Carlos M. Duarte's research while affiliated with Institut d'Estudis Catalans and other places

Publications (157)

Article
Seaweed aquaculture is an important industry with great social and eco-environmental values. This study assessed the water quality and phytoplankton community during the four seasons around the Taohua Island where seaweed aquaculture has been practiced for near 70 years. Sampling was conducted in Laminaria japonica culturing area. Significant seaso...
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Climate change is causing an increase in the frequency and intensity of marine heatwaves (MHWs) and mass mortality events (MMEs) of marine organisms are one of their main ecological impacts. Here, we show that during the 2015–2019 period, the Mediterranean Sea has experienced exceptional thermal conditions resulting in the onset of five consecutive...
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A soundscape is the recording of all sounds present in an area, creating a holistic view of the acoustic profile in an ecosystem. Studying acoustic parameters of marine soundscapes as a whole has been shown to give an indication of the health status of the location, as well as correlate to which species may be present and using the area. With the r...
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Aim Macroalgal habitats are believed to be the most extensive and productive of all coastal vegetated ecosystems. In stark contrast to the growing attention on their contribution to carbon export and sequestration, understanding of their global extent and production is limited and these have remained poorly assessed for decades. Here we report a fi...
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Seagrass ecosystems support human well-being by delivering a wide range of ecosystem services. Particularly important is the significant role they play in food provisioning by supporting fisheries worldwide. Despite their socio-economic importance, it is only recently when they have been considered as important social-ecological systems worldwide....
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Background The polyphyletic group of seagrasses shows an evolutionary history from early monocotyledonous land plants to the marine environment. Seagrasses form important coastal ecosystems worldwide and large amounts of seagrass detritus washed on beaches might also be valuable bioeconomical resources. Despite this importance and potential, little...
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Non-technical summary We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO 2 factors, a well-designed implem...
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106,107 ✉ replying to A. V. Harry & J. M. Braccini Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03463-w (2021) Our global analysis 1 estimated the overlap and fishing exposure risk (FEI) using the space use of satellite-tracked sharks and longline fishing effort monitored by the automatic identification system (AIS). In the accompanying Comment, Harry...
Article
This article is a response to Murua et al.'s Matters Arising article in Nature, "Shark mortality cannot be assessed by fishery overlap alone," which arose from arising from N. Queiroz et al. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1444-4 (2019).
Article
The global lockdown to mitigate COVID-19 pandemic health risks has altered human interactions with nature. Here, we report immediate impacts of changes in human activities on wildlife and environmental threats during the early lockdown months of 2020, based on 877 qualitative reports and 332 quantitative assessments from 89 different studies. Hundr...
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The global lockdown to mitigate COVID-19 pandemic health risks has altered human interactions with nature. Here, we report immediate impacts of changes in human activities on wildlife and environmental threats during the early lockdown months of 2020, based on 877 qualitative reports and 332 quantitative assessments from 89 different studies. Hundr...
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Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental challenges and has received commensurate widespread attention. Although it is a top priority for policymakers and scientists alike, the knowledge required to guide decisions, implement mitigation actions, and assess their outcomes remains inadequate. We argue that an integrated, gl...
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Atmospheric methane is a potent greenhouse gas that plays a major role in controlling the Earth’s climate. The causes of the renewed increase of methane concentration since 2007 are uncertain given the multiple sources and complex biogeochemistry. Here, we present a metadata analysis of methane fluxes from all major natural, impacted and human-made...
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Background The spread of antibiotic resistance has become one of the most urgent threats to global health, which is estimated to cause 700,000 deaths each year globally. Its surrogates, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), are highly transmittable between food, water, animal, and human to mitigate the efficacy of antibiotics. Accurately identifying...
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The gray mangrove [Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.] is the most widely distributed mangrove species, ranging throughout the Indo-West Pacific. It presents remarkable levels of geographic variation both in phenotypic traits and habitat, often occupying extreme environments at the edges of its distribution. However, subspecific evolutionary relation...
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Global mangrove deforestation has resulted in substantial CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, but the extent of emissions from soil organic carbon (C) loss remains difficult to assess. Here, we sampled five intact and five deforested mangrove plots from Tsimipaika Bay, Madagascar, to examine the loss of soil C in the 10 years since deforestation. We e...
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The effectiveness, feasibility, duration of effects, co-benefits, disbenefits, cost effectiveness and governability of four ocean-based negative emissions technologies (NETs) are assessed in comparison to eight other ocean-based measures. Their role in revising UNFCCC Parties' future Nationally Determined Contributions is discussed in the broad con...
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The photosymbiosis of tropical giant clams (subfamily Tridacninae) with unicellular algae (Symbiodiniaceae) restricts their distribution to the sunlit, shallow waters of the euphotic zone where organisms are additionally exposed to potentially damaging levels of solar UV radiation. Metabolic and physiological responses of Red Sea Tridacna maxima cl...
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Net community production (NCP) is a relevant parameter informing on the role of plankton communities as sinks or sources of CO 2 in the ocean. We assessed the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on NCP in different regions along the coast of Western Australia (WA). We compared 57 NCP measurements of surface communities receiving full-spectrum natu...
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The spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a global emergency, that demands urgent solutions for detection and therapy to prevent escalating health, social, and economic impacts. The spike protein (S) of this virus enables binding to the human receptor ACE2, and hence presents a prime target for vaccines preventing viral entry i...
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Background: Isolation of marine microorganisms is fundamental to gather information about their physiology, ecology and genomic content. To date, most of the bacterial isolation efforts have focused on the photic ocean leaving the deep ocean less explored. We have created a marine culture collection of heterotrophic bacteria (MARINHET) using a sta...
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Seagrass meadows store globally significant organic carbon (Corg) stocks which, if disturbed, can lead to CO2 emissions, contributing to climate change. Eutrophication and thermal stress continue to be a major cause of seagrass decline worldwide, but the associated CO2 emissions remain poorly understood. This study presents comprehensive estimates...
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Enhancing the resilience of corals to rising temperatures is now a matter of urgency, leading to growing efforts to explore the use of heat tolerant symbiont species to improve their thermal resilience. The notion that adaptive traits can be retained by transferring the symbionts alone, however, challenges the holobiont concept, a fundamental parad...
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• The use of animal‐attached data loggers to quantify animal movement has increased in popularity and application in recent years. High‐resolution tri‐axial acceleration and magnetometry measurements have been fundamental in elucidating fine‐scale animal movements, providing information on posture, traveling speed, energy expenditure, and associate...
Preprint
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Bridging the gap between the known and the unknown coding sequence space is one of the biggest challenges in molecular biology today. This challenge is especially extreme in microbiome analyses where between 40% to 60% of the coding sequences detected are of unknown function, and ignoring this fraction limits our understanding of microbial systems....
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Molecular-based approaches can provide timely biodiversity assessments, showing an immense potential to facilitate decision-making in marine environmental management. However, the uptake of molecular data into environmental policy remains minimal. Here, we showcase a selection of local to global scale studies applying molecular-based methodologies...
Article
Deoxygenation in coastal and open‐ocean ecosystems rarely exists in isolation but occurs concomitantly with acidification. Here, we first combine meta‐data of experimental assessments from across the globe to investigate the potential interactive impacts of deoxygenation and acidification on a broad range of marine taxa. We then characterize the di...
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Iridocytes, containing multiple stacks of proteinaceous platelets and crystalized guanine, alternating with thin cytoplasm sheets, are specialized cells that act as multilayer nano-reflectors. Convergence evolution led to their arising across a broad range of organisms, including giant clams of the Tridacninae subfamily – the only sessile and photo...
Preprint
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Since the first alert launched by the World Health Organization (5 January, 2020), COVID-19 has been spreading out to over 180 countries and territories. As of June 18, 2020, in total, there are now over 8,400,000 cases and over 450,000 related deaths. This causes massive losses in the economy and jobs globally and confining about 58% of the global...
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Understanding the response of ecological networks to perturbations and disruptive events is needed to anticipate the biodiversity loss and extinction cascades. Here, we study how network plasticity reshapes the topology of mutualistic networks in response to species loss. We analyze more than one hundred empirical mutualistic networks and considere...
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Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are pico-sized cyanobacteria that play a fundamental role in oceanic primary production, being particularly important in warm, nutrient-poor waters. Their potential response to nutrient enrichment is expected to be contrasting and to differ from larger phytoplankton species. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to...
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Background: The assessment of the severity and case fatality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the determinants of its variation is essential for planning health resources and responding to the pandemic. The interpretation of case fatality rates (CFRs) remains a challenge due to different biases associated with surveillance and repor...
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Prokaryotes play a fundamental role in decomposing organic matter in the ocean, but little is known about how microbial metabolic capabilities vary at the global ocean scale and what are the drivers causing this variation. We aimed at obtaining the first global exploration of the functional capabilities of prokaryotes in the ocean, with emphasis on...
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Efforts to curtail the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) have led to the unprecedented concurrent confinement of nearly two-thirds of the global population. The large human lockdown and its eventual relaxation can be viewed as a Global Human Confinement Experiment. This experiment is a unique opportunity to identify positive and negative...
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Protecting the ocean has become a major goal of international policy as human activities increasingly endanger the integrity of the ocean ecosystem, often summarized as “ocean health.” By and large, efforts to protect the ocean have failed because, among other things, (1) the underlying socio-ecological pathways have not been properly considered, a...
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine ecosystems including threatened and potentially sensitive coral reefs. Lower organisms such as phytoplankton, known to bioconcentrate PAHs, could serve as potential entry points for these chemicals into higher trophic levels. Here, we present a novel method using a ¹³C-labe...
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Reduced human mobility during the pandemic will reveal critical aspects of our impact on animals, providing important guidance on how best to share space on this crowded planet.
Preprint
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The gray mangrove [Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.] is the most widely distributed mangrove species, ranging throughout the Indo-West Pacific. It presents remarkable levels of geographic variation both in phenotypic traits and habitat, often occupying extreme environments at the edges of its distribution. However, subspecific evolutionary relation...
Preprint
We describe a model for estimating past and current infections as well as future deaths due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The model does not use confirmed case numbers and is based instead on recorded numbers of deaths and on the age-specific population distribution. A regularized deconvolution technique is used to infer past infections from re...
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Characterisation of the colour is often included in studies on plastic pollution. However, the comparability and relevance of this information is limited by methodology or observer subjectivity. Based on the analysis of thousands of floating plastic fragments from a global collection, here we propose a systematic semi-automatic method to analyse co...
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Despite the remarkable evolutionary success of insects at colonizing every conceivable terrestrial and aquatic habitat, only five Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) species (~0.0001% of all known insect species) have succeeded at colonizing the open ocean – the largest biome on Earth. This remarkable evolutionary achievement likely required unique a...
Technical Report
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The High Level Panel for Sustainable Ocean Economy (https://oceanpanel.org/) has commissioned a series of “Blue Papers” to explore pressing challenges at the nexus of the ocean and the economy. This paper is part of a series of 16 papers to be published between November 2019 and October 2020. It addresses how multiple human impacts will impact bi...
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Life has evolved in the ocean for 3.7 billion years, resulting in a rich ‘ocean genome’, the ensemble of genetic material present in all marine biodiversity, including both the physical genes and the information they encode. Rapid advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have enabled exploration of the ocean genome and are informing i...
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Marine heatwaves can lead to rapid changes in entire communities, including in the case of shallow coral reefs the potential overgrowth of algae. Here we tested experimentally the differential thermal tolerance between algae and coral species from the Red Sea through the measurement of thermal performance curves and the assessment of thermal limits...
Preprint
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Oceans connect all life and affect climate worldwide, and interestingly, the ocean’s smallest residents have a huge role in this process. The ocean microbiota modulates global biogeochemical cycles, which influences energy balance in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, the underlying factors structuring the ocean microbiota are unclear, and better under...
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The circulation patterns and the impact of the lateral export of nutrients and organic matter off NW Africa are examined by applying an inverse model to two hydrographic datasets gathered in fall 2002 and spring 2003. These estimates show significant changes in the circulation patterns at central levels from fall to spring, particularly in the sout...
Technical Report
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The ‘ocean genome’ is the foundation upon which all marine ecosystems rest and is defined here as the ensemble of genetic material present in all marine biodiversity, including both the physical genes and the information they encode. The dynamics of the ocean genome enable organisms to adapt to diverse ecological niches and changing environmental c...