of Ba...
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In Spain, the Public Health Law approved in 2011 foresees the creation of a Surveillance System on Social Determinants of Health and Equity. However, although information on health inequalities has been reported in technical reports and scientific articles before, it is not until now with the change of the Spanish government the political will to s...
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Background Living in green areas has been associated with several health benefits; however, the available evidence on such benefits for hypertension is still limited. This study aimed to investigate and compare the association between residential exposure to greenspace and hypertension in Barcelona, Spain and Brussels, Belgium. Methods This cross-...
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Background Educational inequalities in health and mortality in European countries have often been studied in the context of welfare regimes or political systems. We argue that the healthcare system is the national level feature most directly linkable to mortality amenable to healthcare. In this article, we ask to what extent the strength of educati...
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Community health can reduce inequalities in health and improve the health of the most disadvantaged populations. In 2007, Barcelona Salut als Barris (Barcelona Health in the Neighbourhoods) was launched, a community health programme to reduce social inequalities in health. In 2018, this programme reached the 25 most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of...
Preprint
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Background Pharmaceutical poverty occurs when a patient cannot afford the cost of prescribed medication and/or medical products. Non-profit organisations are covering the cost of medication to those patients in some contexts. The aim of the study was to describe the population of beneficiaries of the PB, a non-governmental organization based on Pri...
Preprint
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Background Pharmaceutical poverty occurs when a patient cannot afford the cost of prescribed medication and/or medical products. Non-profit organisations are covering the cost of medication to those patients in some contexts. The aim of the study was to describe the population of beneficiaries of the PB, a non-governmental organization which provid...
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Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between summer temperatures and increased heat-related deaths. Epidemiological analyses of the health effects of climate exposures usually rely on observations from the nearest weather station to assess exposure-response associations for geographically diverse populations. Urban climate models pro...
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Background: The "Employment in the neighbourhoods" program is an innovative, tailor-made Active Labour Market Program that has been implemented in 12 neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain). Its goal is to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the program on partic...
Preprint
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Background: The “Employment in the neighbourhoods” program is an innovative, tailor-made Active Labour Market Program that has been implemented in 12 neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain). Its goal is to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the program on partici...
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The aim of this study is to analyse the time trends in the European Union (EU) before and during the economic crisis in 1) the energy poverty (EP) prevalence; 2) the association between EP and health and 3) the impact of EP on health. We analyse trends among women and men in two EU macro regions, defined by a novel index of structural vulnerability...
Preprint
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Background: The “Employment in the neighbourhoods” program is an innovative, tailor-made Active Labour Market Program that has been implemented in 12 neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain). Its goal is to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the program on partici...
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Background: Population health measurements are recognised as appropriate tools to support public health monitoring. Yet, there is still a lack of tools that offer a basis for policy appraisal and for foreseeing impacts on health equity. In the context of persistent regional inequalities, it is critical to ascertain which regions are performing bes...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The “Employment in the neighbourhoods” program is an innovative, tailor-made Active Labour Market Program that has been implemented in 12 neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain). Its goal is to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the program on partici...
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Objective: To evaluate the measurement characteristics of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the 10-Item Primary Care Assessment Tool for adults (PCAT-A10), shortened from the original Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT), with a new mental health item. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Location: The city of Barcelona. Participants...
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Background: Since the last Western great recession of 2008, an increasing interest on the effects of Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) on improving health has emerged. The aim of our review is to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of ALMPs and whether some types of ALMP are more effective. Methods: Using the Scoping review methodology,...
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Objective: To analyse socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality among men and women in nine European urban areas during the recent economic crisis, and to compare the results to those from two periods before the crisis. Method: This is an ecological study of trends based on three time periods (2000-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2014). The uni...
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Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in self-perceived health status and mental health among participants in an active labour market policy (ALMP) of Barcelona, and to assess whether the results differed according to the participants' social characteristics and their program trajectories. Methods: A pre-post intervention...
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Background: In Ecuador, there are inequalities in the completeness and quality of the mortality registry between men and women and among geographical areas. Consequently, using cause of death statistics leads to several difficulties. Our aim was to analyze geographical inequalities in mortality due to some of the main specific causes of death in t...
Preprint
Background: In 12 neighbourhoods of Barcelona (Spain), an innovative tailor-made Active Labour Market Program called “Employment in the neighbourhoods” was implemented to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. This study aimed to describe the effects of the program on participants’ quality of life, as well as the m...
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Objective: This study aims to analyse the effects of housing insecurity on health and whether they are modified by employment status of people belonging to the Treball als Barris programme in Barcelona (Spain) between 2015 and 2016. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study using a survey which included sociodemographic, employment and housing s...
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Objectives Social policies help people to overcome various unfavourable living situations, such as unemployment, which may lead to health inequalities. The aim of this study is to examine how adults and children perceive the impact of social policies connected to unemployment on well-being in the household, and whether their views differ. Methods...
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This paper presents a conceptual framework that aims to conceptualise the different processes and contexts influencing health inequalities among women who are mothers. On the one hand, four processes are shown: (1) social stratification; (2) route into motherhood; (3) exposure and vulnerability to risk factors; and (4) generation of health inequali...
Preprint
Background In 12 neighbourhoods of Barcelona (Spain), an innovative tailored-made Active Labour Market Program called “Employment in the neighbourhoods” was implemented to get people from deprived, high-unemployment neighbourhoods back to work. This study aimed to identify the effects of the program on participants’ quality of life, as well as the...
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Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of the financial crisis on inequalities in suicide mortality in European urban areas. The objective of the study was to analyse the trend in area socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality in nine European urban areas before and after the beginning of the financial crisis. Methods: This ecolo...
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Energy poverty (EP) is a growing problem in the European Union (EU) that affects the population's health. EP is structurally determined by broader political and socioeconomic conditions. Our aims were to analyze the configuration of these determinants in each EU-27 country through the creation of a structural energy poverty vulnerability (SEPV) ind...
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Objectives This study aimed to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality in Barcelona before and after the start of the economic crisis that started at the end of 2008, including both individual factors and contextual factors of the deceased’s neighbourhood of residence. Design This is a trend study of three time periods: p...
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There is a wealth of information and research on health inequalities in Barcelona, but this issue has not been clearly prioritised on the political agenda. The arrival in government of a new left-wing party (Barcelona en Comú) in 2015, gave an important boost to the political agenda to reduce inequalities and health inequalities. The aim of this re...
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Background: Health inequalities have been consistently reported across and within European countries and continue to pose major challenges to policy-making. The development of scenarios regarding what could affect population health (PH) inequalities across Europe in the future is considered critical. Scenarios can help policy-makers prepare and be...
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Following the publication of this article [1], the authors reported a typesetting error in Table 1 that caused the columns of the table to be ordered incorrectly, and a typographical error in a sentence in the Conclusions section.
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The following essay outlines the intervention and presents a framework that will serve as a guide in the evaluation of the different effects of the Superblocks. Superblocks consist of amalgamations of blocks throughout the city, with the goal of improving the habitability of public spaces, advancing sustainable mobility, increasing urban green, and...