Candida Brush's research while affiliated with Babson College and other places

Publications (18)

Article
Women entrepreneurs consistently raise far less investor funding than men. In this study, we consider how women’s use of gender-similar language may influence investor decisions on venture pitches. Contrary to theories of communicative style and gender, we find women do not apply linguistic styles traditionally attributed to women in crafting their...
Article
Significant research explores effectiveness of entrepreneurial curriculum, teaching innovations and programs, but less often studied is the role of entrepreneurship educators. The way that the educator sees his or her role relative to the students is of critical importance because this directly influences pedagogy choices, expectations for students...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of resources is paramount for innovation in women-led firms. We define a women-led firm where a chief executive officer (CEO) is a woman. We examine how nature – a pervasive and arbitrary type of institutional environment as well as access to resources is associated with different propensity to innovate between women and men-led fi...
Article
Full-text available
Underlying entrepreneurship ecosystems is the implicit assumption that all entrepreneurs have equal access to resources, participation, and support, as well as an equal chance of a successful outcome (venture start-up). However in practice, this is not always the case. Research finds that when it comes to many aspects of the entrepreneurship ecosys...
Article
Purpose Women-led companies receive less than 5 per cent of early-stage equity investment. This paper aims to explore the disparity in equity funding between men- and women-led companies, using a social identity perspective, complemented by insights from signaling theory. We argue that in the angel group context, which is male-dominated, gender st...
Article
This paper explores whether human capital factors (education and perceived capabilities) or contextual factors (economic and political settings) explain differential start-up rates between men and women entrepreneurs, connecting data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) with the World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap. Results show that th...
Article
Financial capital is a critical resource for growing firms, yet women entrepreneurs received very small percent of the funding. This research updates earlier research by the Diana Project using a data base of all venture capital funded firms in the US. We compare funding in those firms led by men and women across stage, sector, state, region and ou...
Article
The purpose of this panel symposium is to show why and how business models matter, and to draw attention to the newly emerging research questions around unique phenomena. Our goal is to initiate a new dialogue among various constituents of the Academy of Management by bringing forward new questions and perspectives that highlight the salience of “b...
Article
Ventures that are growing fast need capital to continue to operate. This capital can come from a number of sources including the entrepreneur/owner themselves, their friends/family, bank loans, angel investors, venture capitalists, and/or crowdfunding. Of particular interest to this symposium are the last three: angel investors, venture capitalists...

Citations

... A growing interest in the concept of the entrepreneurship education ecosystem (Brush, 2014, Brush, 2021, Williams Middleton et al., 2020, Wraae & Walmsley, 2020 recognises that EE does not occur in a vacuum; despite its expansion which in a broad sense suggests a certain level of legitimacy having been achieved for EE, numerous stakeholders understandably purvey their own views as to the nature of EE and its purpose. Different discourses might then exist, and in applying the concept of legitimacy to the provision of EE this study seeks to identify these different discourses and how they relate to the three components of the study (the provision of EE, the entrepreneurship educator, and the pedagogical approach to EE). ...
... Lastly, the analysis results of moderated mediation analysis remained identical even when we controlled for gender (b = −0.132, se = 0.095, 95% CI: −0.336 to 0.043) (Ntalianis and Dyer, 2015;Balachandra et al., 2021). Please refer to Table 4 for the analysis results. ...
... Increasing the amount of entrepreneurship education is connected also to the development of entrepreneurial universities inviting all university members to engage in entrepreneurial activities (Hytti, 2021;Etzkowitz, 2014;Foss and Gibson, 2015;Siegel and Wright, 2015). Accordingly, it is important to understand how academic teachers make sense of entrepreneurship and their own roles and identities in it (Wraae et al., 2022) because teachers enhance entrepreneurship and inculcate the entrepreneurial culture for their students (e.g. Otache, 2019;Neck and Corbett, 2018). ...
... For example, to raise environmental awareness in Central and Eastern Europe and Southern Europe in various ways or to support firms' absorption capacity in creating both types of innovation, such as addressing "soft" R&D barriers. Moreover, compared to prior research that primarily analysed cross-sectional data and/or performed single-country studies, following Audretsch et al. (2022), we advance innovation research by using firm-level data and analysing 4646 firms from 11 European countries using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey 2019. ...
... Women entrepreneurs are the world's fastestgrowing business component and they have piqued the attention of many scholars in recent decades. Emerging literature shows women add considerably to venture creation (Noguera et al., 2013) [1] and sustainable growth (Kelley et al., 2017) [2]; (Hechevarria et al., 2019) [3] by making new job opportunities (Bahmani-Oskooee et al., 2013) [4] which has a favorable influence on alleviating poverty (Langowitz & Minniti, 2007) [5]. Being good decision-makers and managers, women entrepreneurs are good at organizing and managing the resources of their enterprises and also they undertake all the risks to increase profits (Coughlin & Thomas, 2002) [6]. ...
... However, due to masculine norms and different norms of communication (i.e., in-person, questions, synchronous) (Brush et al., 2014;Kanze et al., 2018), our findings may not completely generalize to more traditional venture capital funding contexts. Likewise, scholars have demonstrated that the angel funding context is male-dominated (Edelman et al., 2018), which suggests that our findings may not translate as fully to an angel funding context. However, given the robustness of our tempering and balancing themes for success and failure across contexts, respectively, it would be interesting for future research to examine whether these pitch assertiveness themes would lead to similar results in more traditional funding contexts (i.e., angel and venture capital investment). ...
... Research on gender and entrepreneurship reveals that fundamental elements of entrepreneurship are framed by gendered institutional norms, and they shape approaches to opportunity recognition and exploitation, entrepreneurial behaviour, and the general understanding of entrepreneurial legitimacy [49][50][51]. Worldwide, this means that, for example, men are the dominant players in entrepreneurship, and they serve as entrepreneurial role models [52,53]. On the other hand, women are "first assumed to be deficient, then 'proved' to be deficient and finally held accountable for their own deficiencies" [49,54]. ...
... La respuesta radica en la percepción subconsciente que el entorno ha formado en ellas basada en que la ocupación empresarial es masculina. Los estudios demuestran que las mujeres son menos confidentes en relación a la interacción basada en sus habilidades empresariales (Greene & Brush, 2018). ...
... It is thus also important for individuals to be able to recognize that they effectively possess the knowledge and skills necessary to be an entrepreneur (Peña, Guerrero & González-Pernía, 2015). Specifically, women's motivation in launching business ventures depends upon the level of their self-assessment of their abilities and knowledge (Brush et al., 2017), and a lack of confidence reduces the growth of women's businesses (Carter, 1993). ...
... If anyone else wanted in, they'd have to create their own access and their own experience" (Chen, 2017). For example, in a recent study of 60,000 deals between 2012 and 2014, roughly 0.2% of the deals went to black women (Brush et al., 2018). Such findings articulate at least some level of otherness that Hamilton felt before entering the VC space. ...