Cameron B. Kepler's research while affiliated with University of Georgia and other places

Publications (26)

Article
Full-text available
The behavioral repertoire for the world's 15 species of cranes includes over 100 behavioral acts with clear social significance. Each species performs at least 60 discrete social postures, vocalizations, displays, and activities. Because all but a handful of the stereotyped social displays are common to all species, the presence or absence of socia...
Article
Full-text available
The Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma), a Hawaiian honeycreeper discovered on the island of Maul in 1973 and now near extinction, is represented in museums by only two specimens. Based on the first observations of a nesting pair and re-examination of the two specimens, we describe the adult male and female, eggshells, nestling, and fledgling Poo-uli....
Article
Full-text available
we describe two sequential nestings of a pair of Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma), a Hawaiian honeycreeper nearing extinction. Similarities to nesting of most other honeycreepers included: nest site in ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) canopy; breeding in March through June; monogamous breeding system with the putative male helping build t...
Article
We designed an experiment to identify factors contributing most to error in counts of Hawaiian Crow or Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) groups that are detected aurally. Seven observers failed to detect calling Alala on 197 of 361 3-min point counts on four transects extending from cages with captive Alala. A detection curve describing the relation betwe...
Article
Aimed to determine for each bird species in the studied forests distribution, population size, density by vegetation type and elevation, habitat preference and geographical areas where more detailed studies might be conducted to clarify distributional anomalies and obtain a better understanding of limiting factors. -from Authors
Article
Hawaiian forest birds are currently limited in habitat, diversity, range, and numbers by numerous past and present stresses. The 6-year U.S. Fish and Wild- life Service Hawaii Forest Bird Survey has provided in- formation on status, distribution, habitat relation- ships, and many limiting factors. These are summarized for Hawaiian birds in this pap...

Citations

... In a conservation context, J. M. Scott developed and pioneered implementation of gap analysis in the late 1970s as a consequence of seeing the incomplete coverage of concentrations of threatened Hawaiian birds by the existent network of protected areas (Scott et al. 1987;Scott et al. 1993). It is widely used as a method to identify gaps of protected area network in representing or supporting the survival of target species or ecosystems (Margules & Pressey 2000). ...
... Brown Boobies are not historically common in eastern Polynesia, and are largely absent from the archaeological remains and early accounts of the islands (Thibault & Cibois 2012). They are much more common in northern Polynesia (Line, Marquesas, and Society Islands), and the northern Tuamotus, with the largest colony at Malden Island, in the Line Islands, which was home to 2,000 pairs in 1988 (Kepler et al. 1994), but most others are declining significantly or represented by just tens of breeding pairs (Thibault & Cibois 2017). Their high sensitivity to human disturbance often restricts colonies to uninhabited islets or inaccessible cliffs (Thibault & Cibois 2017). ...
... Leiothrix lutea were commonly observed in areas with high canopy cover, close to streams, and not on ridges (Fisher and Baldwin, 1947). Lastly, Z. japonicus were more common along forest edges than in forest interiors (Scott et al. 1986). ...
... The Hispaniolan crossbill was ®rst reported to science in 1916, and was known to Wetmore and Swales (1931), but was not reported by ornithologists until 1970 (see Smith, 1997 for a history of this species). The only nest found was described in 1975 (Kepler et al., 1975). The crossbill has been considered an occasional or local wanderer (Wetmore and Swales, 1931), but Dod (1978) speculated that the species had declined in numbers as a result of deforestation through timber cutting. ...
... Declines in populations of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, in many areas of Europe are thought to be due to Plasmodium relictum 174 and the introduction of this parasite into the Hawaiian Islands has devastated endemic bird species, with some experiencing disease mortality of 90% and at least one extinction connected to P. relictum. [175][176][177][178] The ecology of avian malaria transmission and its impacts need more investigation by vector ecologists, particularly in the northern area of its range and along birdmigration routes. ...
... For instance, island flora may face increased competition for freshwater (Krauss et al. 2015), nutrient depletion (Young et al. 2010), and increased seedling damage from litterfall (Young et al. 2014). Increasingly rare native Pisonia forests also provide critical habitat for insects (Handler et al. 2007), reptiles (Briggs et al. 2012), and seabird colonies (Kepler and Kepler 1994;Walker 1991), which help create important phosphate soils that support many plant species on otherwise nutrient-poor parent material (Fosberg 1957). Through a complex network of land-sea interactions, Cocos invasions and the loss of native forests can profoundly alter not only terrestrial ecosystems but also marine food webs (Young et al. 2017;McCauley et al. 2012). ...
... We also assessed if detection distances increased with time, which is an indication of movements of birds into the detection range during the count (Lee and Marsden 2008a). As most (87%) of the observations were auditory and group size cannot be accurately estimated by aural detections (Hayward et al. 1991), we generated a single estimate of group size and of its standard error (1.67 6 0.16) using the 15 visual observations that were obtained during the survey (one in Chawia, five in Ngangao and nine in Vuria; range 1–3 individuals). All these groups were observed well (less than 15 m from the observers), and we found no difference between fragments or count rounds (Mann-Whitney test, P . ...
... rats Rattus spp. and cats Felis catus), disease (particularly infection with avian malaria Plasmodium relictum), and habitat degradation due to feral livestock (pigs and goats) and invasive plants (Kepler & Kepler 1983, Snetsinger et al. 2005, USFWS 2006, Woodworth & Pratt 2009). However, recent work suggests that traditional conservation efforts to control introduced predators, remove invasive species, and restore native forest may be insufficient to protect many Hawaiian forest birds, including the puaiohi, from further decline as climate change affects the distribution of avian malaria within the Islands (Benning et al. 2002, Kilpatrick 2006, Fortini et al. 2015. ...
... Other documented fern-bird associations include the use of fern rootlets in the nests of the Hawaiian honeycreeper Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma Casey & Jacobi; Engilis et al., 1996), the use of fern rootlets and leaves in nests and tree ferns as support for nests of the Hawaiian thrush ' oma'o (Myadestes obscurus (J. F. Gmelin); (van Riper & Scott, 1979), and mats of Gleicheniaceae ferns serving as protection for Hawaiian petrel nests (Pterodroma sandwicensis Ridgway; VanZandt et al., 2014). ...
... The population was estimated at 140 ± 280 birds in the early 1980s (Scott et al., 1986), but estimates were imprecise due to the species' low density and cryptic behavior. The number and range of the Po'ouli declined from 1976 to 1985, probably due to habitat degradation by feral pigs (Sus scrofa), introduced mosquitoborne diseases, and predation by alien mammals (Mountainspring et al., 1990; Pratt et al., 1997) and ground-based predator control in the home ranges of the three known birds (Malcolm et al. in litt.). Ecological and life-history research has been carried out by the Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project, under direction of the US Geological Survey Biological Resources Division from 1994 to 1996 (Baker, 2001 ) and subsequently under direction of the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources and US Fish and Wildlife Service. ...