Candice L. Odgers's research while affiliated with University of California, Irvine and other places

Publications (130)

Article
The present study examines whether the Fast Track (FT) intervention, a 10-year randomized controlled trial with children at risk for conduct problems, affects family formation in adulthood, as indexed by partnerships, parenthood, and family structure, and whether the intervention effect differs across participants' gender and race/ethnicity. Partic...
Article
For decades, the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) has been the most widely used measure of children's home environments. This report provides a revised version of the HOME-Short Form, the HOME-21, reflecting historical changes in family composition and caregiver roles, norms about the acceptability of different forms of di...
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Fears that digital technologies harm adolescents’ mental health abound; however, existing research is mixed. This study examined how perceived technological impairment (i.e., perceptions of digital technology interfering with daily life) related to psychological distress across five years in adolescence. A latent curve model with structured residua...
Article
Topic: Mobile Health (mHealth) stands as a potential means to better reach, assess, and intervene with teens with socially complex needs. These youth often face overlapping adversities including medical illness and a history of experiencing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Clinicians are faced with navigating ethical decisions when developing...
Article
This study examined the association between pubertal timing, daily affect, conduct problems, and the exposure to hassles across family, peer, and school contexts. Adolescents ( M age = 12.27; 49.7% female; 62.6% White) completed ecological momentary assessments across 14 consecutive days ( N = 388). Earlier maturing girls reported lower daily avera...
Article
Parents' depressive symptoms vary across days, but factors predicting this fluctuation are not well understood. The present study utilized ecological momentary assessments to capture 1620 days of parents' lived experience in a diverse sample of 146 mothers and fathers from Appalachia who reported on daily fluctuation in family chaos, family financi...
Article
Maladaptive family environments harm child development and are passed across generations. Childhood interventions may break this intergenerational cycle by improving the family environments children form as adults. The present study investigates this hypothesis by examining follow‐up data collected 18 years after the end of the childhood Fast Track...
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This study examined early life antecedents of childhood social isolation, whether these factors accounted for poor outcomes of isolated children, and how these associations varied according to patterns of stability and change in childhood isolation. Participants included 2232 children from the Environmental Risk (E‐Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. We...
Article
Little research in education has focused on school neighborhoods. We employ a novel systematic social observation tool—the internet-based School Neighborhood Assessment Protocol (iSNAP)—within Google Street View to quantify the physical characteristics of 291 preschool communities in nine U.S. cities. We find low to moderate correlations (r = −.03...
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Research has shown that some individuals benefit from using social media because it may help them to obtain social capital. This article questions who are most likely to benefit: the socially rich (i.e., individuals with a preference for social interaction, support, or without interpersonal problems) or the socially poor? It is hard to provide a de...
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The present study examined patterns of stability and change in loneliness across adolescence. Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a UK population-representative cohort of 2,232 individuals born in 1994 and 1995. Loneliness was assessed when participants were aged 12 and 18. Loneliness showed modest stabilit...
Article
Purpose Although studies have found associations between greater digital technology use and poorer sleep health among adolescents, these studies typically rely on self-reported sleep and cross-sectional designs. This study applied an ecological momentary assessment design to examine how adolescents’ daily digital technology use relates to self-repo...
Chapter
Grounded in a developmental perspective, this chapter focuses, in particular, on food insecurity among adolescents. Using survey data from parents and adolescents in the same family (N = 581 families with both parent and adolescent reports), results show that though parents and adolescents largely agree about their families’ food insecurity, parent...
Preprint
Potential harmful effects of social media use on well-being have received ample attention in the public and scientific debate. Recent research suggests, however, that some individuals benefit from using social media. This article therefore questions: Who are likely to benefit most from social media, the socially rich (e.g., extraverted or socially...
Article
A population‐representative sample of young adolescents (N = 2,104, mean age 12.4) reported on digital technology use and relationships in 2015. A subsample (N = 388) completed a 14‐day ecological momentary assessment in 2016–2017 via mobile phone. Across the 2,104 adolescents, those who reported more social networking site engagement were more lik...
Article
The present study tracked adolescents via mobile phones to describe how parents and their adolescent children are using digital technologies in daily life (i.e. facilitating warmth and behavioral control), and whether these uses are associated with the quality of offline parent-adolescent interactions and with adolescents’ mental health. A sample o...
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Importance: Air pollution exposure damages the brain, but its associations with the development of psychopathology are not fully characterized. Objective: To assess whether air pollution exposure in childhood and adolescence is associated with greater psychopathology at 18 years of age. Design, setting, and participants: The Environmental-Risk...
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Importance Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are well-established risk factors for health problems in a population. However, it is not known whether screening for ACEs can accurately identify individuals who develop later health problems. Objective To test the predictive accuracy of ACE screening for later health problems. Design, Setting, and...
Article
This chapter examines the utility of, and evidence for, extending psychopathy, both as a construct and as a risk assessment tool, to female populations. It discusses gender differences in relation to psychopathy and other personality disorders, risk exposure, and gender‐role socialization to understanding the expression of psychopathy among females...
Article
Adolescents spend much of their daily lives online, and fears abound that digital technology use, and social media in particular, is harming their social and emotional development. Findings to date do not support causal or robust associations between social media use and adolescents’ development. Instead, prior studies have produced a mix of small...
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Background: Associations of socioenvironmental features like urbanicity and neighborhood deprivation with psychosis are well-established. An enduring question, however, is whether these associations are causal. Genetic confounding could occur due to downward mobility of individuals at high genetic risk for psychiatric problems into disadvantaged e...
Article
Purpose Depression is increasingly common among US adolescents; the extent to which social media exposure contributes to this increase remains controversial. Methods We used Monitoring the Future data from 8th and 10th grade students (n = 74,472), 2009–2017, to assess the relationship between daily social media use and depressive symptoms. Self-re...
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Importance DNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which the childhood neighborhood environment may have implications for the genome that compromise adult health. Objective To ascertain whether childhood neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with differences in DNA methylation by age 18 years. Design, Setti...
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Adolescents are constantly connected to their devices, and concerns have been raised that this connectivity is damaging their development more generally, and their mental health in particular. Recent narrative reviews and meta-analyses do not support a strong linkage between the quantity of adolescents' digital technology engagement and mental heal...
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Background Associations of environmental exposures such as urban upbringing, deprivation and crime victimization with psychosis are well-established. An enduring question, however, is whether associations reflect a causal process. Emerging evidence using polygenic risk scores (PRS) suggests reverse causation, with adults at higher genetic risk for...
Article
Objective: To examine the cross-sectional associations between young adolescents' access, use, and perceived impairments related to digital technologies and their academic, psychological, and physical well-being. Study design: There were 2104 adolescents (ages 10-15 years), representative of the North Carolina Public School population, who compl...
Article
Adolescents are spending an increasing amount of their time online and connected to each other via digital technologies. Mobile device ownership and social media usage have reached unprecedented levels, and concerns have been raised that this constant connectivity is harming adolescents’ mental health. This review synthesized data from three source...
Article
Significance Despite growing up in the same family, siblings do not always see their family’s social standing identically. Eighteen-year-old twins who rated their family as having higher social standing, compared with their cotwin’s rating, had fewer difficulties negotiating the transition to adulthood: they were less likely to be convicted of a cr...
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Conduct disorder (CD) is a common and highly impairing psychiatric disorder that usually emerges in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour. It frequently co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and often leads to antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. CD affects ~3%...
Article
To develop efficient just-in-time personalized treatments, dynamical models are needed that provide a description of how an individual responds to treatment. However, available system identification approaches cannot effectively be applied to most behavioral datasets since, usually, the data collected is subjected to a large amount of noise and tim...
Article
Biological embedding occurs when life experience alters biological processes to affect later life health and well-being. Although extensive correlative data exist supporting the notion that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation underlie biological embedding, causal data are lacking. We describe specific epigenetic mechanisms and their poten...
Article
Commercially available wearable devices are marketed as a means of objectively capturing daily sleep easily and inexpensively outside of the laboratory. Two ecological momentary assessment studies—with 120 older adolescents (aged 18–19) and 395 younger adolescents (aged 10–16)—captured nightly self‐reported and wearable (Jawbone) recorded sleep dur...
Article
The promise of digital tools and devices for spurring new discoveries in adolescence research is enticing. Notably, this special section draws attention to many of the advantages that mobile and wearable devices offer for ambulatory assessment research, which have now been realized. Despite such progress, digital tools have not yet delivered on the...
Article
This study examines whether 388 adolescents’ digital technology use is associated with mental-health symptoms during early adolescence to midadolescence. Adolescents completed an initial Time 1 (T1) assessment in 2015, followed by a 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) via mobile phone in 2016–2017 that yielded 13,017 total observations ove...
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Young people’s life chances can be predicted by characteristics of their neighbourhood¹. Children growing up in disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibit worse physical and mental health and suffer poorer educational and economic outcomes than children growing up in advantaged neighbourhoods. Increasing recognition that aspects of social inequalities te...
Article
In this study, we investigated associations between the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which young adults live and their feelings of loneliness, using data from different sources. Participants were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study. Loneliness was measured via self-reports at ages 12 and 18 years and also by intervi...
Article
Adolescents’ subjective social status (SSS) is associated with mental and behavioral health outcomes, independent of socioeconomic status (SES). Many previous findings, however, come from cross‐sectional studies. We report results from a longitudinal study with 151 adolescents identified as at risk for early substance use and behavioral problems sa...
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Children who grow up in neighborhoods with more green vegetation show enhanced cognitive development in specific domains over short timespans. However, it is unknown if neighborhood greenery per se is uniquely predictive of children's overall cognitive development measured across many years. The E-Risk Longitudinal Study, a nationally representativ...
Article
Adolescents in the United States live amid high levels of concentrated poverty and increasing income inequality. Poverty is robustly linked to adolescents' mental health problems; however, less is known about how perceptions of their social status and exposure to local area income inequality relate to mental health. Participants consisted of a popu...
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Background: Despite the emphasis placed on childhood trauma in psychiatry, comparatively little is known about the epidemiology of trauma and trauma-related psychopathology in young people. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors associated with trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in...
Article
Air pollution is a worldwide environmental health issue. Increasingly, reports suggest that poor air quality may be associated with mental health problems, but these studies often use global measures and rarely focus on early development when psychopathology commonly emerges. To address this, we combined high-resolution air pollution exposure estim...
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Objective: Victimized adolescents have an increased risk of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. However, poor understanding of causal and non-causal mechanisms underlying this observed risk limits the development of interventions to prevent premature death in adolescents. This study tested whether pre-existing family-wide and individual vulnera...
Article
Objectives: To test whether childhood maltreatment was a predictor of (1) having low educational qualifications and (2) not being in education, employment, or training among young adults in the United Kingdom today. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative UK cohort of 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
People's life chances can be predicted by their neighborhoods. This observation is driving efforts to improve lives by changing neighborhoods. Some neighborhood effects may be causal, supporting neighborhood-level interventions. Other neighborhood effects may reflect selection of families with different characteristics into different neighborhoods,...
Data
WertzSupplementalMaterial – Supplemental material for Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior
Article
Background The aim of this study was to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults’ feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances. Methods Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2232 individuals...
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Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood throu...
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PurposeIt is well-established that victims and offenders are often the same people, a phenomenon known as the victim-offender overlap, but the developmental nature of this overlap remains uncertain. In this study, we drew from a developmental theoretical framework to test effects of genetics, individual characteristics, and routine-activity-based r...
Article
Young people who are already struggling offline might experience greater negative effects of life online, writes Candice Odgers.
Article
Objective: DNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which early-life experiences become "embedded" in the genome and alter transcriptional processes to compromise health. The authors sought to investigate whether early-life victimization stress is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation. Method: The authors tested the...
Article
Children growing up in poverty are at heightened risk for poor health. Researchers have identified some mechanisms responsible for this association but we know less about how children are affected by growing up in communities, schools, and countries with varying levels of income inequality. In this article, we summarize what is known about the asso...
Article
Background: Children with conduct problems that persist into adulthood are at increased risk for future behavioral, health, and social problems. However, the longer term public service usage among these children has not been fully documented. To aid public health and intervention planning, adult service usage across criminal justice, health care,...
Article
Adolescent psychotic experiences increase risk for schizophrenia and other severe psychopathology in adulthood. Converging evidence implicates urban and adverse neighborhood conditions in the etiology of adolescent psychotic experiences, but the role of young people's personal perceptions of disorder (i.e., physical and social signs of threat) in t...
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Objective: Childhood victimization is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that childhood victimization is associated with elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers measured decades after exposure. However, it is unclear whether this association is (1) already detectable in young people,...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the ways in which new technologies can be used by researchers to understand the etiology, daily triggers, contexts, and developmental course of psychopathology. It provides specific examples of the application of mobile technologies to the study of conduct problems in adolescence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD...
Article
Background: Young people exposed to violence are at increased risk for mental health and behavioral problems. However, very little is known about the immediate, or same-day, associations between violence exposure and adolescents' mental health symptoms or whether daily symptom or behavioral reactivity marks future problems. Methods: Young adoles...
Article
Objective: To test whether exposure to violence is associated with same-day increases in obesogenic behaviors among young adolescents, including unhealthy food and beverage consumption, poor quality sleep, and lack of physical activity. Methods: Young at-risk adolescents between 12 and 15 years of age were recruited via telephone screening from...
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Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed ab...
Article
Adolescents are spending an unprecedented amount of time using digital technologies (especially mobile technologies), and there are concerns that adolescents’ constant connectivity is associated with poor mental health, particularly among at-risk adolescents. Participants included 151 adolescents at risk for mental health problems (Mage = 13.1) who...
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Many interventions targeting cognitive skills or socioemotional skills and behaviors demonstrate initially promising but then quickly disappearing impacts. Our paper seeks to identify the key features of interventions, as well as the characteristics and environments of the children and adolescents who participate in them, that can be expected to su...
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Objective: To test whether bullied children have an elevated risk of being overweight in young adulthood and whether this association is: (1) consistent with a dose-response relationship, namely, its strength increases with the chronicity of victimization; (2) consistent across different measures of overweight; (3) specific to bullying and not exp...
Article
Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and...
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Purpose: To investigate the association between social isolation and loneliness, how they relate to depression, and whether these associations are explained by genetic influences. Methods: We used data from the age-18 wave of the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 1116 same-sex twin pairs born in England and Wales in 1...
Article
Many young adolescents are embedded in neighborhoods, schools, and homes where alcohol and drugs are frequently used. However, little is known about (a) how witnessing others' substance use affects adolescents in their daily lives and (b) which adolescents will be most affected. The current study used ecological momentary assessment with 151 young...
Article
Children from low-income families are at heightened risk for a number of poor outcomes, including depression, antisocial behavior, poor physical health, and educational failure. Growing up in poverty is generally seen as toxic for children. However, less is known about how the "economic distance" between children and their peers influences behavior...
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Close to 90% of U.S. adolescents now own or have access to a mobile phone, and they are using them frequently. Adolescents send and receive an average of over 60 text messages per day from their devices, and over 90% of adolescents now access the Internet from a mobile device at least occasionally. Many adults are asking how this constant connectiv...